French Revolution was an eye-opener to the newly awakening nationalists of India

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    1. Pollard A.F., Factors in Modern History. Perhaps England accidentally combined sovereignty with Nationalism — a fortunate chance1869, New York, G. P. Putnam's sons, London, A. Constable & Co., Ltd., 1907, p. 238.

    2. Laski R. H., Tawney, Kropotkin, P. A. Kropotkin, Liberty in the Modern State Harold J. Laski, Pelican Books, p.p. 14, 24.

    3. Barns Margarita, The Indian Press: A History of the Growth of Public Opinion In India, Institute of Historical Studies, Calcutta (India), G. Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1940, p.p. 29-34.

    4. Trevelyan's classic "The Glorious Cause : The American Revolution', Oxford, Longmans Green & Co. 1909, p.l.

    5. Burns C. Delisle., Political Ideals. The last sentence of Rousseau's 'Contract Social' acknowledges the further issue as to the relation between States with which he feels he cannot deal. Oxford University Press, p. 149.

    6. Ibid, There appears to be still a conception abroad that poverty or disease is due to personal moral defects, but it is so absurd that we shall not discuss it., p. 151.

    7. Ibid, In 1270. p. 154.

    8. Ibid, 'De reg. princ.'; 'Summa' Th. I IIae. p. 154.

    9. Ibid. 'Contrat Social', Book I, ch. I pg.i. p. 155.

    10. Ibid, The expression of the ideal involved is in Locke's 'Essay on Civil Government'. The great phrase in ch. Xiii is, 'there remains in the people a supreme power to remove or alter the legislature'. p. 156.

    11. Ibid, Morley, 'Rousseau', vol. ii, p. 160.

    12. Ibid, Rousseau must have been influenced by the non-representative direct voting of the States in the Swiss Confederation; but as Morley observes, he prefers to quote as an example the Roman comitia, and the Macedonians and Franks. p. 157.

    13. Ibid, 'Sa plus constante manrere de raisonner est d' etablir toryours le droit par le fait' ('Contrat Social', ch. ii), and so to suppose, as Grotius did, that a people gives itself over to absolute obedience is 'supposer un people de fous: la folie ne fait pas droit'. ch. iv, p. 62.

    14. Ibid. ch. viii, p. 158.

    15. Ibid, Book I, ch. ix, in fine', p. 158.

    16. Ibid, Whether by redistribution of wealth or by 'moderation of avarice'. Cf., Book H, ch. xi, p. 159.

    17. Ibid, Ibid, Book HI, ch. i. Government is intermediate between the sovereign and the subject, p. 159.

    18. Ibid, Book III, ch. X. Thus Rousseau goes further in understanding Aristotle than Grotius did, p. 160.

    19. Ibid, Book IV, ch. I. Rousseau says the people of Berne or Geneva Would never have submitted to a Cromwell or a Duke of Beaufort. Thus he definitely refers to the Swiss method, although he seems to refer to draw his examples from Macedon and Rome, as these had more 'prestige', p. 160.

    20. Ibid, It was published eight years before the 'Contrat Social', p. 161.

    21. Ibid, The last words of the 'Discourse', p. 161.

    22. Ibid,The words are from D. Ritchie, p. 161.

    23. Ibid, There is of course the continual tendency to complain against any system of representative government. The Referendum is merely a modified form of the Rousseau conception of the inalienable sovereignty of the people, p. 162.

    24. Ibid, Thus Locke's Treatise is an excuse for established fact; but the Revolutionary 'excuse' was stated by Rousseau 'before' the fact of its partical realization, Ibid, pg 163.

    25. Ibid, The pamphlet of Miss Jane Harrison, 'Homo Sum', is an admirable continuance of Revolutionary Literature, p.167.

    26. 26. Cf. Morley, ‘History and Politics’, ‘National sentiment changed to political idea.’,Political Thought by C.LWayper, Oxford, p. 71.

    27. 27. Ibid, Fichte’s ‘Addresses to the German Nation’ represent the change from sentiment to programme, p. 131.

28. Ibid, ‘They defied the very force which had re-established the old

Despotism.’ Morley, ‘History and Politics’, p. 132.

29. Op. cit. ‘History and Politics’, p. 72.

30. Trevelyan, ‘Garibaldi’s Defence’, & c.,Oxford, Longmans, Green, p. 7, 45, 47.

31. Ibid, The quotation is from Mazzini’s ‘Manifesto of Young

Italy’, issued in 1831, p. 16.

32. Op. cit. Burns , Political Ideals, Published in 1834, p. 185.

33. Op. cit. Mazzini’s , Introduction, p. 10.

34. Morley, Edition of 1837, part I, i , p. 178.

35. Burns, World Civilisations , Goyl Publishers, p.925.

36. Ibid, No member of the Constituent Assembly was eligible for the

Legislative Assembly, p. 926.

37. Ibid, Before the Assembly was dissolved in 1792, 630 members out of

the 750 belonged to the Club, p. 926.

38. Haridas and Uma Mukherjee, ‘India’s Fight for Freedom or the

Swadeshi Movement 1905-1906’, Calcutta, 1958, p. 166.

39. Hirendranath Mukherjee, ‘India’s Struggle for Freedom’, Bombay,

1948 edition, p. 96.

40. Jagmohan Singh and Chamanlal, ‘Bhagat Singh aur unke Sathiyon

ke Dastavez’ (The Documents of Bhagat Singh and His

Comrades), New Delhi, 1986, in Hindi, p. 266.

41. Kalpana Joshi (nee Dutt), ‘Chittagong Uprising and the Role of

Muslims,’ in ‘Challenge ---- A Saga of India’s Struggle for

Freedom’, edited by Nitish Ranjan Ray, ‘et. Al.’, New Delhi, 1984, p. 51.

42. Anand Gupta, ‘The Immortal Surya Sen,’ p. 89.

43. Shiv Varma, editor, ‘Selected Writings of Shaheed Bhagat Singh’,

New Delhi, 1986, Appendix I.

44. ‘Proceedings of the HRA Council Meeting’, 1924.

45. Shiv Varma, ‘op. cit.’ , Appendix. II.

46. Ramprasad Bismil, ‘Autobiography’, edited by Banarsidas

Chaturvedi, Delhi, 1966, in Hindi.

47. Op. cit., Shiv Varma, p. 95.

48. Ibid, p. 130.

49. Ibid, pp. 137-8.

50. Ibid, p. 137.

51. Op. cit., Jagmohan Singh and Chamanlal, p. 267.

52. Op. cit., Shiv Varma, pp. 190, 198-9.

53. Ibid, p. 74.

54. Quoted in Gopal Thakur, ‘Bhagat Singh : The Man and His Ideas,’

New Delhi, 1952, p. 39.

55. Vishwanath Vaishampayan, ‘Amar Shahid Chandrashekhar Azad’,

Benaras, 1976, in Hindi, Parts 2-3, Appendix 5.

56. Op. cit., Shiv Varma, p. 109.

57. Op. cit., Sohan Singh Josh, ‘My Meetings with Bhagat Singh and on Other

Early Revolutionaries,’ New Delhi, 1976, pp. 13-5; and Jagmohan

Singh and Chamanlal, pp. 186-9, 244-5.

58. Op. cit., Jagmohan Singh and Chamanlal, pp. 190-3.

59. Ibid., pp. 248 ff.

60. Rules and Regulations of the Naujawan Bharat Sabha, Punjab,

(May 19280), ‘Meerut Conspiracy Case’, 1929, Exhibit no. P 205 (T);

Reports on the Naujawan Bharat Sabha, Home (Political )

Proceedings, F. 130 & K W (1930).

61. Op. cit., Bhagat Singh, ‘Why I am an Atheist’, with an introduction by

Bipan Chandra, Delhi, 1979. Also in Shiv Varma, pp.139 ff. and pp. 117 ff.

62. Bipan Chandra, ‘The Rise and Growth of Economic Nationalism

in India’, New Delhi, 1966, Chapter I. Dadabhai Naoroji, ‘Poverty

and Un-British Rule in India’, London, 1901.

63. R.C. Dutt, ‘Economic History of India in the Victorian Age,’

London, 6th edition, first published in 1903, p. XVI.

64. G.V. Joshi, ‘Writings and Speeches’, Poona, 1912, p. 616.

65. M.G. Ranade, ‘Essays on Indian Economics’, Bombay, 1898, p. 96.

66. Bipan Chandra, ‘The Rise and Growth of Economic Nationalism

in India’, Chapter III, Section I; and his ‘British and Indian Ideas

on Indian Economic Development, 1858-1905’ in ‘Nationalism and

Colonialism in Modern India,’ New Delhi, 1987 reprint.

67. Curzon, ‘Speeches’, Vol. I, Calcutta, 1900, p. 34.

68. Naoroji, ‘Poverty and Un-British Rule in India’, pp. 34, 568-9,

‘Speeches’, p. 169.

69. February 1903, p. 193.

70. ‘New India’, 12 August 1901.

71. Op. cit., G.V. Joshi, pp. 687-8.

72. Ram Gopal, ‘Lokamanya Tilak’, Bombay, 1965 reprint, p. 148.

73. Bipan Chandra, ‘The Rise and Growth of Economic Nationalism

In India’, Chapter XIII.

74. Naoroji, ‘Poverty and Un-British Rule in India’, p. 216.

75. R.C. Dutt, ‘Economic History of India Under Early British Rule’,

London, 1956, 8th impression, pp. xi and 420.

76. ‘Abstract of the Proceedings of the Council of the Governor-

General of India’, 1896, Vol. XXXV, p. 85.

77. Naoroji, ‘Speeches’, pp. 328, 329.

78. Naoroji, ‘Poverty and Un-British Rule in India’, pp. 224-5.

79. Naoroji, ‘Speeches’, p. 389.

80. ‘India’, London. 2 September 1904.

81. Naoroji, ‘Speeches’, p. 671.

82. ‘Ibid’, p. 73.

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