Fury of the northmen: TimeFrame A. D. 800—1000 A. D. —Chapter 1: “The Viking Onslaught,” pp. 9—48. —Chapter 2: “Byzantium Resurgent,” pp. 49—88



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FURY OF THE NORTHMEN: TimeFrame A.D. 800—1000 A.D.

Chapter 1: “The Viking Onslaught,” pp. 9—48.

Chapter 2: “Byzantium Resurgent,” pp. 49—88.

Chapter 3: “The Distinctive Japanese,” pp. 89—128.

Chapter 4: “Monument Builders In the Americas,” pp. 129—167.

CHAPTER 1: THE VIKING ONSLAUGHT


1. “From the fury of the Northmen, O, Lord, deliver us,” was a prayer reputedly added to the Christian litany to protect Europeans from what invaders? __________________

2. The estimated population of Scandivnavia at the beginning of the ninth century. _______________________

3. The slaves of Viking society. ________________

4. The richest Scandinavian landholders, these chieftains are the source of the English word “earl.” ________________

5. Every Scandinavian freeman who owned a minimum amount of land met periodically in these public assemblies, rudimentary parliaments for the making of laws and courts of adjudication — they were arranged on both the local level and regionally. ___________

6. The greatest disturber of peace in Scandinavian society. _________________

7—8. Literally the “Hall of the Slain,” in Viking mythology it was the glorious heaven where dead human warriors feasted and fought, waiting to return for the last battle, in which the world would be destroyed by fire and ice. _________________ The name of that last battle. ________________

9. The chief god of the living world, he was god of creation, of battles, and of the dead. ______________

10. The god of thunder, ruler of the winds, rains, and crops, his symbol was the hammer. ______________

11. The eleventh-century A.D. Icelandic poems that recount the norse tale of creation. _________________________________

12. Designed especially for inscribing in wood or stone, this ancient sixteen-letter Scandinavian alphabet was seen as a mysterious and magical gift from the gods. _______________

13. The Vikings who established trading towns at such sites as Novgorod and Kiev were referred to by local Slavs as this, possibly the source of Russia’s name. _____________

14. Literally “Danish money,” these payments became standard for those who wished to avoid the worst of Viking plunder in England and France. ____________________

15. The most important Viking trading town in Ireland. ________________

16. The fiercest of Dane warriors, their bizarre battlefield antics provided the source for an English word meaning frenzied madness. ________________________

17. The first English kingdom seized by the Vikings. _____________________

18. The ruler of Wessex, he is the only English ruler ever to be accorded the epithet “the Great,” in large part because of his ability to resist the Vikings. __________________

19. Formally recognized by an 886 treaty, this area of Viking control comprised more than half of England. _________________

20. Island discovered by accident by the Vikings about 860 A.D. when ships traveling from Scandinavia to small islands off the coast of Scotland were blown off course. ___________________

21—22. Today’s name for the Northern Newfoundland site where Vikings probably spent the winter of 1,001 A.D. ___________________________ The name given to the site by the Vikings. _________________




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