"Teaching With Documents: The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission." The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2013.
According to an article published by the National Archives, “By the late 1970s all branches of the federal government and most state governments had taken at least some action to fulfill the promise of equal protection under the law.”
Nearly every branch of federal and local governments had taken steps towards providing equal protection by the late 1970s, according to an article published by the National Archives.
After the late 1970s, the federal and state governments had taken steps towards providing equal protection under the law. Which is a good thing considering they had a lot of executives on their backs and so on? Later on.
"President Theodore Roosevelt:." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1 Aug. 2014. Web. 1 Aug. 2014.
From my source on Mr. Roosevelt, ‘’ Executive orders are, loosely speaking, presidential directives that require or authorize some action within the executive branch (though they often extend far beyond the government). They are presidential edicts, legal instruments that create or modify laws, procedures, and policy by fiat. Working from their position as chief executive and commander in chief, presidents have used executive orders to make momentous policy choices, creating and abolishing executive branch agencies, reorganizing administrative and regulatory processes, determining how legislation is implemented, and taking whatever action is permitted within the boundaries of their constitutional or statutory authority. Even within the confines of their executive powers, presidents have been able to "legislate" in the sense of making policy that goes well beyond simple administrative activity. Yale Law School professor E. Donald Elliot has argued that many of the thousands of executive orders "plainly 'make law' in every sense’’
Mr. Roosevelt had passed on the date of ‘’January 06 1919’’ Of course everybody knows this but what makes it special is that he issued his very last Executive Order on That day, according to an article published by The Executive Orders section of
All of Mr. Roosevelt’s Orders were purposed for a very specific purpose. Here is the final one (Making Six Employees of the Department of Justice Eligible for Transfer to Competitive Service).
Within the civil rights community the executive order became a very powerful symbol of the presidential commitment to racial equality in that time. Shortly afterwards when John F. Kennedy's initiation as president, Martin Luther King, Jr. , had urged the new president to use his executive authority’s to combat all of the racial discrimination, quoting the historical practice’s of presidents' issuing civil rights executive orders "of an remarkable range and significance." It was through an executive order that the orders "affirmative action" became part of the national consciousness, shortly after President Kennedy used the term in an executive order establishing the President’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity, and subsequently after President Lyndon Baines Johnson talked about it in a follow-on order that made eligibility for the governments contracts which are conditional upon the fulfillment of decent, favorable action programs.
"The Civil Rights Movement: Major Events and Legacies." The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1 Aug. 2014. Web. 1 Aug. 2014. Everything in this column is from the website
Black and white liberal reformers struggled to ameliorate these oppressive practices, forming groups like the NAACP in 1909 and the National Urban League in 1911. South Carolina’s Septima Clark established Citizenship Schools for civil rights across the South, and North Carolina’s Ella Baker worked to improve efforts remind us that civil rights activism has a considerable history predating the 1940s and that it featured largely unsung grassroots workers.conditions in the South. Their
Yet the Civil Rights Movement did not achieve as much as dreamers had hoped for in the mid-1960s. The desegregation of schools, which moved ahead in the 1970s and 1980s, has fallen back, and gaps in educational test scores between black and white students, always high, have widened. In the early 2000s, rates of poverty and unemployment among African Americans remain roughly twice as high as those of whites. For a variety of reasons, including relatively low levels of access to health care, the longevity of African Americans is less than that of whites. Black
The 1940s brought renewed efforts, however. In 1941, A. Philip Randolph threatened to stage an all-black March on Washington unless President Franklin D. Roosevelt acted to end racial discrimination in employment and racial segregation of the armed forces. Roosevelt agreed to a Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC is a shorter version of it) to investigate employment practices. Although the FEPC had no real power, Randolph’s highly visible advocacy of large-scale, direct-action protest was a sign of militant tactics to come.
"The Progressive Movement and the Transformation of American Politics." The Heritage Foundation. N.p., 1 Aug. 2014. Web. 1 Aug. 2014.
Progressivism was the reform movement that ran from the late 19th century through the first decades of the 20th century, during which leading intellectuals and social reformers in the United States sought to address the economic, political, and cultural questions that had arisen in the context of the rapid changes brought with the Industrial Revolution of growth of modern capitalism in America. The Progressives believed that these changes marked the end of the old order and required the creation of a new order appropriate for the new industrial age.
While the Progressives differed in their assessment of the problems and how to resolve them, they generally shared in common the view that government at every level must be actively involved in these reforms. The existing constitutional system was outdated and must be made into a dynamic, evolving instrument of social change, aided by scientific knowledge and the development of administrative bureaucracy
Presidential leadership would provide the unity of direction -- the vision -- needed for true progressive government. "All that progressives ask or desire," wrote Woodrow Wilson, "is permission -- in an era when development, evolution, is a scientific word -- to interpret the Constitution according to the Darwinian principle; all they ask is recognition of the fact that a nation is a living thing and not a machine."