5. How have these central norms developed? (I) Internal Contradictions In several important respects the central norms of Africa’s security culture were contradictory. Of course, as Antonio Gramsci pointed out long ago, widely and deeply held assumptions and beliefs do not have to be consistent to exert a powerful influence over their advocates.86 But, as a result, a constant momentum for development lay within the dialectical resolution of the culture’s central contradictions. Such was the case in African international society where there were important contradictions related to the OAU’s stance on secession, non-interference, and African autonomy.