Gained support of millions of peasants – organizing guerilla warfare behind Japanese lines
These factors decisive when Civil War resumed
KMT unwillingness to defend country had weakened support
To Chinese, Yenan became a symbol of Chinese nationalism. Communists created a nation wide resistance movement and imbued it with a sense of mission
War intensified horrendous economic burden of peasants
Idea of continuous Revolution
Forestall the process of “Bureaucratic institutionalism”
nationalized all banks, railways, 1/3 heavy industry profits paid to state
1951 Peoples’ Bank – got rid of inflation
farmers had to sell 15-20% of their grain to government at fixed low price. Also had to pay Agricultural tax
ORGANISATION OF PEOPLE
rid reactionaries – Japanese collaborators (1 million executed)
1951 “Thought Reform” – movement to study Mao’s thoughts – SELF CRITICISM
Mass Party organized campaigns (re-unification)
3 separate PLA armies sent to Tibet, Xianjing, Mongolia – this allowed CCP to direct its attention to administrative reform and social re-construction. Mao, in particular, wanted to focus on corruption. Result?
Against bribery, tax evasion, fraud, theft of government property and spying
People found guilty sent to labour camps to be re-educated
d) Party interest groups formed eg Womens League for Democracy, Young Pioneers (Swat the Fly Campaign: Kill at least 10 flies per day)
People encouraged to ‘dob on each other’. People risked being labeled a ‘class enemy’. Such a label could condemn entire families, particularly if they cam from middle class families. Workers had to report on colleagues, children on parents. China became a society of informers – conformity maintained by fear of being exposed as deviating from social norms. System supported by terror. CCP used gangsters to consolidate rule. Mass executions – 28,000 in Shanghai. Propaganda also used.
How to bring the entire country under CCP control?