From 600 to 1450 China experienced many continuities during the Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan and Ming Dynasties, such as political and social systems based on Confucian values and an economic system based on the tribute system



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From 600 to 1450 China experienced many continuities during the Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan and Ming Dynasties, such as political and social systems based on Confucian values and an economic system based on the tribute system, due to China’s inability to control outside areas directly. China also experienced temporary changes with the Mongolian invasion and long-term changes with the return of isolation during the early Ming Dynasty.
P-1 Supporting Evidence and Analysis with Changes and Continuities:
Following the fall of the Han Dynasty in 200 CE, China remained fragmented until the Sui Dynasty united the country due to its harsh policies and set the stage for the Tang, the longest lasting dynasty from 618-906.
1) SUI—LEGALISM; RECLAIMS THE MoH; WENDI (murdered by his son); CONF. IS THE MAIN PHILOSOPHY; WWW-GRAND CANAL (BEIJING TO HANGZHOU); GREAT WALL; XI’AN (NEW CAP); SILK ROAD; TRIED TO TAKE SILLA (KOREA); EXPANDED SILK ROAD--possibly falls due to brutality

2) TANG—LI YUAN; CROSSBOW/ARMOR (BETTER TECH. LEADS TO EXPANSION); SILLA BECOMES VASSAL STATE—SINOFICATION (BUDDHISM, WRITING) & CULTURAL BRIDGE TO JAPAN; TRIBUTE (KOWTOW) ALSO EXTENDED TO VIETNAM, MANCHURIA, & TURKESTAN

3) EXAM SYSTEM-BUREAUCRACY; 6 MINISTRIES; CONF. CLASSICS’ MINISTRY OF RITES (JINSHI—SPECIAL CLOTHING); SCH.-GENTRY OVER LANDLORDS

4) NATIONAL UNIVERSITY (EST. 606); UPPER CLASS HAD $$$; SCH-GENTRY--EDUCATED; 2 EXAMS (LITERARY & CLASSICS)—EDUCATION/EXAM SYSTEM & GRAND CANAL BRINGS N & S CLOSER; CANALS START TO EMPOWER THE PIMPLY PEASANTS

5) EXPANSION OF WWW—CANALS, SILK ROAD, COAST (CANTON); 600 MIL. GARRISONS

6) REL—MANY NEW REL.; MAHAYANA BUDDHISM CAME IN DURING CHAOS (EQ, POOR, WOMEN; SYNCRETINIZED LOCAL BELIEFS); EARLY TANG CONF. AND BUDD.

7) EMPRESS WU—PRO-BUDDHIST; CONFLICT W/ CONF/DAOISTS BY MID-800s (NO TAXES, MIL, ANC. WORSHIP, LIVED SEPARATELY)—ECONOMIC REASONS

8) BUDD. BLAMED FOR GROWING PROBLEMS; EMP. WUZONG ISSUES 845 EDICT (4600 MONASTARIES DESTROYED) FORCED LABOR FOR MONKS AND NUNS

9) CHINA/CHANG’AN BECOMES COSMOPOLITAN (MIXTURE OF CULTURES) DUE TO WWW; EXPORTED SILK AND PORCELAIN

10) COLLAPSE OF TANG—IMPLOSION; CORRUPTION; INVASIONS (TIBET, UIGHURS); OVER-EXTENSION; GROWING POWER OF LANDLORDS FOLLOWING LUSHAN REBELLION WEAKENED CENTRAL POWER OF TANG; RESULT WAS SMALL KINGDOMS




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