From Sand to Silicon “Making of a Chip” Illustrations May 2009

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Ion Implantation
Applying Photo Resist –
scale: transistor level (

There’s photo resist (blue color) applied, exposed and exposed photo resist is being washed off before the next step. The photo resist will protect material that should not get ions implanted.
Ion Implantation –
scale: transistor level (

Through a process called ion implantation (one form of a process called doping, the exposed areas of the silicon wafer are bombarded with various chemical impurities called Ions. Ions are implanted in the silicon wafer to alter the way silicon in these areas conducts electricity. Ions are shot onto the surface of the wafer at very high speed. An electrical field accelerates the ions to a speed of over 300,000 km/h (
185,000 mph)
Removing Photo Resist –
scale: transistor level (

After the ion implantation the photo resist will be removed and the material that should have been doped (green) has alien atoms implanted now (notice slight variations in color)

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