Genocide Research Paper



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Genocide Research Paper

Genocide in the Modern World

From: Genocide in the Modern World, Sara Jordan, 2012
History Standards: 10.10

Students analyze instances of nation-building in the contemporary world in at least two of the following regions or countries: the Middle East, Africa, Mexico and other parts of Latin America, and China.


10.10.2 Describe the recent history of the regions, including political divisions and systems, key leaders, religious issues, natural features, resources, and population patterns.

10.10.3 Discuss the important trends in the regions today and whether they appear to serve the cause of individual freedom and democracy.



CCSS Standards: Writing, Grade 9-10

2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.

4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.


7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

8. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and

9. Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.



Guiding Question:

What do the genocides of modern history have in common, and how do they differ?

What are the hallmarks of a genocide? How is it different from a war, including a civil war?

Overview of Lesson:

Students will draw upon their knowledge of genocide in modern world history to create a well-researched comparative analysis of two such events. The criteria used for analysis will be the 8 Stages of Genocide, which will enable students to break down each historical event into constituent parts.


Materials:

8 Stages of Genocide

8 Stages Graphic Organizer

8 Stages Graphic Organizer Answer Sheet

Genocide Research Paper

Genocide Research Paper Check Off List

Sample Paragraph

Comparative Analysis for Genocide Worksheet



The 8 Stages of Genocide


By Gregory H. Stanton, President, Genocide Watch

Genocide is a process that develops in eight stages that are predictable but not inexorable.  At each stage, preventive measures can stop it.  The later stages must be preceded by the earlier stages, though earlier stages continue to operate throughout the process.

© 1998 Gregory H. Stanton. Originally presented as a briefing paper at the US State Department in 1996.

1.   CLASSIFICATION:  All cultures have categories to distinguish people into “us and them” by ethnicity, race, religion, or nationality: German and Jew, Hutu and Tutsi.  Bipolar societies that lack mixed categories, such as Rwanda and Burundi, are the most likely to have genocide.  The main preventive measure at this early stage is to develop universalistic institutions that transcend ethnic or racial divisions, that actively promote tolerance and understanding, and that promote classifications that transcend the divisions.  The Catholic church could have played this role in Rwanda, had it not been riven by the same ethnic cleavages as Rwandan society.  Promotion of a common language in countries like Tanzania has also promoted transcendent national identity.  This search for common ground is vital to early prevention of genocide.

2.   SYMBOLIZATION:  We give names or other symbols to the classifications.  We name people “Jews” or “Gypsies”, or distinguish them by colors or dress; and apply the symbols to members of groups.  Classification and symbolization are universally human and do not necessarily result in genocide unless they lead to the next stage, dehumanization.  When combined with hatred, symbols may be forced upon unwilling members of pariah groups: the yellow star for Jews under Nazi rule, the blue scarf for people from the Eastern Zone in Khmer Rouge Cambodia.  To combat symbolization, hate symbols can be legally forbidden (swastikas) as can hate speech.  Group marking like gang clothing or tribal scarring can be outlawed, as well.  The problem is that legal limitations will fail if unsupported by popular cultural enforcement.  Though Hutu and Tutsi were forbidden words in Burundi until the 1980’s, code-words replaced them.  If widely supported, however, denial of symbolization can be powerful, as it was in Bulgaria, where the government refused to supply enough yellow badges and at least eighty percent of Jews did not wear them, depriving the yellow star of its significance as a Nazi symbol for Jews.

3.   DEHUMANIZATION:  One group denies the humanity of the other group.  Members of it are equated with animals, vermin, insects or diseases.  Dehumanization overcomes the normal human revulsion against murder.  At this stage, hate propaganda in print and on hate radios is used to vilify the victim group.  In combating this dehumanization, incitement to genocide should not be confused with protected speech.  Genocidal societies lack constitutional protection for countervailing speech, and should be treated differently than democracies.  Local and international leaders should condemn the use of hate speech and make it culturally unacceptable.  Leaders who incite genocide should be banned from international travel and have their foreign finances frozen.  Hate radio stations should be shut down, and hate propaganda banned.  Hate crimes and atrocities should be promptly punished.

4.   ORGANIZATION:  Genocide is always organized, usually by the state, often using militias to provide deniability of state responsibility (the Janjaweed in Darfur.) Sometimes organization is informal (Hindu mobs led by local RSS militants) or decentralized (terrorist groups.)  Special army units or militias are often trained and armed.  Plans are made for genocidal killings.  To combat this stage, membership in these militias should be outlawed.  Their leaders should be denied visas for foreign travel.  The U.N. should impose arms embargoes on governments and citizens of countries involved in genocidal massacres, and create commissions to investigate violations, as was done in post-genocide Rwanda.

5.   POLARIZATION:  Extremists drive the groups apart.  Hate groups broadcast polarizing propaganda.  Laws may forbid intermarriage or social interaction.  Extremist terrorism targets moderates, intimidating and silencing the center.  Moderates from the perpetrators’ own group are most able to stop genocide, so are the first to be arrested and killed.  Prevention may mean security protection for moderate leaders or assistance to human rights groups.  Assets of extremists may be seized, and visas for international travel denied to them.  Coups d’état by extremists should be opposed by international sanctions.

6.   PREPARATION:  Victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic or religious identity.  Death lists are drawn up.  Members of victim groups are forced to wear identifying symbols.  Their property is expropriated.  They are often segregated into ghettoes, deported into concentration camps, or confined to a famine-struck region and starved.  At this stage, a Genocide Emergency must be declared.  If the political will of the great powers, regional alliances, or the U.N. Security Council can be mobilized, armed international intervention should be prepared, or heavy assistance provided to the victim group to prepare for its self-defense.  Otherwise, at least humanitarian assistance should be organized by the U.N. and private relief groups for the inevitable tide of refugees to come.

7.   EXTERMINATION begins, and quickly becomes the mass killing legally called “genocide.”  It is “extermination” to the killers because they do not believe their victims to be fully human.  When it is sponsored by the state, the armed forces often work with militias to do the killing.  Sometimes the genocide results in revenge killings by groups against each other, creating the downward whirlpool-like cycle of bilateral genocide (as in Burundi).  At this stage, only rapid and overwhelming armed intervention can stop genocide.  Real safe areas or refugee escape corridors should be established with heavily armed international protection. (An unsafe “safe” area is worse than none at all.) The U.N. Standing High Readiness Brigade, EU Rapid Response Force, or regional forces -- should be authorized to act by the U.N. Security Council if the genocide is small.  For larger interventions, a multilateral force authorized by the U.N. should intervene.  If the U.N. is paralyzed, regional alliances must act.  It is time to recognize that the international responsibility to protect transcends the narrow interests of individual nation states. If  strong nations will not provide troops to intervene directly, they should provide the airlift, equipment, and financial means necessary for regional states to intervene.

8.   DENIAL is the eighth stage that always follows a genocide.  It is among the surest indicators of further genocidal massacres.  The perpetrators of genocide dig up the mass graves, burn the bodies, try to cover up the evidence and intimidate the witnesses.  They deny that they committed any crimes, and often blame what happened on the victims.  They block investigations of the crimes, and continue to govern until driven from power by force, when they flee into exile.  There they remain with impunity, like Pol Pot or Idi Amin, unless they are captured and a tribunal is established to try them.  The response to denial is punishment by an international tribunal or national courts.  There the evidence can be heard, and the perpetrators punished. Tribunals like the Yugoslav or Rwanda Tribunals, or an international tribunal to try the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, or an International Criminal Court may not deter the worst genocidal killers.  But with the political will to arrest and prosecute  them,  some may be brought to justice.

Genocide Watch is the Coordinator of the International Campaign to End Genocide



P.O. Box 809,  Washington, D.C. 20044  USA.  Phone: 703-448-0222
E-mail:genocidewatch@aol.com    Web: www.genocidewatch.org

Create a symbol that helps you remember the 8 stages of genocide. Then, choose a buzzword(s) that shows your understanding of each stage.



Classification


Symbolization


Dehumanization


Organization


Polarization


Preparation


Extermination


Denial


Create a symbol that helps you remember the 8 stages of genocide. Then, choose a buzzword(s) that shows your understanding of each stage.




Categories that distinguish between “us and them”

For Ex: ethnicity, race,

religion, or nationality.

Classification


Distinguish people by colors or dress

For Ex: Jews were forced to wear the Star of David, Eastern Khmer Rouge wore blue scarves
Symbolization


Members of group are equated with animals, vermin, insets or diseases.

Dehumanization


What is the structure? State Run (formal), military run or even mob run (Informal).


Organization



Pulling the groups apart by laws or hate propaganda.

For Ex: Laws forbid intermarriage or social interaction.

Polarization


Victims are identified and separated. Death lists are drawn, victims are forced to wear identifying symbols, property is confiscated. Segregated into ghettos or moved to new regions.


Preparation

Mass killing “genocide.”


Extermination

Perpetrators dig mass graves, burn bodies, try to cover up the evidence.


Denial






Research Paper


Topic: Genocide

I. Assignment

  1. Students will write a 4-page research report on the topic of genocide including (MLA) parenthetical citations and a reference page.

  2. Students will provide a visual representation of their research report (TBA).


II. Writing Prompt

In 1948, the United Nations adopted the term “genocide” to refer to the deliberate and systematic annihilation of an ethnic, racial, religious or national group. These crimes against humanity should not be tolerated and its perpetrators should be brought to justice.
You have studied several genocides in your World History class. You are to compare and contrast two genocides, and write a research report that demonstrates your understanding of these significant events in history. Be sure to include information such as background, key people, and other important facts and details related to these events.
  1. Introduction


What is genocide?

Where does genocide occur?

When does genocide occur?
Thesis Question:


  • In what ways are Genocide I and Genocide II similar?

  • In what ways are Genocide I and Genocide II different?


Thesis Statement: Both the Armenians and the Jews experienced similar cases of classification, polarization, preparation, organization and extermination. However, the Armenians experienced dehumanization, symbolization and denial differently than the Jews in Germany.


  1. Body

    1. First Stage of Genocide

      1. Identify stage and if it is a similarity or difference.

      2. Define Stage

      3. Evidence from Genocide I

      4. Evidence from Genocide I (cite)

      5. Evidence from Genocide II

      6. Evidence from Genocide II (cite)

7. Analysis: How did this

category impact both

groups?

8. Why is the similarity or difference important to the category?




    1. Second Stage:

Repeat Formula


    1. Third Stage:

Repeat Formula



    1. Fourth Stage:

Repeat Formula


    1. Fifth Stage:

Repeat Formula


    1. Sixth Stage:

Repeat Formula


    1. Seventh Stage:

Repeat Formula


    1. Eighth Stage:

Repeat formula
III. Conclusion

  • What was the outcome of genocide on the people group and the world?

  • Have these event impacted the way countries respond to genocide?

  • Repeat Thesis

  • Re-emphasize warning signs of genocide.



Rubric

    1. Introduction

2 pts per paragraph 10 pts.

II. Body


10 pts per paragraph 80 pts

III. Conclusion

Repeat, review, 10 pts.

and re-emphasize

IV. Works Cited 20 pts.

Follow MLA style of

Formatting

V. Citations include graphics 30 pts

such as images or maps or

graphs: minimum of 3




Social-Science

Research Paper Check-off Sheet



Research

Step

Due Date

Completed

On Time

Not Completed On Time

Needs

Improvement


Research Question















Preliminary Thesis















4 stages

Notes















4 stages

Notes















Preliminary Works Cited















Outline/

Abstract















Rough Draft
















Peer Edit
















Final Draft















  • All research steps must be completed before the final research paper is submitted to the teacher for evaluation.


Sample Paragraph

Thesis:


Both the Armenians and the Jews experienced similar cases of classification, polarization, preparation, organization and extermination. However, the Armenians experienced dehumanization, symbolization and denial differently than the Jews in Germany.
Similar Different

Classification Dehumanization

Polarization Symbolization

Preparation Denial

Organization

Extermination


5 + 3 =8 Categories
The Jews and the Armenians both experienced classification. Classification is the grouping of people into different categories based on ethnicity, race or gender. The Aryans grouped society into good people and bad people. The Jews were considered bad and the Aryans were considered superior. Therefore, the Jews were persecuted. (Beck et al. 502-505) The Armenians were also classified as bad people. The Muslim Turks felt they were superior and wanted to expel the Armenians from their country. (Rosenfeld 18-24) This category impacted both groups because it turned the people of two nations against each other and caused racism. Since both nations experienced this similarity it shows how the government was able to impact society and cause people to dislike another ethnic group based on their religion.
Works Cited
Beck, Roger B., Linda Black, Larry S. Krieger, Phillip C. Naylor, and Dahia Ibo Shabaka.

Modern World History. 1. United States of America: McDougal Littel, 2006. 502-505. Print.
Rosenfeld, Alan. Five Case of Genocide in the 20th Century 1915-1995. 1. 1. Santa Ana: The

Regents of the University of California, 2005. 18-24. Print.

Grade:

1 2 3 4 5



Proficient Advanced
Score Rationale: Meets all sentence requirements. Include correct citation formatting.
How to get Advanced: Give and additional and more detailed evidence, give greater critical thinking on the analysis statements. Add additional analysis. Include visuals. Use a variety of sentence styles in each paragraph. Use sophisticated language of the discipline when explaining evidence and analysis.
I AM GOING TO WRITE ABOUT_______________ & __________________
SIMILIARITYDIFFERENCE

Comparative Analysis for Genocides


8 Stages of Genocide

Holocaust

Armenian Genocide

Rwandan Genocide

Commonalities

Differences

Classification










These genocides share…

These genocides differ…

Symbolization
















Dehumanization
















Organization
















My Conclusions:



Comparative Analysis for Genocides (cont’d)


8 Stages of Genocide

Holocaust

Armenian Genocide

Rwandan Genocide

Commonalities

Differences

Polarization











These genocides share…

These genocides differ…

Preparation
















Extermination
















Denial















My Conclusions:








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