Geoterms ethnic group: a group of people in a country who share a unique culture and identity nation

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Chapter Eighteen Study Guide

Essential Question
What factors contribute to the success or failure of new nation-states?

ethnic group: a group of people in a country who share a unique culture and identity

nation: a large group of people who share a common history and culture. Not all nations have their own government or control a territory. But in common use, the word nation often means a country or nation-state.

nationalism: feelings of loyalty and pride toward one’s nation or ethnic group. Nationalism sometimes include the belief that one’s nation or group is better than all others.

nation-state: an independent state, or country, whose people mostly share a common identity

state: a political unit that controls a particular territory

Questions and Answers to Chapter Eighteen key ideas

  • What are the five basic factors that affect the success of a nation-state?

The five basic factors affecting a nation-state’s success are security, political freedom, economic growth, quality of life, and national unity.

  • What are some key ways that a nation-state can keep its people secure?

A nation-state can protect its people from foreign enemies and crime.

  • What is GDP? Along with GDP, what two other factors might indicate whether a nation-state is experiencing economic growth?

GDP, or Gross Domestic Product, is the total value of goods and services produced within a nation-state in a year.

Income and Poverty levels might also indicate whether a nation-state is experiencing economic growth.

  • How can a government improve its citizens’ quality of life? What are two measures of quality of life within a nation-state?

A government can improve its citizens’ quality of life by providing safe food, clean water, and good medical care.

Life expectancy and death rate of babies (Infant Mortality Rate) are two indicators of quality of life within a nation-state.

  • What is nationalism? In what ways can it both foster and work against unity within a nation-state?

Nationalism is a feeling of pride and loyalty toward one’s nation. In countries with many ethnic groups, nationalism can create a sense of unity. Ethnic group nationalism sometimes works against unity if ethnic groups decide they would be better off as independent nations.

  • What does the organization Freedom House do? What two kinds of rights does it examine for each country?

Freedom House is an organization that rates countries on how free they are. It looks at a country’s protection of political and civil rights.

Factors that determine whether a nation-state will succeed or fail
Kazakhstan: A Central Asian Giant
Biggest advantages:

  • Rich in mineral and oil reserves

  • Plenty of agriculture in northern region

  • Excellent relative location

  • Plenty of opportunity for future economic growth

  • GDP growth

  • Low crime rate

Biggest disadvantages:

  • Ethnic and religious tensions

  • Slow economic growth

  • Split between northern and southern Kazakhstan

  • High poverty

  • Low rank on the Freedom Index

  • Low per capita income

  • Environmental problems

Azerbaijan: Where Europe Meets Asia
Biggest advantages:

  • Plentiful oil reserves in Caspian Sea

  • Good relative location

  • Possibility for economic growth

  • Some GDP growth

  • Low crime rate

Biggest disadvantages:

  • Ethnic and religious conflict

  • Slow economic growth

  • High poverty

  • Low rank on the Freedom Index

  • Declining life expectancy

  • Increasing Infant Mortality Rate

Belarus: Between Europe and Russia
Biggest advantages:

  • Close ties to Russia might make it more politically stable

  • Lower possibility of ethnic conflict

Biggest disadvantages:

  • Landlocked nation-state

  • Environmental problems left from Chernobyl disaster

  • Relies heavily on Russia for fuel and trade

  • Low rank on the Freedom Index

  • High Poverty

Lithuania: One of the Three Baltic States
Biggest advantage:

  • Strategic location between Russia and Europe

  • Fertile soil for agriculture

  • Some availability of minerals

  • Strong feelings of nationalism

  • Strong economic growth

  • Membership in the European Union and NATO

  • High rank on Freedom Index

  • Low Poverty

  • Declining Infant Mortality Rate

Biggest disadvantage

  • Few fossil fuel resources

  • High crime rate

Russia: The Largest Nation on Earth
Biggest advantages:

  • Plenty of resources

  • Steady economic growth

  • Strong oil exports

  • Decrease in Infant Mortality Rate

Biggest disadvantage:

  • Low percentage of land suitable for farming

  • Many failed businesses

  • High crime rate

  • High poverty

  • High housing costs

  • Pollution

  • Drop in birth rate

  • Ethnic group nationalism

  • Ethnic tensions in Chechnya

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