German prisoners are marched through the snowy streets of Stalingrad after their defeat by the Soviet army.
Allies Advance Through Italy With North Africa under their control, the Allies were able to cross the Medi terranean into Italy. In July 1 , a combined British and American army landed first in Sicily and then in southern Italy. They defeated the Italian forces there in about a month.
After the defeats, the Italians overthrew Mussolini and signed an armistice, but fighting did not end. Hitler sent German troops to rescue Mussolini and stiffen the will of Italians
fighting in the north. For the next 18 months, the Allies pushed slowly up the Italian peninsula, suffering heavy losses against strong German resistance. Still, the Italian invasion was a decisive event for the Allies because it weakened Hitler by forcing him to fight on another front.
Germans Defeated at Stalingrad A major turning point occurred in the Soviet Union. After their lightning advance in 1941, the Germans were stalled outside Moscow and Leningrad. In 1942, Hitler launched a new offensive. This time, he aimed for the rich oil fields of the south. His troops, however, got only as far as Stalingrad.
The Battle of Stalingrad was one of the costliest of the war. Hitler was determined to capture Stalin's namesake city, and Stalin was equally determined to defend it. The battle began when the Germans surrounded the city. As winter closed in, a bitter street-by-street, house-by-house struggle raged. A German officer wrote that soldiers fought fo )vo weeks for a single building. Corpses "are strewn in the cellars, on the landings and the staircases," he said. In November, the Soviets encircled their attackers. Trapped, without food or ammunition and with no hope of rescue, the German commander finally surrendered in January 1943.
After the Battle of Stalingrad, the Red Army took the offensive and drove the invaders out of the Soviet Union entirely. Hitler's forces suffered irreplaceable losses of both troops and equipment. By early 1944, Soviet troops were advancing into Eastern Europe.
Checkpoint How did the Allies push back the Axis powers on four fronts?
The Allies Push Toward Germany
By 1944, the Western Allies were at last ready to open a second front in Europe by invading France. Allied leaders under Eisenhower faced the enormous task of planning the operation and assembling troops and supplies. To prepare the way for the invasion, Allied bombers flew constant missions over Germany. They targeted factories and destroyed aircraft that might be used against the invasion force. They also bombed railroads and bridges in France.
The D-Day Assault The Allies chose June 6, 1944—known as D-Day for the invasion of France. Just before midnight on June 5, Allied ies dropped paratroopers behind enemy lines. Then, at dawn, thousand of ships ferried 156,000 Allied troops across the English Channel. The troops
580 World War II and Its Aftermath
World War II in Europe and North Africa 1942-1945
For: Interactive map and timeline
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n Skills Axis power reached its height in Europe „ 942. Then the tide began to turn.
1. Locate (a) Vichy France (b) Soviet Union
(c) El Alamein (d) Normandy (e) BerlinPlace Describe the extent of Axis control in 1942.
Make Inferences How did geography both help and hinder Allied advances?
Germans surrender Allied forces Soviets enter Warsaw I May 7, 1945
at Stalingrad land in Sicily Germany surrenders
1942 1943 1944 1945 1946
Jun 6, 1944 t Mar 1945
D-Day invasion British and American
at Normandy forces cross Rhine
Nov 1942 Sep 1943?
British defeat Germans Italians surrender
at El Alamein to Allies
Chapter 17 Section 3 581
Churchill Roosevelt Stalin
Winston Churchill (1874-1965) was a In 1933, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) was born
staunch antisocialist and defender of (1882-1945) started his first term as Joseph Dzhugashvili (joo gush VYEE
the British Empire. As a member of president, promising to bring the lyee). He changed his name to Stalin,
Parliament, he loudly warned the British United States out of the Great Depres- meaning "man of steel," after he joined
of the threat posed by Nazi Germany. sion. During his second term, FDR lent, the Bolshevik underground in the early
After Neville Chamberlain's government and then gave, millions of dollars in war 1900s. Stalin emerged as the sole ruler
failed to defend Norway from Hitler, supplies to the struggling British. of the Soviet Union in the 1920s, and he
Churchill replaced him as prime minister Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor quickly maintained an iron grasp on the nation
on May 10, 1940. Within seven weeks, brought the United States into the war. until his death in 1953. When Hitler's
France had surrendered, and Nazi forces From the start of American involve- army invaded the Soviet Union and
threatened Britain. Churchill's courage ment, Roosevelt took the lead in estab- threatened Moscow in 1941, Stalin
and defiance steeled British resolve in lishing alliances among all countries refused to leave the capital city. He
the darkest days of the war when Britain fighting the Axis powers—including the eventually forced the Germans into rc
stood alone against the Nazis. How did Soviet Union. How did Roosevelt treat. Why would Churchill ants''
Churchill inspire the British people? influence World War II before Pearl Roosevelt have distrusted Stalin? Harbor?
WTO' IESS HISTORY VIDE
Watu: Triumph at Normandy on the Witness History Discovery School'M video program to experience the planning and execution of the D-Day invasion.
D ouery S OOLL
incessant—(in SES unt) adj. uninterrupted, ceaseless
fought their way to shore amid underwater mines and raking machine-gun fire. As one soldier who landed in the first wave of D-Day assault recalled,
66 It all seemed unreal, a sort of dreaming while awake, men were screaming and dying all around me... I honestly could have walked the full length of the beach without touching the ground, they were that thickly strewn about. —Melvin B. Farrell, War Memories
Still, the Allied troops clawed their way inland through the tangled hedges of Normandy. In early August, a massive armored division under American General George S. Patton helped the joint British and American forces break through German defenses and advance toward Paris. Meanwhile, other Allied forces sailed from Italy to land in southern France. In Paris, French resistance forces rose up against the occupying Germans. Under pressure from all sides, the Germans retreated. On August 25, the Allies entered Paris. Within a month, all of France was free.
Allies Continue to Advance By this time, Germany was r '~ng under incessant, round-the-clock bombing. For two years, Allied boi-,ers had hammered military bases, factories, railroads, oil depots, and cities.
582 World War II and Its Aftermath
The goal of this kind of bombing was to cripple Germany's industries and destroy the morale of its civilians. In one 10-day period, bombing almost erased the huge industrial city of Hamburg, killing 40,000 civilians and fo. g one million to flee their homes. In February 1945, Allied raids on Dresden, not an industrial target, but considered one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, killed as many as 135,000 people.
After freeing France, Allied forces battled toward Germany. As their armies advanced into Belgium in December, Germany launched a massive counterattack. At the bloody Battle of the Bulge, which lasted more than a month, both sides took terrible losses. The Germans were unable to break through. The battle delayed the Allied advance from the west, but only for six weeks. Meanwhile, the Soviet army battled through Germany and advanced on Berlin from the east. Hitler's support within Germany was declining, and he had already survived one assassination attempt by senior officers in the German military. By early 1945, the defeat of Germany seemed inevitable.
Uneasy Agreement at Yalta In February 1945, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met again at Yalta, in the southern Soviet Union. Once again, the Big Three planned strategy in an atmosphere of distrust. Stalin insisted that the Soviet Union needed to maintain control of Eastern Europe to be able to protect itself from future aggression. Churchill and Roosevelt favored self-determination for Eastern Europe, which would give people the right to choose their own form of government. However, Churchill and Roosevelt needed Stalin's help to win the war.
At the Yalta Conference, the three leaders agreed that the Soviet Union would enter the war against Japan within three months of Germ 's surrender. In return, Churchill and Roosevelt promised Stalin thatthe Soviets would take possession of southern Sakhalin Island, the Kuril Islands, and an occupation zone in Korea. They also agreed that Germany would be temporarily divided into four zones, to be governed by American, French, British, and Soviet forces. Stalin agreed to hold free elections in Eastern Europe. However, as you will read later, growing mistrust would later cause a split between the Allies.
Checkpoint What agreements did Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin come to at Yalta?
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omies for war?
Note Taking 4. Determine Relevance Explain why
the battles of Midway, El Alamein,
Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence and Stalingrad were important turn
e your completed timeline to answer ing points in the war.
`trIe Focus Question: How did the Allies 5. Predict Consequences Why didn't
begin to push back the Axis powers? the Yalta Conference lead to lasting
unity among the Big Three leaders?
Terms, People, and Places Comprehension and Critical Thinking • Writing About History
For each term, person, or place listed at 3. Analyze Information How did demo- Quick Write: Develop a Thesis A thesis
the beginning of the section, write a cratic governments mobilize their econ- statement summarizes the main idea of your sentence explaining its significance.
research paper. The thesis statement should express an idea that can be defended or refuted. It should also be narrow enough to be addressed clearly in your writing.
Based on what you have read, write a thesis statement for an essay explaining the importance of the Battle of Stalingrad.
Chapter 17 Section 3 583
History Inter€ctive vents That Changed the World
In the earliest hours of June 6, 1944, the Allies launched a surprise invasion of Normandy in France—the largest amphibious, or land and water, invasion in history. More than 156,000 Allied troops crossed the English Channel. Thousands of these troops landed on the beaches, fighting and clawing their way up the steep cliffs under heavy German fire. Paratroopers dropped from the sky. By the end of the day, about 2,500 men had given their lives. But by August, the Allies had made their way to Paris and freed it from German control.
Overcoming Hitler's Defenses at Normandy
Dover, Portsm uth Shoreham
we th ~~ t t Torquay
~„~Utah dha o
0 100 mi
A Allied troops landed at five Normandy beaches, code-named Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, and Sword.
Allied troops faced daunting obstacles on D-Day. Naval mines threatened ships trying to land. Steel obstacles on the beaches could rip the bottoms out of landing craft at high tide.
The Germans waited atop the steep cliffs. British special forces storm the beach.
Allied Troop Strengths .And Casualties on D-Day Country Troops
Allied Total 156,115 10,249
*includes those kil ed, wounded, missing, and captured SOURCE: The D-Day Museum Online
Wounded Allied soldiers after the battle
23,500 Allied airborne troops parachute in to protect the beachhead from German attacks.
Obstacles placed in flat fields to deter landing planes
50-foot cliffs Minefields and Entrenched enemy troops
topped with barbed wire anti-tank ditches and tank divisions
Fortified German bunkers for machine guns
Omaha Beach at the end of D-Day
Chart Skills Which of the Allies suffered the greatest losses on D-Day?
Draw Conclusions Why do you think the D-Day landings were made on beaches instead of at established harbors?
Diagram Skills What do you think was the greatest obstacle the Allies had to overcome on D-Day? Explain.
1IIS1Oiy Intergcti ,
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1St Marine Division patch from Guadalcanal
WITNESS HISTORY N,))) AUDIO
Allied soldier in the Pacific
A Soldier Remembers
A defeated General Douglas MacArthur left the Philippines in 1942. As he departed, he pledged his determination to free the islands with the words "I shall return." In October 1944, that pledge became a reality when MacArthur landed on the Philippine island of Leyte. As one soldier recalled,
"When I heard that he had returned, I finally had the feeling that I might have a chance of living through the war.... [O]nce they landed in Leyte, I knew it
j was only a question of hanging on for a few more
months and I would be able to live through it 99
Focus Question How did the Allies finally defeat the Axis powers?
Victory in Europe and the Pacific
Objectives By early spring 1945, the war in Europe was nearing its en( id
Describe the reasons for the final defeat of the the Allies turned their attention to winning the war in the Pacific.
Nazis. There remained a series of bloody battles ahead, as well as an ago
Summarize how the Allies began to push back nizing decision for American President Harry Truman. the Japanese in the Pacific.
against Japan and the consequences of that Nazis Defeated
strategy. By March 1945, the Allies had crossed the Rhine into western Germany. From the east, Soviet troops closed in on Berlin. In late April, American and Russian soldiers met and shook hands at the Elbe River. All over Europe, Axis armies began to surrender.
In Italy, guerrillas captured and executed Mussolini. As Soviet troops fought their way into Berlin, Hitler committed suicide in
Terms, People, and Places his underground bunker. On May 7, Germany surrendered. Offi
V-E Day kamikaze cially, the war in Europe ended the next day, May 8, 1945, which
Bataan Death March Manhattan Project was proclaimed V E Day (Victory in Europe). After just 12 years,
Douglas MacArthur Hiroshima Hitler's "thousand-year Reich" was bomb-ravaged and in ruins.
island-hopping Nagasaki The Allies were able to defeat the Axis powers in Europe for a
Note Taking number of reasons. Because of the location of Germany and its allies, they had to fight on several fronts simultaneously. Hitler,
Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence Use a who took almost complete control over military decisions, made
timeline like the one below to sequence the some poor ones. He underestimated the ability of the Soviet Union
events that led to the defeat of the Axis powers. to fight his armies.
The enormous productive capacity of the United State- -vas another factor. By 1944, the United States was producing tw., as
Oct. Feb. June Oct. much as all of the Axis powers combined. Meanwhile, Allied bomb
1944 1945 1945 1945 ing hindered German production. Oil became so scarce because of
586 World War II and Its Aftermath
Map Skills After the Battle of Midway, the Allies took the offensive
le Pacific. They gradually worked tFir way north towards Japan itself.
SOVIET UNION1. Locate (a) Japan (b) Pearl Harbor (c) Iwo Jima (d) Okinawa
(e) Hiroshima (f) Manila
2° Regions Describe the extent of Japanese control in 1942.
3° Draw Conclusions How did geography make it difficult for Japan to maintain control of its empire?
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Japanese-controlled area, 1942
Maximum extent of Japanese control, 1942
. Allied advances
__ Iwo Jima (Feb.-March 1945)
Formosa .f- Wake I land
ong Kong.,, t4 (Dec. 141)
ataan Mariana s
Philippine 1 Sea Island^ Saipan June 1944)
French Indochina ^ste Gulf ' uam
THAILAND ct.19,44) (July-Aug. 1944) Fars
Malaya Tarawa (Nov. 1943) J ;>
Si~tgapore • ~. ' Solomon Gilbgrt Islands
_Born - -' - z -- ,Islands
C m ~ew Britain (Dec. 1944)
Java Sea (Feb. 194 QUt aSt In ti New ~.~ Guadalcanal (Aug. 1942-Feb. 1943)
bombing that the Luftwaffe was almost grounded by the time of the D-Day invasion. With victory in Europe achieved, the Allies now had to triumph over Japan in the Pacific.
Checkpoint How did the Allied forces finally defeat the Germans?
Struggle for the Pacific
Until mid-1942, the Japanese had won an uninterrupted series of victories. They controlled much of Southeast Asia and many Pacific islands. By May 1942, the Japanese had gained control of the Philippines, killing several hundred American soldiers and as many as 10,000 Filipino soldiers during the 65-mile Bataan Death March. One survivor described the ordeal as "a macabre litany of heat, dust, starvation, thirst, flies, filth, stench, murder, torture, corpses, and wholesale brutality that numbs the memory." Many Filipino civilians risked—and sometimes losa their lives to give food and water to captives on the march.
per the battles of Midway and the Coral Sea, however, the United States took the offensive. That summer, United States Marines landed at Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. Victory at Guadalcanal marked the
General Douglas MacArthur
Chapter 17 Section 4 587
objective—(ub JEK tiv) n. something worked toward; a goal
beginning of an "island-hopping" campaign. The goal of the campaign was to recapture some Japanese-held islands while bypassing others. The captured islands served as steppingstones to the next objective. In this way, American forces, led by General Douglas MacArthur, € wally moved north towards Japan. By 1944, the United States Navy,com- manded by Admiral Chester Nimitz, was blockading Japan, and American bombers pounded Japanese cities and industries. In October 1944, MacArthur began the fight to retake the Philippines. The British, meanwhile, were pushing Japanese forces back into the jungles of Burma and Malaya.
Checkpoint What strategy did General MacArthur use to fight the Japanese in the Pacific?
Defeat for Japan
With war won in Europe, the Allies poured their resources into defeating Japan. By mid-1945, most of the Japanese navy and air force had been destroyed. Yet the Japanese still had an army of two million men. The road to victory, it appeared, would be long and costly.
Invasion or the Bomb? In bloody battles on the islands of Iwo Jima from February to March 1945 and Okinawa from April to July 1945, the Japanese had shown that they would fight to the death rather than surrender. Beginning in 1944, some young Japanese men chose to become kamikaze (kah muh KAH zee) pilots who undertook suicide missions, crashing their explosive-laden airplanes into American warships.
While Allied military leaders planned for invasion, scientists of`'- -ed another way to end the war. Scientists understood that by splittin, ie
atom, they could create an explosion far more powerful than any
yet known. Allied scientists, some of them German and
Italian refugees, conducted research, code-named the
Manhattan Project, racing to harness the atom. In July
1945, they successfully tested the first atomic bomb at
Alamogordo, New Mexico.
News of this test was brought to the new American
president, Harry Truman. Truman had taken office
after Franklin Roosevelt died unexpectedly on April 12.
He realized that the atomic bomb was a terrible new force
for destruction. Still, after consulting with his advisors, and
The world's first nuclear explosion instantly vaporized the tower from which it was launched. Seconds later an enormous blast sent searing heat across the desert and knocked observers to the ground. Shown here is an atomic bomb's characteristic mushroom cloud. Why might the scientists who created the bomb have counseled leaders not to use it?
determining that it would save American lives, he decided to use the new weapon against Japan.
At the time, Truman was meeting with other Allied leaders in the city of Potsdam, Germany. They issued a warning to Japan to surrender or face "complete destruction" and "utter devastation." When the Japanese ignored the warning, the United States took action.
Utter Devastation On August 6, 1945, an American plane dropped an atomic bomb over the city of Hiroshima. The bomb flattened four square miles and instantly killed more than 70,000 people. In the months that
followed, many more would die from radiation sickness, a deadly after- The atomic in o Ruins
The atomic bomb reduced the center of
efff ' of exposure to radioactive materials. Hiroshima to smoldering ruins (top left), but
ts. August 8, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan and invaded the full effect of the bomb would take years
Manchuria. Again, Japanese leaders did not respond. The next day, the to materialize. A woman (above) pays