Framework curricula for secondary schools

Number of teaching hours per year: 111

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Number of teaching hours per year: 111
New activities
Learning and discussion skills
Interpreting and discussing written sources, collecting sources exhibiting different approaches from anthologies.

Elaborating simplifications found in various sources and adaptations, the reasons of phenomena, finding similar concise statements.

Establishing what information a contemporary might have had to make a decision, what processes might have remained and did remain hidden from him/her (e.g. economic processes, change of climate, etc.). The investigation of different responses given by contemporaries.

Analysing sources of different types (e.g. objects from the era in question, works of art, literary works, press cuttings, film, images etc.), and comparing the value of the various classes of sources.

Arranging rows of data with the help of a computer, and demonstrating data with graphs, diagrams and charts (e.g. population, production indices, accumulation of arms etc.).

Taking notes of a ten minute speech delivered at normal speed.

Making notes based on predefined excerpts from literature.

Compiling detailed bibliographies (with 10-15 titles).

Verbal expression
Describing the life of some outstanding figures from the modern period.

Evaluating the situation of people facing difficult decisions at historical crossroads.

Evaluating decisions made by various individuals with the consideration of possible alternatives.

The correct use of terminology related to the period in question.

Defining historical terms in a simple, concise and free manner; listing synonyms.

Writing an essay, study or presentation about historical topics selected from the relevant themes of the modern period with or without using aids, and with the length of the work being specified.

Experience in completing test-sheets; familiarity with the principles and methodology of assessment.

Discussing historical issues verbally, defending a predefined position with an increased consideration of the partner’s arguments.

Preparing one or two page presentations based on notes.

Writing a short study using literature (books, journals).

Drawing figures on the basis of information found in the textbook, workbook and used literature to illustrate the relationship between the lexical data and the context.

Presenting a subject by combining various methods and tools (e.g. verbal presentation, map, picture, scenes from a film, objects, etc.)

Planning an exhibition on a defined unit of the syllabus indicating reproductive materials.

Identifying objects from the modern period and describing them in speech or writing.

Orientation in time
Realising how the old and the new world co-exist permanently.

Recognising change in history, and analysing change in concrete historical events. Familiarity with and application of inductive and deductive reasoning in speech and writing alike.

Identifying historical processes and periods, distinguishing the regions of Europe (Western Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe - centre and periphery), understanding the relations between the various regions, making comparisons.

Preparing a chronological table of the major processes or phenomena.

Demonstrating chronological orientation skills in speech and writing, and on the map.

Using the chronological tables of Hungarian and world history, and preparing chronological tables for defined topics on the basis of them.

Orientation in space
Establishing relations between events taking place in time and space. Preparing drawings and maps based on the comparison of chronological charts and maps.

Comparing the data of thematic historical maps (e.g. economic development, population density, changes in ethnic composition) without help; drawing conclusions.

Establishing the environmental conditions and reasons of historical phenomena on the basis of historical and geographical maps, with the teacher’s help (e.g. mineral deposits, industrial areas at the time of the industrial revolution).

Locating topographic data, processes and phenomena learnt during the year on a map showing current arrangements.

Preparing blank maps according to the teacher’s instructions to recite names of personalities mentioned during the year, illustrate processes which can be demonstrated on the map, and describe phenomena.



The age of Enlightenment



Balance in Europe.

The crisis of absolutism in France.

Enlightened absolutism in Austria and Prussia.

Russia as a great power.

Life in the 18th century.

1740-1748, 1756-1763..


Frederick II, Catherine II, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Diderot.

Historical terms:

Encyclopaedia, constitutional state, reason, separation of powers, social contract, enlightened absolutism.


Prussia, Poland, English and French colonies in North-America.

The reorganisation of Hungary within the Habsburg Empire


Hungarian monarchy within the Habsburg Empire.

Demographic changes, ethnic composition.

Old and new agriculture, domestic industry.


Enlightened absolutism, and the clash of the estates.

Enlightenment and the awakening of national consciousness.

Culture, churches, schools.


1722-1723, 1740-1780, 1767, 1777, 1780-1790.


Charles III, Maria Theresa, Joseph II, Kaunitz.

Historical terms:

Council of Vice Regent, resettlement, dual tariff system, religious tolerance, permanent army, magnate, state education, rearrangement of socage, language decree.


Border guard regions, Bánát.

The age of capitalist transformation


The North American colonies’ war of independence.

The birth of the United States of America.

The constitution of the United States.

The French Revolution.

The Declaration of Human Rights.

Europe during the Napoleonic Wars.

The international scene in 1815.

The Industrial Revolution and its social consequences.

The wave of revolution in the first half of the 19th century.

19th century thought.

Main artistic trends.

The effect of the Industrial Revolution on life standard and the environment.

1766, 1783, 1789, 1791, 1794, 1804-1815, 1830, 1848.


Washington, Jefferson, Louis XVI, Danton, Robespierre, Metternich, Napoleon, Nelson, Kutuzov, Watt, Stephenson, Mazzini, Marx, Engels.

Historical terms:

Nationalism, liberalism, socialism, conservatism, constitution, third estate, Girondist, Jacobin, civil liberties, parliamentary system (right wing, left wing), emigration, reaction, terror, capitalism, capitalist, proletarian, civil society.


Valmy, Vendée, Austerlitz, Trafalgar, Borodino, Waterloo.

The beginning of bourgeois transformation in Hungary


The impact of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars in Hungary.

A changing society - aristocratic, rural and urban lifestyle.

New elements and underdevelopment in Hungarian economy.

The evolution of the Reform Movement. The main issues of bourgeois transformation.

Ethnic issues.

Culture and civilisation in the Reform Era.

1795, 1825, 1830, 1832-36, 1844, 1847.


Martinovics, Hajnóczy, Kazinczy, Kölcsey, Deák, Eötvös, Kossuth, Lajos Batthyány, István Széchenyi, Wesselényi, Francis I.

Historical terms:

Hungarian Jacobins, reform, bourgeois transformation, censorship, official language of the state, abolition of entailment, universal taxation, consolidation of interests, protective tariff.


Pest-Buda, Fiume, Vaskapu.

Revolution and War of Independence in Hungary


The international framework of the Hungarian revolution and the War of Independence.

The last Estate Diet. Revolution in Pest.

The April Laws.

The first difficulties: ethnic movements.

Organising national defence in the autumn and winter of 1848.

The triumphant spring military manoeuvres.

The Declaration of Independence and the international climate.

The defeat.

1848: March 15, 11 April, September 29,

1849: April 6, April 14, May 21, 13 August, October 6

Jókai, Petőfi, Görgey, Klapka, Bem, Damjanich, Jellasich, Windischgrätz, Haynau.

Historical terms:

The Youth of March, national guard, independent government responsible to the parliament, the abolition of serfdom, suffrage, independence, ethnic law, commissioner.


Pákozd, Kápolna, Isaszeg, Komárom, Segesvár, Arad.

The age of nation states and Imperialism


Economic and social changes in the developed countries, the second industrial revolution.

The unification of Italy and Germany.

The Crimean Wars.

Russian reformist attempts.

Civil War in the United States.

Imperialism: the British, French and Russian Colonial Empire. Latin-America, China and Japan.

The ‘Eastern Issue’ and the Balkans.

The rise of the working class as a political force.

Power alignments and military-political alliances at the turn of the century.

The new framework of culture.

1853-1856, 1861, 1861-1865, 1866, 1870, 1871, 1882, 1904, 1905, 1907.


Napoleon III, Nicolas I, Cavour, Garibaldi, Bismarck, Queen Victoria, William II, Lenin, Lincoln.


Crimea, Piemont, the German Empire, the Suez Canal, Panama Canal, Alsace-Lorraine, Rumania, Serbia, Bulgaria

Historical terms:

the First and Second International, Christian socialism, social democracy, centre, periphery, joint-stock company, monopoly, middle class, Triple Alliance, Entente Cordiale, Eastern Issue, Bolshevik, anarchism, trade unions.

High capitalism in Hungary


Retaliation, the development of the Bach system. Passive resistance.

The Compromise.

Economic and social development in the Dual Monarchy.

The various social groups’ typical lifestyle.

Population growth. The ethnic issue.

Jewish emancipation. Assimilation and emigration.

Urbanisation. Development in the field of arts and sciences. Parties and party struggles. Socialist and socialist agricultural movements.

The crisis of Dualism in the beginning of the 20th century.

6 October 1849, 1867, 1868, 1875-90, 1896.


Francis Joseph, Haynau, Bach, Ferenc Deák, Gyula Andrássy, Kálmán Tisza, Gábor Baross, István Tisza, Oszkár Jászi.


Bosnia-Herzegovina, Budapest, the Dual Monarchy.

Historical terms:

Passive resistance, the Compromise, the Hungarian-Croatian Compromise, Dual Monarchy, common portfolios, the Millennium, gentry middle-class, obstruction, public education, petty bourgeois, rich bourgeois, agricultural worker, emigration, assimilation, registration of marriages.

Everyday life and history of life style

At least two of the following topics must be discussed during the school year:

The separation of the branches of power and their working from the early modern age to the present.

Schools in the past and in the present.

The main issues of ethnic life and culture in the Dual Monarchy.

Modern urban development.

Religions and churches in the age of Dualism.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Students can compare sources of history with their textbooks. When using the school library and public libraries, they can compile literature containing a few items for the purpose of presentations and keynote lectures. They can plan their recitals of historical topics in a free but well structured manner. They can figures, maps, and other known and unknown carriers of information verbally, following short preparation They can make measurements and estimates on the map with or without the teacher’s help (population, density of population, level of economic development). They can incorporate phenomena shown on the map into their solutions of oral and written tasks.

Year 12

Number of teaching hours per year: 96
New activities
Learning and discussion skills
Interpreting and discussing written sources.

Comparing sources of different types.

Analysing and evaluating films and newsreels.

Recognising and analysing the manipulative nature of the media.

Analysing the international agreements, peace treaties, agreements on alliance and the covenants of international organisations.

Inquiries into specialist literature.

Comparing the contents of sources, textbook and literature to reveal discrepancies.

Following the coverage of certain topics by the press and other media (e.g. following the process of EU accession).

Compiling bibliographies for longer papers and studies, research and writing.
Verbal expression
Evaluating the role of great historical figures in the modern age.

Learning about a historical event, institution or organisation from sources.

Preparing explanatory diagrams and graphs about economic, social and demographic processes.

Completing test-sheets.

Elaborating a historical question in a comprehensive, essay type discussion.

Correct definition and use of terminology.

Forming, elaborating and - in case of a possible debate - defending individual opinion about a given issue based on historical knowledge.

Identifying and explaining historical changes on the basis of series of data, graphs and figures.

Orientation in time
Viewing the major events of Hungarian, European and world history in a global way.
Orientation in space
Distinguishing and comparing regions with various courses of development.



From the First World War to the Great Depression (1914-1929)

The start, features and history of the First World War.

The peace treaties signed outside Paris.

The Russian revolutions. The building of the Bolshevik party state.

Despotic regimes in Central-Europe. Fascism in Italy.

Parliamentary regimes (USA, Great-Britain, France, Germany).

New social and economic phenomena in the developed world.

Women’s liberation.


1914-18, 1917, 1919, 1922, 1925.


Francis Ferdinand, Stalin, Trotzky, Wilson, Clemenceau, Lloyd George, Stresemann, Mussolini.


Saraievo, Marne, Somme, Petersburg, Serbo-Croatian-Slovene Kingdom, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Baltic states, Curzon line.

Historical terms:

Blitzkrieg, trench warfare, ultimatum, central powers, pacifism, soviet, fascism, corporate state, single party system, communism, collectivisation, GULAG, Little Entente, protection of minorities.

Hungary’s participation in the First World War and its aftermath in Hungary.

Life in post-Trianon Hungary


Hungary’s participation in the world war.

Revolution. An attempt to establish communist dictatorship: the Republic of Councils.

The Treaty of Trianon. Its impact on economy, society and ethnic situation.

Hungarians on the other side of the border.

The counter-revolution.

The consolidation of Horthy’s regime.

The state of education.

Changes in life style.

2 July 1929, 31 October 1918, 3 November 1918, 21 March 1919, 1 August 1919, 1 March 1920, 4 June 1920, 1921-1931, 1927.


Count Mihály Károlyi, Béla Kun, Miklós Horthy, Count Pál Telkei, Count István Bethlen, Kunó Klebelsberg, István Nagyatádi Szabó, Károly Payer.


Doberdo, Isonzo, post-Trianon Hungary, Piave.

Historical terms:

Michaelmas Daisy Revolution, ethnic and historical principle, the dictatorship of the proletariat, Republic of Councils, red and white terror, numerus clausus, anti-Semitism, irredentism, revision, national insurance, consolidation.

From the Great Depression to the Second World War (1929-1945)

The Great Depression from 1929 to 1933.

Crisis management in Western democracies.

The rise and workings of national-socialism.

The success of the German-Italian-Japanese block.

Stalin’s dictatorship in the 1930’s.

The history of the Second World War.

The victory of the Allies. The nature of the war.


1929, 1933, 1936, 1938, 1 September 1939, 22 June 1941, 6 June 1944, 9 May 1945, 6 August 1945, 2 September 1945.


Keynes, Roosevelt, Hitler, Göring, Churchill, Rommel, Montgomery, Zhukov, Eisenhower, De Gaulle.


The British Commonwealth, Leningrad, Pearl Harbour, Midway, Stalingrad, Auschwitz, Hiroshima, El-Alamein, Kursk, Normandy.

Historical terms:

Stock exchange, overproduction crisis, New Deal, planned economy, totalitarian regime, national-socialism, Führer principle, Berlin-Rome axis, Anschluss, concentration camp, genocide, Holocaust, partisan, total war, anti-Fascist coalition.

Hungary from the Great Depression to the collapse brought by the Second World War


Economic crisis and drift to the right in domestic affairs.

The results of a revisionist foreign policy. Drifting into the world war.

Hungary’s participation in the war. The policy of Kállay’s government.

German occupation.

Holocaust in Hungary.

Unsuccessful attempts at taking Hungary out of the war. Hungarian Nazi takeover.

The liberation and occupation of Hungary by the Soviet Union.


2 November 1938, 15 March 1939, 30 August 1940, 26 June 1941, January 1943, 19 March 1944, 15 October 1944, 21 December 1944, April 1945.


Endre Bajcsy-Zsilinszky, Gyula Gömbös, Ferenc Szálasi, László Bárdossy, Miklós Kállay, Béla Dálnoki Miklós.


Felvidék, Újvidék, Kárpátalja, Voroniez, the Don bend.

Historical terms:

Rural research movement, the ‘Arrow-Cross’ (Hungarian Nazi) movement, Anti-Jewish legislation, armed neutrality, war economy, ‘swing’ policy, taking Hungary out of the war, ghetto, deportation, labour service, prisoners of war.

Our age

(from 1945 to the present)

Cold War opposition after the Second World War.

Countries with developed market economy and democratic regimes.

The history of European integration.

The Third World.

The evolution, development and failure of Communist regimes.

Conflicts in the Middle East.

The Far East region.

Central and Eastern Europe and the Balkans after the regime change.

Mankind at the turn of the century: a global world and its problems.


1947, 1948, 1949, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1961, 1968, 1975, 1991.


Nehru, Gandhi, Chang Kai-shek, Mao Ce-tung, Ho Si Minh, Truman, Adenauer, Kruschchev, Nasser, Kennedy, John XXIII, Brandt, Walesa, Reagan, Gorbachev.

Historical terms:

Iron curtain, Cold War, arms race, Truman Principle, Marshall Aid, welfare market economy, European integration, NATO, Warsaw Treaty, Brezhnev doctrine, global world, détante.


DDR, GDR, Cuba, Korea.

Hungary after the Second World War

(from 1945 to the present)

Reconstruction. An attempt to establish a democratic public life.

The Paris Treaty. Hungarians on the other side of the borders.

Building a communist regime. Economy and cultural policy.

The road to Revolution.

Revolution and war of independence in 1956.

The rise of Kádár’s regime: retaliation and dictatorship.

Departure from the Soviet model. Attempts at economic reform.

Changing life style. Demographic changes.

The evolution and strengthening of opposition movements.

Regime change.

1946, 10 February 1947, 1948, 1949, 1953, 23 October 1956, 4 November 1956, 1963, 1968, 23 October 1989, 1990, 1991.


József Mindszenty, Ferenc Nagy, Mátyás Rákosi, János Kádár, Imre Nagy, József Antall, Árpád Göncz.

Historical terms:

Interim national assembly, SZEB, war criminal, People’s Court, indemnification, the principle of collective punishment, resettlement, population exchange, surplus appropriation, ÁVH (state security), party state, land reform, the Fifties, relocation, workers’ council, opposition movement, Petőfi Circle, reform socialism, shadow economy.

Everyday life,

history of life style

At least two of the following topics should be discussed during the school year:

Demographic and ethnic change in Hungarian history.

Genocide in the past, recent past and present.

Consumer society and ecology; sustainable development.

Media and public opinion.

The enforcement and representation of interests in contemporary Hungary.

Elite culture and mass entertainment.

Year 11 of education

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