Framework curricula for secondary schools


Number of teaching hours per year: 37



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Number of teaching hours per year: 37

Objectives and tasks
Every instance of gathering new experience and thinking is to make man’s self-understanding more profound. The main objective of teaching ethics is to provide a conceptual framework for the interpretation of man’s unique mode of existence and the principles of human coexistence. Ethics aims at describing the world of human relations and highlighting the dilemmas which are inseparable from the fate of a being who is accountable for his actions. It helps learning the principles of appropriate behaviour and good decision making, introduces students to the main positions, values and ways of reasoning evolved in the dispute about the nature of virtue, i.e. a dispute which is as old as human civilisation.

Developmental requirements
The development of moral sense, the realisation that one has to assume responsibility for his own life as well as other people’s life through the acquisition of the fundamental ethical terms and the analysis of situations where one must choose from alternatives.

Developing the traits, skills and knowledge which are the prerequisites of independent orientation and a conscious way of living.

Elementary level knowledge of the most fundamental questions of thought, the milestones of the development of ethical thinking, and the most important methods of reasoning in ethics.

Being able to discuss ethical positions, the improvement of the intellectual abilities needed for communicating one’s convictions and for understanding, respecting others’ convictions.

Manifold approaches to highlight the meaning of the norms of ethics and living which are generally accepted in our civilisation.

Understanding the relationship between ethical thought and other fields of knowledge (e.g. religion, art, science).


New activities
Analysing situations and examples of decision-making taken from everyday life.

Exercises and cases to practice the identification and interpretation of moral dilemmas.

Discussing cases learnt in the course studies in literature and history, from the perspective of ethical content.

Text analysis.

Guided debate and role play.



TOPICS

THEMES


Human nature

Differences and similarities in the images of man constructed by the various fields of knowledge.

Biological and cultural evolution.

The historical nature of man.

A being with reason (sense, consciousness, symbolic thinking, language use; the role of emotions and imagination).

The social being (the group and the individual; the genuinely social nature of conscious behaviour).

Man as a creator (the conscious shaping of the environment, using instruments, goal-oriented behaviour, work, division of labour).

Facts and values; the connections between the objective-instrumental and the normative-communicative aspects of verbal understanding.

The definition of culture.

The meaning of tradition.

Adherence to norms, moral custom, the development of individual ethics.



The moral being

Me and you.

The role of the other person in the development of the conscious self.

The reflexive and open nature of human consciousness.

Self-identity and self-realisation in social relations.

Autonomy and interdependence.




The conditions of moral action


Freedom as interpreted by various schools of philosophy.

The freedom of choice and man’s accountability.

The relationship between accountability for one’s action and responsibility for other people’s fate.

Freedom and predestination.

Intention and consequence.

Law and conscience.

The experience and explanation of suffering.

The origin of evil.

Man as a sinner and an honest creature in Christian tradition.

The ability to tell the good from the bad.

The need for universal validity in moral judgement, and the diversity of potentially good lives.

Material and formal ethics.




The foundation of ethics

The basis of and connections between the reasoning of ethics based on authority, the law of nature (teleology), obligation, utility, responsibility and consensus, through classic examples from the history of thought.




Virtues and human character

Character and manners.

Abilities and virtues.

The pursuit of what is good (benevolence).

Self-education and self-discipline.

Fundamental moral values in European civilisation: the integrity of the self, no coercion, reciprocity, equity, compassion, respect, dedication, the prohibition of causing suffering.

Some classical and modern interpretations of cardinal virtues.

The sources and types of love.




Love and ethics

The relationship between the freedom of the individual and individual love.

Love based relationship and self-understanding.

Service and consideration: the restriction versus the realisation of the self. Love, struggle, hatred, sacrifice.




Individuals and ethic

Objects and needs of life.

The definition of well-being.

The quality of life.

Moral dilemma in personal relationships.

Family relations, marriage, sexual ethic.

Friendship, compassion, help.

Work ethic.

The ethics of consumption.

Following examples, role models.




Society and ethics

Ethical community and society.

The different scope of ethics and law.

Personal commitment and tolerance.

Patriotism.

The structure of social identity.

Ethics and politics.

The respect of the law and the obligation of civil disobedience.

Social solidarity and social justice.

Ethics and the economy.




Religion and ethics

The essence of the ethical message of Christianity.

The connection between the ethics of the Old and the New Testament.

Man’s mode of existence and responsibilities as interpreted by Christian churches and other world religions.

The impact of Christian ethics on the development of European civilisation.

Religious ethic and secular ethic.

The need for transcendental ethical foundations.



Contemporary ethical challenges

The dilemmas of technical and scientific development.

The ethical issues of biotechnology, birth control, population boom, modern medicine, ageing, death and human dignity.



The issue of global responsibility

The nature of our obligations for future generations, other beings, the conservation of the order and diversity of the living environment.

The debate regarding animal rights.

Interpreting ethics as a discipline centred around man.





Prerequisites of moving ahead
Students are familiar with the meaning of basic ethical terminology. Students are able to recognise the clash of ethical values in the various situations of everyday life. They can defend their ethical convictions and support them with arguments. They can understand and explain why one is responsible both for one’s own and for others’ fate and for the future of the living environment.

FIRST FOREIGN LANGUAGE
Years 9 through 12 of education
Objectives and tasks
Students entering year 9 of education have been learning the target language for five years. During this time, they have become familiar with the main types of in-class activities and texts, their vocabulary is fairly extensive, and they can understand the teacher’s instructions in the target language. Their self-confidence makes them able to efficiently participate in all in-class activities individually, in pairs or in groups. They have developed and realistic self-assessment skills, i.e. they are aware of their strengths and weaknesses. It remains an important task to keep up and further increase their level of motivation.

The objective is to help students reach a proficiency level between A2 and B1 by the end of year 10. On this level they are able to make enquiries and receive information in realistic situations related to topics they are familiar with. They can understand the essence of a relatively long authentic text they listen to or read, and are able to screen out the important information. They can produce both written and oral texts made up of a few sentences. Their vocabulary is extensive enough to exchange information on familiar topics both in speech and writing.

By the end of year 12 students should reach a level of proficiency between B1 and B2, with a vocabulary more extensive than that of the previous level. Also, they should be able to exchange information about a wider range of topics within the fields they are familiar with, and they should be able to understand and create longer texts.

It is essential to make sure that the material learnt in the foreign language courses are built upon knowledge gained elsewhere, in relation with other subjects. However, students’ language proficiency should also make it possible on these levels to introduce new topics in the foreign language. It is important to supplement language learning with individual reading and exposure to the language outside the classroom.

This age group may benefit from the identification and application of linguistic rules, however the emphasis should remain on meaning, context and communication. Throughout these years, the objective is to balance fluent speech with correct language use.

By the end of year 12, students should have acquired the language learning strategies which are essential for individual linguistic development.



Developmental requirements
Students must be able to exchange information both in speech and writing, understand and create oral and written texts about topics they are familiar with. They are required to maintain their language skills on the achieved level themselves, and develop such skills in line with their personal interests. Students should form a picture of the people and culture of other countries through the foreign language being learnt.
List of (suggested) topics:

  • Man and society: helping the disadvantaged and the needy; discrimination.

  • Our wider environment: a guided tour in the neighbourhood; the characteristics of city life.

  • Our natural environment: the pollution of the environment and environmental protection.

  • School life: comparing a Hungarian school with a school located in an area where the target language is spoken.

  • Health and illness: traditional medicine and alternative treatment; a healthy life style.

  • Food and meals: healthy and unhealthy diets; restaurants and fast food restaurants.

  • Travelling: going on holiday in Hungary and abroad; planning a long journey.

  • Leisure activities and entertainment: dangerous sports; cultural events; theatre and cinema; modern and classical music; the world of the Internet.

  • Employment: summer jobs; working conditions in Hungary and abroad; choice of career.

  • Civilisation: contact with the culture of the country or countries where the target language is spoken; their political, economic and social conditions.

  • Technical and scientific culture: the role of science and technical devices in everyday life; some well-known scientific and technical achievements of the target country or countries.

  • Topical issues.

Year 9
Number of teaching hours per year: 111
Content
The language specific requirements related to communicative intentions and concepts can be found in the Framework Curriculum broken down into six different languages and two years.*
Communicative intentions

(see Framework Curriculum for Year 10)


Concepts

(see Framework Curriculum for Year 10)



Prerequisites of moving ahead
Listening skills: understanding texts

Students can



  • Distinguish relevant and non-relevant information in an approx.100 word text in standard language;

  • Extrapolate the meaning of an unknown language component of an approx.100 word text in standard language on the basis of the context.

  • Understand important information included in an approx.100 word text in standard language;

  • Identify specific information in an approx.100 word text in standard language;

  • Understand the essence of everyday conversations or a monologue.


Speaking skills

Students can



  • Give simple and clear answers to a question asked in standard language;

  • Make statements, ask questions, relate events and express emotions in simple sentences;

  • Ask for help in case of problems with understanding or expression;

  • Participate in a conversation,

  • Follow a conversation.


Reading skills: understanding texts

Students can



  • Read an approx. 150 word text written in standard language;

  • Distinguish relevant and non-relevant information in an approx.150 word text written in standard language;

  • Extrapolate the meaning of unknown language components in an approx.150 word text written in standard language, relying on familiar components;

  • Scan an approx.150 word text written in standard language for important information;

  • Identify specific information in an approx.150 word text written in standard language;

  • Understand the general meaning of an approx.150 word text written in standard language;

  • Follow simple or simplified journalistic or literary texts.


Writing skills

Students can



  • Write a few paragraphs (approx. 100 words) to communicate facts;

  • Convert thoughts into a text on the basis of logical relations by using a range of expressions and sentence structures, the appropriate linguistic devices, and write simple messages;

  • Create various text types;

  • Apply diverse forms of communication (description, narration, characterisation).

Year 10
Number of teaching hours per year: 111


Content
The language specific requirements related to communicative intentions and concepts can be found in the Framework Curriculum broken down into six different languages and two years.
Communicative intentions
Communicative intentions used in social interaction:

  • addressing people;

  • greetings and saying goodbye;

  • introducing self and others;

  • introduction and saying goodbye during a telephone conversation;

  • forms of address and ending informal letters;

  • enquiry about how others are, and responses to similar enquiries;

  • asking for and giving permission;

  • expressing thanks and responding to expression of thanks;

  • apologising and responding to apologies;

  • congratulations, greetings and responding to congratulations and greetings.


Expressing emotions:

  • regret;

  • joy;

  • satisfaction, discontent;

  • surprise;

  • hope,

  • sorrow;

  • anger.


Expressing personal attitude and opinion:

  • expressing and asking opinions and responding to that;

  • admitting or not admitting that somebody is right;

  • agreeing, disagreeing,

  • expressing interest and lack of interest;

  • approval and disapproval;

  • praise and criticism;

  • objection,

  • will, desire, ability, obligation, necessity and possibility;

  • promise, intention, plan;

  • enquiry about judgement, desire or preference.

Communicative intentions related to the exchange of information:

  • naming and describing objects and persons;

  • describing events;

  • asking and giving information;

  • affirmative and negative answers;

  • knowledge and lack of knowledge;

  • certainty, uncertainty;

  • familiarity, ignorance.


Expressing emotions:

  • request;

  • prohibition, warning;

  • asking for help and responding to requests for help,

  • suggestion and responding to suggestions;

  • offering and responding to offers;

  • invitation and accepting/declining invitations.


Communicative intentions appearing in interaction:

  • checking understanding, asking for repetition;

  • expressing lack of understanding;

  • request for spelling, spelling;

  • request for slower or louder speech;

  • indicating intention to speak, introducing topic;

  • confirmation;

  • changing subject, concluding a conversation.


Concepts:

  • Talking about actions, events or existence.

  • Expressing possession.

  • Spatial and chronological relations.

  • Reported speech.

  • Quantitative and qualitative relations.

  • Modality.

  • Case structure.

  • Logical relations.

  • Cohesive devices.


Prerequisites of moving ahead
Listening skills: understanding texts

Students can



  • Distinguish relevant and non-relevant information in an approx.150 word text in standard language;

  • Extrapolate the meaning of an unknown language component of an approx.150 word text in standard language on the basis of the context;

  • Understand important information included in an approx.150 word text in standard language;

  • Identify specific information in an approx.150 word text in standard language;

  • Understand everyday conversations or the essence of a monologue.


Speaking skills

Students can



  • Give answers with somewhat complex structures to questions formulated in a subtler way;

  • Make statements, ask questions, relate events and express emotions in somewhat eloquent sentences;

  • Ask for help in case of problems with understanding or expression;

  • Participate in a conversation,

  • Join in a conversation, and express position or view.


Reading skills: understanding texts

Students can



  • Read an approx. 200 word text written in standard language;

  • Distinguish relevant and non-relevant information in an approx.200 word text written in standard language;

  • Extrapolate the meaning of unknown language components in an approx.200 word text written in standard language, relying on familiar components;

  • Scan an approx.200 word text written in standard language for important information;

  • Identify specific information in an approx.200 word text written in standard language;

  • Understand the structure of an approx.200 word text written in standard language;

  • Understand the main points of simple or simplified journalistic or literary texts.


Writing skills

Students can



  • Write a few paragraphs (approx. 150 words) to communicate facts;

  • Convert thoughts into a text on the basis of logical relations by using a range of expressions and sentence structures, the appropriate linguistic devices, and write simple messages;

  • Create various text types;

  • Apply diverse forms of communication.

For further reference below is a list of proficiency levels as defined by the Council of Europe:


The definition of proficiency levels on the basis of the recommendations of the Council of Europe regarding foreign language teaching*
C2 The language learner can easily understand every written or heard text; can summarise information from different spoken or written sources and give a comprehensive account of arguments and reports; capable of spontaneous expression in a fully coherent and precise style; can convey finer shades of meaning even in rather complex situations.
C1 The language learner can understand extended and sophisticated texts sensing hidden meaning; capable of fluent and spontaneous expression without much obvious searching for expressions; can use the language flexibly and effectively for social and professional purposes, such as learning and work; can construct clear, well-structured, detailed text of fairly complex subjects with an assured use of templates and connective devices.
B2 The language learner can follow texts of complex concrete or abstract subjects, including conversations in his/her field of occupation; can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes interaction with native speakers quite effortless for both parties; can present clear, detailed descriptions on a wide range of subjects and is capable of expressing personal views on an issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options.
B1 The language learner can understand the main points of clear standard texts on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc.; can deal with most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in areas where the language is spoken; can create simple, can create simple connected text on topics which are familiar or of personal interest; can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes and ambitions and can briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans.
A2 The language learner can understand phrases and the highest frequency vocabulary related to areas of most immediate personal relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment); can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on family matters or everyday life; can describe in simple terms personal attitude to something in the immediate environments or in areas related to the most basic needs.
A1 The language learner can understand and use the most frequent expressions and very basic phrases used in everyday communication with the purpose of satisfying concrete immediate needs; can introduce self and other people and can answer questions concerning personal issues (e.g. place of living), people known or things possessed; can interact in a simple way provided the other person speaks slowly and clearly and prepared to help.



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