Franklin Youth Baseball Organization (“FYBO”) is a non-profit educational organization dedicated to the ideals of good sportsmanship, team play, honesty, loyalty, courage and respect for authority. In pursuit of these ideals the FYBO will remain sensitive to the physical and emotional well being of the boys and girls in the program.
Unquestionably, one of the primary reasons for the success of this organization is the rules and regulations. Program volunteers review and refine the league’s rules and regulations each year. In 2007 the FYBO Rules Committee adopted these “Home Rules” which supplement the “Official Rules” which the FYBO recognizes and plays by (i.e. “Official Little League Rules”, “Babe Ruth” and the “Official Baseball Rules” as published by the National Baseball Congress, Inc.).
The “Home Rules” that have been instituted for the 2014 season may only be changed upon motion and two-thirds vote of the Board of Directors. Any suggestions or requests for clarification are to be directed to the Rules Committee. The Spirit of these Rules shall not be altered by an interpretation that is inconsistent with that of the Rules Committee.
FYBO rules supersede Babe Ruth rules. Where there is no conflict between FYBO rules and Babe Ruth rules the Babe Ruth rules will apply
Your cooperation in following these rules will allow for a positive experience for players, families, coaches and fans. The rules have been established to allow every child the opportunity to play in the program.
The Director of Baseball, Babe Ruth Coordinator and the Babe Ruth Assistant Coordinators will determine the number of teams based on registrations. Once the number of teams is determined, the Babe Ruth Assistant League Coordinators will do the following:
The Coordinator will review the sign-up sheets in order to determine the number of applicants that signed up to manage. The Coordinator, Assistant Coordinators and Director of Baseball will unanimously agree on the manager selections to be presented to the FYBO board for approval. In the event these individuals cannot agree on the managers in question, the President of the FYBO will intercede to make the final decision. Preference should be given to returning managers unless there is a concern regarding their performance. The Coordinator shall secure commitments from interested applicants to manage the teams. If the Coordinator does not have enough applicants signed up as Manager, the Coordinator should then ask those applicants who signed up as coaches to assume a Manager’s position
Only one tryout is scheduled for the Babe Ruth League. Players who do not attend the tryout will be put into draft.
Due to the changing number of players and teams, the draft method must be flexible but fair to all teams. The Babe Ruth Coordinator and the Director of Baseball will annually determine a draft plan.
There will be two Leagues named the National League and the American League. The Director of Baseball and Babe Ruth Coordinator will determine the number of teams in each league.
A tryout session will be held for those who wish to play in the National League or American League. All players who participated in the National League in the previous year are automatically drafted/assigned to an NL team; in addition, players who were in the NL the previous year are encouraged to attend the tryout session for skills assessment evaluation, which will allow appropriate balancing of NL teams.
There will be no protecting assistant coaches.
Players who have conflicting activities (specifically those payers committed to another baseball league) will be identified before the draft.
Players who belong to a school baseball team must identify themselves as such at registration. This must be confirmed at the time of registration by the players’ parent or registrant. As school teams may be selected after FYBO tryouts have been completed, only players who intend on trying out for their school teams must identify their choice to do so.
The National League Teams will select their roster first.
1.02 Consideration Picks
Prior to the start of the draft, the managers will determine the following:
If a managers son is to be drafted (all managers sons/daughters, brothers/sisters, or nephews/nieces are protected) the other managers will collectively decide at which point in the draft (what round and pick) the player will be protected to. If the manager does not feel that his protected player should be ranked that high he may opt not to choose him at that point in the draft. However, the player will no longer be considered protected after that point in the draft and may be selected by another team.
Consideration may also be requested for an existing assistant coach’s son/daughter only. The assistant coach must have coached the prior two seasons with the manager of the team requesting consideration at the Babe Ruth level. The protection process is the same as stated above. Assistant coaches who did not coach for the entire two seasons with the manager of a Babe Ruth level team cannot request consideration for a player under any circumstances.
Consideration may also be requested for the brother of a player who is already on the coach’s team. If 3 or more managers object to this request, the request will be denied. The protection process is the same as stated above.
No more than one consideration a year may be requested by any team. The only exception would be if a manager has more than one son/daughter in the draft.
1.03 The Draft
The Coordinator and Director of Baseball shall conduct the draft. The draft order will be drawn from a hat.
The Director of Baseball and the Babe Ruth Coordinator will determine the age mix per team (ie. how many 15, 14 and 13 year old players will require to be drafted).
The American League draft is an open draft, consisting of the remaining players after the National League draft is complete. Players of any age may be selected in any round of the draft. The final mix of players must meet the requirements as determined in 1.03b above.
Players may be traded after the draft is completed but, before the managers leave the draft hall and only with the approval of the Director of Baseball, the Babe Ruth Coordinator and the NL or AL Coordinator (depending on the division being drafted).
Once the teams are set, the Coordinator will provide the managers their team rosters, names, addresses and phone numbers.
Only the Babe Ruth League Coordinator (with the approval of the Director of Baseball) can make changes to the roster after it’s been set. Any addition to the rosters shall be made in the order of a continued draft (snake draft).
Coordinators should instruct the managers not to call the players until instructed by the Director of Baseball or the President.
OBJECTIVES OF THE GAME
2.01 The FYBO Code of Conduct shall govern behavior. In addition to Code of Conduct sanctions, misconduct by a player, Manager, coach or fan may result in immediate expulsion from the playing field area. During a game, the umpire(s) shall be responsible for preliminarily addressing any display of inappropriate behavior. Managers/coaches shall support the umpire(s) in his/her attempt to address inappropriate behavior. In his/her discretion, the umpire, for cause, may remove a player, coach, fan or anyone else present at a game from the field area. In the event the umpire is unwilling or unable to effectively address a display of poor sportsmanship, the responsibility shall shift to the Managers/coaches present. Failure to comply with an expulsion order may result in forfeiture of the game, if so decided by the umpire. In the event a Manager, coach, player, fan or anyone else present at a sponsored event is removed from the field area for inappropriate behavior the League Coordinator shall be notified. The Coordinator shall investigate such removal and take additional action if necessary.
2.02 When a Manager, Coach, Player, or Fan or anyone else present is ejected from a game, that person(s) shall leave the field immediately and take no further part in that game. They may not sit in the stands nor, may they be recalled during the game. If the person(s) refuses to leave the field within (5) five minutes, the team that that person is affiliated will forfeit the game. (Note: Managers, Coaches, Players and Fans maybe subject to further disciplinary action by the Franklin Youth Baseball Board up to and including expulsion from the program). Any player or coach ejected from a game will automatically receive a minimum one game suspension for the next game.
2.03 Players must remain inside the dugout if he/she is not batting, on deck, or playing a field position (no one is allowed on top of the dugouts). Coaches & umpires are responsible for getting people off the dugouts.
2.04 All male players must wear a metal, fiber, or plastic type cup.
2.05 Catchers must wear catcher's mitt.
2.06 Metal cleats are not permitted.
2.07 Batting donuts are not permitted.
2.08 Team players shall wear numbered uniforms identical in color. Players shall purchase white baseball pants. (Exception: female players may purchase gray pants). A player’s name shall not be printed on his/her jersey.
2.09 The pitcher's glove shall not be gray or white. Pitchers shall not wear any item that may reasonably distract a batter’s attention (i.e., sweat bands, batter’s glove(s), wristwatch, etc.). Pitcher’s necklaces must not be visible to the batter.
2.10 Any player who is acting as a base runner, base coach or batter must wear a batting helmet.
2.11 Both Team Managers are responsible for preparing and securing the field.
All coaches must be BOARD APPROVED.
Team Managers from BOTH TEAMS are responsible for properly securing all field related equipment after the game has ended.
Any player that is removed from a game due to a head injury will not be allowed to return to play for that game.
3.00 GAME PRELIMINARIES
3.01 Only the Coordinator, Assistant Coordinators, Director of Baseball or the League President can cancel a game because of rain, snow, or unfit playing conditions. Managers will not cancel a game for any of the above reasons unless authorized to do so by the league Coordinator.
3.02 Only those directly involved with the team may enter the bench area or the playing field. The bench is reserved for Managers, coaches, players and batboys. An additional bench coach (3rd coach) is also allowed, but he/she must remain directly in the dugout/bench area.
3.03 All players in the National League or American League must play a minimum of 4 defensive innings of a seven inning game, if in attendance for the entire game.
3.04 If a player does not play the minimum number of defensive innings in a seven inning game, that player will start the next game and play consecutive innings until they play the required number of innings.
3.04 a) No player shall sit for a second inning until every player has sat for one
inning with the exception of a pitcher who starts a game and pitches more
than 3 innings.
3.04 b) No player shall sit for 2 consecutive innings unless there is an injury involved.
3.05 Full continuous batting roster will be used during all games. A player will take their turn at bat even if they are not playing a defensive position that inning.
3.06 Managers will maintain the scorebook provided by the FYBO. There is to be no electronic data recording devices used in lieu of the FYBO scorebook.
3.07 Managers WILL EXCHANGE lineups prior to every game. Lineups will include the players’ last name, uniform # and fielding position at the start of the game by batting order.
3.08 There will be a free substitution rule at the start of each inning. The only time a player can come from the bench in the middle of the ining is to replace an injured player or to replace the pitcher.
3.09 If a player is injured and is unable to take the field and play a defensive position for the rest of the game after the injury, the player can not bat for the remainder of that game.
4.01 Unless the game has been delayed, postponed or cancelled in accordance with Rule 3.01, the umpire(s) shall enter the playing field five minutes before the hour set for the game to begin and proceed directly to home plate where they shall be met by the managers of the opposing teams to discuss the ground rules.
4.02 All games are scheduled for seven (7) innings. A game is considered complete if after 4 1/2 innings the Home Team has more runs than the Visiting team or after five (5) complete innings.
4.03 Tie games halted due to weather, or curfew shall be resumed from the exact point at which they were halted in the original game. For a game halted having played less than 5 innings, see rule 4.12 below. The game that is to be continued may be completed preceding the next scheduled game between the two teams. A pitcher can pitch in both games on the same day subject to the 7 inning per week limitation. In the event that a team doesn’t have enough of the exact players from the previous lineup to have enough players to continue the game, they can add other players from their team roster who were unavailable at the original game start. However, these players must be inserted at the end of the batting order and are unavailable to pitch in the continuation of that game.
4.04 A minimum of nine (9) players is required to start or continue a game. A team shall be granted a 15 minute grace period before having to forfeit. The league will not reschedule any game that is forfeited because of an insufficient number of players. Coaches should plan ahead and call up a player if necessary. The National League teams will call up players from the American League. The American League will fill with players from another American League team. AL fills must be from players drafted “AFTER” the 4th round in the draft.
4.05 No player shall be called up to play a game unless the team’s roster for the game is expected to be 10 or less. The call up player cannot pitch. Call up players cannot displace any regular roster player in the defensive line up for the full game. Call ups must be requested through and approved by the Assistant Coordinators.
4.06 Call ups must bat at the bottom of the batting order of the players who start the game.
4.07 Call ups cannot play more innings in the field than a regular player on the team in a seven inning game except for those regular players that show up late to the game.
4.08 A player that shows up late to the game will be placed at the bottom of the batting order.
4.09 Once the game is started and the team falls below 9 players it will forfeit.
4.10 Once a game is started only the umpire has the authority to call a game. The umpire shall terminate or suspend play when he believes continued play would endanger the safety and/or well being of the players.
4.11 No inning may start after 8:00 PM on a week night. If any inning begins before 8:00 PM and goes beyond, then that inning and only that inning may be completed. The umpire’s time is official. An inning started before the time limit, may be completed, provided Rule 4.10 does not come into play.
4.12 If a regular season game is called because of unsafe conditions before it has become an official game, the game will be continued at a later date as determined by the League Coordinator. The continuation will only go until 5 innings have been played and will then end (unless a tie game). Pitchers innings will count towards the week that they actually take place.
4.13 Ten run rule. If the visiting team is ahead by 10 or more runs after the 5th or 6th inning, or if the home team is ahead by 10 or more runs at any point after 4 1/2 innings, the “Ten Run Rule” will be invoked and the game will be terminated. (Exception: see playoff rules)
4.14 The offensive team shall station two base coaches on the field during its term at bat, one near first base and one near third base. Base coaches shall be limited to two in number and shall remain within the coach's box at all times.
4.15 Each team manager shall submit to Sports Manager the final score of the game within 48 hours of the completion of the game.
5.00 TBD 6.00 THE BATTER
6.01 The bat used must be Babe Ruth approved for the current season.
6.02 Slashing is not permitted (squaring to bunt then swinging away at the pitch). Anyone attempting to slash shall be called out.
6.03 A continuous batting order will be used. All players will bat in the order he/she is placed in the lineup at the beginning of the game. Players arriving after the game has begun will be placed at the end of the batting order.
7.00 THE RUNNER
7.01 Base runners must slide or attempt to avoid contact when there is an imminent play at any base (i.e. the ball is directly on its way to said base from the outfielder, a cut-off man or an infielder). Contact between a runner and fielder may only occur by sliding. Umpire’s judgment is final. Runners are not allowed to purposefully collide with a defensive player in an attempt to dislodge the baseball from the defensive player’s possession. In such case the runner will be called out. In the umpire’s opinion a player’s actions were intended to injure an opposing player the player who intended to cause the harm will be ejected from the game. Contact occurring on a normal slide into home plate or a base is permissible. Fielders, not in possession of the ball and not in the act of fielding the ball, who impede a runner’s progress will be called for “obstruction” and bases will be awarded in accordance with the Official Rules of Baseball. Obstruction however shall not be justification for causing a collision.
7.02 Head first slides are not permissible. Exception: Returning to a base that the runner has already reached safely. Runners who slide head first will be called out whether the play is imminent or not.
8.00 THE PITCHER 8.01 Pitchers will be allowed eight (8) warm-up pitches in the first inning that he /she pitches and five (5) warm-up pitches each inning thereafter.
8.02 The pitching week begins on Monday and ends on Sunday.
8.03 A pitcher may pitch a total of seven (7) innings per week. One pitch constitutes a full inning.
If a pitcher pitches more than three (3) innings in a game, he/she must have two (2) calendar days rest before he/she can pitch again that week.
If a pitcher pitches more than two (2) innings in a game, he/she must have one (1) calendar days rest before he/she can pitch again that week.
Any player who is warming up a pitcher must wear the catcher’s headgear. Catchers must wear approved headgear.
Balks will be called. Sequence of events: (1) warning, (2) advancement of runner.
Hidden ball tricks are not permitted.
A Manager or Coach will be allowed one trip to the mound per inning. On the second trip the pitcher must be removed as the pitcher (calling the pitcher to the sidelines will be considered a trip to the mound).
8.10 Players listed as pitchers on alternate baseball team rosters (middle school, high school, AAU) will be allowed to pitch no more than 2 innings per game and no more than 4 innings per week not to exceed 7 innings combined between leagues they are participating in. Any violation of this rule will result in a forfeit of games that player pitched in after exceeding the maximum combined innings. Forfeit decisions and appeals will be at the sole discretion of the Babe Ruth Coordinator and the Director of Baseball.
8.11 Once a pitcher is removed from pitching in a game, he/she cannot pitch again in that game.
9.01 The playoffs are meant to determine the town champion.
9.02 The playoffs and championship games shall adopt the following format of play:
The playoff structure will consist of no less than 50% of the total amount of teams in the Babe Ruth division. The Director of Baseball and the Babe Ruth Coordinator will determine the playoff format.
The playoff schedule and seeding will be determined by regular season standings. In case of a tie standings will be determined as follows:
head to head
ii) head to head run differential, (margin of victory by game, with a maximum of 5 runs awarded per game)
iii) Total runs allowed in head to head games
iv) Coin toss.
Teams will play a best of three series. Teams with best record will have home field advantage for games one and three (if necessary).
TABLE 1 – EXAMPLE PLAYOFF FORMAT
1 vs. 4
2 vs. 3
1/4 vs. 2/3
d) In the event there are more than eight teams in the division the top six teams shall make the playoffs. In such a case the number one and number two seeded teams shall receive a bye in the first round. The three seed shall play the sixth seed and the fourth seed shall play the fifth seed. In the second round the number one seed shall play the lowest remaining seed. The first round will be single elimination. Subsequent rounds will be the best two out of three games.
9.03 Regular Season Rules apply during the playoffs. EXCEPTIONS:
Each series will count as a week for pitching (7 INNINGS MAX PER SERIES)
All playoff games must be complete games. If the game is stopped due to weather conditions or darkness the game will be picked up another day (as scheduled by the league coordinator) from the point at which the game was stopped. NOTE: Players eligible for continuation game are the same as noted in section 4.03 above. Pitchers who pitched in the initial game my continue if they were on the mound at the time of postponement as long as they still have innings left during the current pitching week AND have had the appropriate amount of rest according to section 8.04
A player may pitch eleven (11) innings a week (instead of 7), but only seven (7) innings a series. Reference sections 8.04 and 8.05 for days rest requirements.
a) In order to be eligible for post-season play, a player must have played in a minimum of 60% of their teams’ regular season games. Exceptions to this rule will only be made by the Director of Baseball and the League Coordinator in the case of personal hardship or major injury.
9.05 Trophies will be awarded to the TOWN CHAMPIONS, RUNNER-UP and 1st PLACE IF APPLICABLE. No team can be awarded more than one trophy.
10.00 ALL STAR SELECTION PROCESS
10.01 All Star Managers
Managers who wish to submit themselves for consideration for managers of summer All Star teams must contact the Director of Baseball and submit an application for the team they wish to manage.
The application form will reflect the applicants’ prior managerial experience, FYBO managerial experience, All Star manager experience and time in the FYBO program amongst other criteria.
The applications must be submitted to the Director of Baseball no later than May 15th.
Managers from any age group may apply for an All Star team regardless if they are currently managing at that level or not however, first preference will typically be given to managers currently assigned to the division in question. Assistant coaches may also apply for All Star teams, but primary consideration will still be given to managers.
The Director of Baseball will review the applications with two members of the FYBO board of directors who have no interest in applying for an All Star team. The other members will be recommended by the Director of Baseball, but must be approved by the FYBO board of directors. The committee will be identified as the Manager Selection Committee.
All applicants will be interviewed by the MSC. The committee will also (at their discretion) contact the coordinator of the specific division and other managers within the division at random for their input regarding the applicant’s performance.
The selection of All Star managers must be unanimous amongst the three-member committee. The committee will also identify alternate managers for each team as applicable. Note: Unless a managers’ son is voted on the team, the player can only be added if he/she meets the eligibility criteria as defined within the division.
In the event a manager cannot accept an All Star team, the Director of Baseball will award the team to the next in line candidate (alternate) as identified by the committee during deliberations.
The committee will NOT disclose the manager selections. The selection of the managers will be announced by the Director of Baseball at the respective divisions All Star voting meeting, but ONLY after the completion of the selection of the top eight (8) players of each age group.
The manager will then select the remainder of the All Star team utilizing the method outlined in section 10.02.
10.02 Structure and Conditions of All Star Selection Process
a) The Babe Ruth League Coordinators will facilitate the selection process for the 13, 14 and 15 year old selections including any specified tryout processes.
b) All Babe Ruth League level players can be nominated for All Star selection consideration or tryouts based on the composition of teams and roster spots available for each division as determined by the Babe Ruth Selection Committee (Director of Baseball, Babe Ruth Coordinator and NL/AL Assistant Coordinators).
c) Only seconded players (with the exception of team(s) selected via tryout) can be placed on rosters.
d) A tryout will be held for the top 13 year old team. Managers of both American (AL) and National (NL) Division teams may nominate/invite up to 2 players to participate in the tryout. There can also be up to four at large names selected for the tryout by the selection committee. The Tryout committee will be comprised of at least three FYBO board members who are not currently coaching 13 yr. olds and who are not parents of 13 yr. olds. All participants will participate in both outfield and infield position skill drills and there will be an additional opportunity for pitcher and catcher candidates. There will also be a hitting component in the cage or via live pitching. The tryout committee will determine via consensus the top sixteen 13 yr. old players based on the tryout and will review the list before the all-star selection process with the selected coach whose son must be ranked among the top 16 players. The tryout committee and the selected manager will select the final 12 players and the remaining 4 players will be presented to respective division coaches as automatic nominees for remaining all-star teams and Hock alternates.
There will be one additional 13 year old Hockomock B All-Star team. NL 13 year old players not selected for Hockomock A Team are eligible for nomination. Most of the players selected will come from the AL with coaches following the process noted in section 10.03 below.
14s Year Old Players- there will be one Hockomock A 14 yr. team and only NL players are eligible to be nominated. The coaches will follow the same nomination and voting process as outlined in section 10.03 below.
There will be a second 14 year old All Star team, Hockomock B. The composition of players for this team between National and American League players will be determined at the time of the all star draft by the Director of Baseball Operations and the Babe Ruth Co-ordinators.
15s Year Old Players – there will be one Hockomock A 15 yr. team and only NL players are eligible to be nominated. The coaches will follow the same nomination and voting process as outlined in section 10.03 below.
There will be a second 15 year old All Star team, Hockomock B, if enough eligible players are available and receive nominations. The composition of players for this team between National and American League players will be determined at the time of the draft by the Director of Baseball Operations and the Babe Ruth Co-ordinators.
a. Up to five (5) additional players may be added to the All-Star team roster by the Manager of the respective team as alternates. Any player selected as an Alternate must have been nominated and seconded for the All-Star Team that he/she is selected to. Alternates may only play when a regular player can not. Up to five (5) alternates will be identified for every All Star team. Players selected for All Star teams are expected to make a commitment to their respective All Star team and should consider it their highest priority during the All Star season (typically mid June to late July). As such, the following requirements apply:
Players may participate in other activities during the All Star season, if they are willing to make the All Star team their highest priority.
Players are allowed to miss a maximum of four games due to vacations and other commitments during the All Star season. If a player misses a fifth game, he or she is no longer a member of that All Star team subject to review by the Director of Baseball Operations. The All Star Manager will select an Alternate Player to become a member of the team.
Players who have known conflicts that will inhibit the ability to meet these requirements are expected to decline the opportunity to participate on a team. Players violating this policy may be ruled ineligible to participate on an All Star team for the remainder of that all star season. To re-enforce this requirement, the parents (or guardians) of ALL players who are selected for summer All Stars will be required to provide a copy of their son/daughters birth certificate and sign a document in which they acknowledge the requirements of the above section and the ramifications of the failure to meet these requirements.
In addition, the top 13, 14 and 15 year old teams will also participate in the Eastern Massachusetts District 5 championship, which takes place concurrently with the Hockomock league games. Any team who wins the district tournament would then participate in the state championship series, with an opportunity to progress to regional and national tournaments. All all star eligibility and participation rules apply to these games.
10.03 Player Nomination
Each Babe Ruth League manager will have the opportunity of elaborating on an individual player’s performance to enhance the player’s chances of selection.
A player must be seconded by another manager to be eligible for the final selection process.
c) In order to be eligible for All Star selection, a player must have played in a minimum of 60% of their team’s regular season games at the time of the selection process. Playing in a game is defined as playing at least three defensive innings and batting at least once during the game. (However, for players who leave early/arrive late due to high school commitments, playing in a game is solely defined as having at least one at-bat during a game.) Exceptions to this rule will only be made by the Director of Baseball and the League Coordinator in the case of personal hardship or major injury.
a) Each Manager will identify who he/she determines the top eight players in the league to be nominated (Managers can NOT vote for players on their own team).
b) Of the players nominated and seconded, Managers will rank only eight players. The rating system will be 8 through 1 (8 the highest or top choice).
c) The All- Star Committee will tally the votes and announce the top eight (8) vote receivers (Babe Ruth League Assistant Coordinator and the Director of Baseball will tally the votes).
The remainder of the All Star roster will be selected by the all star head coach, subject to the rules of eligibility noted below.
A player who does not receive any votes cannot be placed on an All Star team unless all other players who have received votes have secured a position on the team.
Any and ALL changes to the established All Star rosters must be approved by the Director of Baseball.
All Star regulars will be responsible to pay the cost to cover uniforms and expenses.
All Star alternates will be responsible to pay only for the cost of their uniforms.
10.07 Playing Time
Playing time will be distributed in the same manner as the regular season.
All players must play a minimum of four defensive innings at each game he attends assuming it is a seven inning game.
If a player does not play the minimum number of defensive innings in a seven inning game, that player will start the next game and play consecutive innings until they play the required number of innings.
Managers must make every attempt to bring a minimum of 12 players to every game.
Managers or teams who conscientiously fail to meet the requirements of this section will be subject to Disciplinary action by the All Star Committee and or the Board of Directors.
Pitchers will be permitted to pitch 7 innings a week in normal league All Star games. Pitchers will be allowed to pitch an additional 4 innings per week only in tournaments in which the team is entered.
10.08. THE PRESIDENT OR THE DIRECTOR OF BASEBALL MUST BE PRESENT AT THE ALL STAR SELECTION PROCESS.