Framework curricula for secondary schools

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Literary terms
The periods of cultural history, characteristic style of a period, folk-poetry, antiquity, the Middle Ages, Humanism, Renaissance, Reformation, Baroque; tale, myth; Testament, Gospel, prophecy, parable, psalm, epic poem, epic devices, in medias res, legend, minstrels, short story, lay, fiction, fictive letter, cycle, drama, epilogue, prologue, monologue, dialogue, action, diction, delay, catharsis, chorus, tripartite unity; allegoric depiction, rhythm of thought, period, accentual verse, Balassi stanza, metric verse, dramatic jambus, interpretation, value, evaluation.

Texts to memorise
Citing entire literary works and passages (at least five poems, a 20-25 lines from a prosaic work and a drama); using quotations in speech and writing in accordance with purpose and textual environment.

Authors and works
A few pieces from Hungarian folk-poetry, e.g. Júlia szép leány (Júlia is a pretty girl); a few stories from ancient mythology and the Bible; characteristic passages from the Iliad and the Odyssey; two poems written by Janus Pannonius; Egy katona-ének (A soldier’s song) and two other poems written by Bálint Balassi; Szigeti veszedelem (The Peril of Sziget) by Miklós Zrínyi - a few passages; passages from a work written by Péter Pázmány and Kelemen Mikes; one drama written by Sophocles, Shakespeare and Molière.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Legible writing at the right pace, reading which ensures understanding, reading out. Appropriate language use in various communicative situations. Appropriate wording depending on the audience, the topic and the speech situation. Forming opinions on the basis of the fundamental information learnt about the frequent journalistic genres, their tools and effects, a critical attitude to reception of those texts. The recognition of the special nature of the communicative relation between reader and literature.

Analysis of texts: highlighting the thesis, compression to required size, working up texts on the basis of given questions. Recognising the structure and thematic network of texts. Differentiating the literal and the implied meaning of the read literary texts. Recognising the role of text phonetic devices in text interpretation. Precise and clear wording: building texts according to the communicative situation, describing the characters of a literary work form another character’s point of view.

Defining the previously learnt concepts and systematising the rules and the sets of the elements pertaining to the various levels of language (i.e. sound, word, sentence). Familiarity with the principles of spelling in Hungarian. Making notes of and preparing a draft for a written text and a presentation. Knowing how to use the library.

The identification of epic, dramatic and lyric forms and the learnt genres. Describing the characters of epic works, and analysing the relations among them. Describing the chronological, spatial and narrative structure of dramas. The differentiation of author, narrator and character. The narrator’s viewpoint. The interpretation of the speech situation. Naming a few crucial elements of lyric composition (speech situation, versification, repetition). The difference between accentual and metric verse, recognising certain verse forms. Placing read works in the right period, recalling a few important details of the authors’ biography. Pointing out relations between the early period of European literature and Hungarian literary works from later periods.

Year 10
Number of teaching hours per year: 148 (language: 37, literature: 111)

New activities
Educated linguistic behaviour
The conscious use of the vocabulary, elements and rules pertaining to various forms of language according to communicative situation.

Proving the ability to change style through oral utterances with diverse topic and genre in various communicative situations.

Giving speeches, addresses by using the learnt speech techniques, communicative and rhetorical devices.

Following positions expressed during in-class discussion and in literary works. Confirming understanding, comparing other opinions with one’s own views.

Studying and evaluating examples of written and oral public communication with literary value.
Understanding texts
The enrichment of text analytical methodology by involving knowledge of text theory, rhetoric and the history of literature.

The recognition and interpretation of a text’s relation to and differences from other genres, themes and motives.

Understanding texts representing various historical styles. Identifying specific stylistic features.

Distinguishing the various layers of literary texts with respect to the differences between the assumed contemporary meaning and the meaning for the modern reader. Explaining the difference with the help of a few relatively transparent examples.

Observing and interpreting the functions of various modes of expression and stylistic devices: describing the different stylistic layers and the relations between them (e.g. contrast) in passages from a few literary works having learnt.
Creating texts
The conscious use of the technique of reasoning in literary papers and in responses given to everyday questions both in speech and writing.

Familiarity with the characteristics of formal writing (e.g. authorisation, acknowledgement, minutes, resume). Writing texts in these genres independently.

Elaborating a speech or an address either in part or in full, independently: introduction (obtaining the audience’s geniality, topic identification), narration, evidence, refutation, ending (summary, prospects).

Writing a simple essay on a subject concerning the artistic and literary life of a period during the history of thought and style.

Analysing a work independently according to a given aspect.
Learning skills
Solving exercises in various subjects by using diverse forms of communication and text types: definition, explanation, elaboration, classification, summary)

Expanding the methodology of individual data collection by adding computer databases and the opportunities offered by the Internet to the use of library catalogues and bibliographies

Selecting and systematising the appropriate information, preparing a simple bibliography, references.

Knowing and using the technical rules of processing information and using quotations.

The life and system of Hungarian language
Exploring the relations between linguistic norm and social need, and making decisions on the correctness of language use, on using the devices standard language, regional dialects, technical terminology and slang accordingly. Controlling one’s own language use.

Observing and evaluating the specific features of a few classic and modern speeches/addresses and essays (structure, linguistic expression, use of rhetoric devices).

Knowing and using reasoning techniques: deployment of arguments and counter-arguments, deductive or inductive reasoning, methods of refutation.

Naming rhetoric devices, interpreting their effects and evaluating their use in literary works, essays, journalism and oral statements. Expanding spelling skills: the spelling of proper names written in non-Latin letters and frequently used recent foreign words.

The relationship between reader and literature
Obtaining and expressing knowledge about the outstanding artists of Hungarian and European literature, the historically changing relationship between author, work and reader, the historical changes in literature and audience.

Describing the impact of a few standard works on contemporaries and later generations.

Showing a few basic examples of relations and parallels with contemporary artists.
Literary modes of expression
The steady application of recently acquired knowledge about genres and concepts during literary analysis.

Describing the typical view and stylistic devices of literary periods and styles learnt earlier with the help of recently acquired concepts.

Placing the read works into various contexts, e.g. the history of Hungarian literature, the author’s literary career.

Exploring the meaning, moral content and aesthetic tools in the discussed epic, lyric and dramatic works by using various text analytical techniques and genre theory.

Judgement, moral and aesthetic sensitivity
Describing the system of characters of learnt epic and dramatic works including their social and psychological motivations.

Identifying the values and behavioural patterns which drive the characters of literary works.

Exploring the relations between values and speech.

Hungarian language



Language variations

Stratification and norm in language use.

The various forms of expression, informational and behavioural requirements of language variations.

Stylistic stratification.

Differences between private and public written and oral communication. The form of dialogue and monologue.

Fundamental rhetoric skills

The technique of reasoning: deploying arguments, counter-arguments, deductive and inductive reasoning, the methods of refutation.

The linguistic devices of effective persuasion and expressing views in the various text genres.

The function, types and components of speeches (official address, presentation).

The steps of preparing, organising and developing a speech.

The requirements of making a speech (official address).

Text types

The summary and systematisation of the characteristics of the genre of narration, description and letter.

The listener’s needs and the speaker’s opportunities in various text types.

The characteristics of definition, explanation, and classification; the steps and stylistic requirements of elaborating an essay, study or paper.

Formal writing: authorisation, acknowledgement, minutes, resume.


The spelling of proper names written in non-Latin letters and frequently used recent foreign words

Using books and libraries

The role of library catalogues, computer databases and Internet in collecting information and working up topics.

The ethical norms and formal requirements of specifying the used sources.

Linguistic norm, language variations, the vertical and horizontal stratification of language: standard, everyday language, vernacular, regional standard.

The language of groups and hobbies.

Rhetoric: speech, address, persuasive genres; the parts of a speech: introduction (obtaining the audience’s geniality, topic identification), narration, evidence, refutation, ending (summary, prospects).

Reasoning: propositio (statement), arguments, counter-arguments, method of deduction or induction, refutation.

Text types, text varieties: definition, explanation, short essay, essay, study, paper, review, presentation; formal letter, authorisation, acknowledgement, minutes, resume.




Writers, poets and trends

A few authors and trends from the era of European and Hungarian enlightenment.

The literary portrait of Mihály Csokonai Vitéz and Dániel Berzsenyi

József Katona

Bánk bán - literary analysis and interpretation.

Romanticism in world literature

A few epic works or passages, two or three poems representing world literature in the 19th century.

Author - literary works - recipient

The analysis and interpretation of literary works written in verse and prose through creative discussion.

The literature of Hungarian romanticism

The literary portrait of Ferenc Kölcsey. Hymnus and three other poems written by him. Excerpts from his essays.

Three portrays

The literary portrait of Mihály Vörösmarty: Csongor és Tünde (Csongor and Tünde), Szózat (Proclamation) and four poems.

The detailed discussion of a novel or three or four short stories written by Mór Jókai.

Sándor Petőfi

Typical genre and themes in Petőfi’s life. Discussing entire works and passages written by him. At least ten works altogether including the ones already known.

János Arany

Typical genres and periods in the oeuvre. At least ten works altogether including the ones already known

Literary terms
Classicism, enlightenment, rococo, sentimentalism, romanticism; the reformation of Hungarian language; elegiac-ode, comical epic poem, rhapsody, romance, types of the novel: picaresque, letter, travelogue, thesis novel and historical novel, romaunt; verse types contrasting time periods and values; poems summarising life; encyclopaedia, irony, grotesque, pathos, rhetorised, mixing genres; classical stanzas: Aschlipiad’s stanza, Alcaius’s stanza, Sappho’s stanza; simultaneous verse.

Texts to memorise
Citing entire literary works and passages (at least five poems, a 20-25 lines from a prosaic work and a drama); using quotations in speech and writing in accordance with purpose and textual environment.
Authors and works
A közelítő tél (The Approaching Winter) and two other works by Dániel Berzsenyi; at least three works written by Mihály Csokonai Vitéz; Bánk bán by József Katona; Hymnus and three other poems written by Ferenc Kölcsey, passages from his essays; Csongor és Tünde (Csongor and Tünde), Szózat (Proclamation), A vén cigány (The Old Gypsy) and three other poems by Mihály Vörösmarty; Az apostol (The Apostle), A helység kalapácsa (The Hammer of the Place) and five other lyric poems written by Sándor Petőfi, e.g. A négyökrös szekér (The Four Ox Cart), A puszta télen (The Puszta in Winter), Egy gondolat bánt engemet (One Thought Is Hurting Me), Minek nevezzelek? (What to Call You), Pacsirtaszót hallok megint (I Can Hear the Lark’s Song Again) or others; Toldi estéje (Toldi’s Night) and six poems written by János Arany, including at least one ballad e.g. Letészem a lantot (I’ll Lay Down My Lute), A lejtőn (Downhill) , A tölgyek alatt (Under the Oaks), Epilógus (Epilogue), Mindvégig (From First to last), A tamburás öreg úr (The Old Man with the Tamburine), Ágnes asszony (Lady Agnes), Tengeri-hántás (Corn Stripping); Az arany ember (The Golden Man) or any other novel / three or four short stories written by Mór Jókai; at least two epic works in full or in part representing the world literature of the first half of the 19th century, e.g. by Hugo, Balzac, Stendhal, Dickens, Hoffmann, Puskin.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Silent reading ensuring the understanding of the read text, reading out texts, rightly paced, legible and neat handwriting. Selecting the appropriate tone, language and style which match the communicative situation. Familiarity with the norms of correct language use in educated standard Hungarian (regional standard), or the language variations.

Using arguments in literary reviews, to answer everyday questions and to solve exercises in various subjects. Writing definitions, explanations, simple essays (short essays) in connection with school work. Familiarity with the specific features of formal writing, writing texts of this genre independently. Familiarity with the rules and ethical norms of quotation. Public writing, interpreting a few classic and modern speeches. Expending spelling skills to cover the rules of proper names of known foreigners and frequently used new foreign borrowings.

Following views expressed in literary works and during in-class discussion. Understanding and reformulating others’ views. Observing and interpreting modes of expression, stylistic devices: giving a clear summary of discussed works.

Presenting knowledge about the outstanding authors of Hungarian and world literature in writing. Describing the specific features of the discussed literary periods and styles. Familiarity with the message and content of discussed epic, lyric and dramatic works.

Year 11
Number of teaching hours per year: 148 (language: 37, literature: 111)

New activities
Educated linguistic behaviour
Experience in assessing various speech situations; finding the appropriate style and attitude in unknown communicative situations.

Making well-grounded decisions in various issues of correct language use, style and rhetoric to ensure an accurate, clear and effective way of expression, and good written and oral communication.

Understanding texts
Understanding the metaphorical and metonymic meaning of technical-scientific texts and journalism through critical and creative reading.

Recognising and evaluating the unity of structure and style, level of detail and information content during the assessment of literary, technical texts and publications.

Developing a new recipient’s attitude for the reading and discussion of 20th century works, the justification of individual interpretation.

Comparing works according to thematic and poetic criteria in writing and speech.

Distinguishing allegorical and symbolic description, working out the levels of interpretation in such works
Creating texts
The ability to combine precise and educated mode of expression, in terms of using concepts, with a vivid and individual style.

Expressing individual views regarding the problems of everyday life, experience related to art and literature both in speech and writing, using various genres: account of experiences, squib, recommendation, report, short essay.

Creating a focussed and detailed text with a clear structure and high information content using an informative, argumentative, persuasive or polemic form.

Creative exercises to observe the stylistic possibilities of sentence and text structure, the emotional effect and stylistic value of words, the stylistic differences of various language strata.

Writing an individual analysis about a short epic work or lyric poem not discussed in class, according to various given aspects of analysis.

Introducing long epic works and dramas in speech and writing from various positions and to different audiences.

Distinguishing allegorical and symbolic description by working out the levels of interpretation in such works.

Learning skills
Applying analytical, semantic and holistic text analytical tools to interpret technical-scientific, educational, journalistic and public.

Identifying problems of text creation, editing and spelling. Correcting mistakes independently.

Data collection, selection of sources and making notes, drafts, references, bibliography according to individual criteria or for oral and written assignments requiring long preparation.

Creative application of popular scientific literature (e.g. literary analysis, cultural history, art history, linguistics) in the form of notes, reports, essays, presentations and interventions.

The life and system of Hungarian language
Using the names of discussed semantic and stylistic phenomena, applying this knowledge without help for literary analysis and to assess the linguistic phenomena of everyday life.

Discussing, interpreting and evaluating technical-scientific, journalistic, public and literary texts according to semantic and stylistic criteria (synonymous, multiple meaning, literal and implied meaning; figure of speech, trope, sound symbolism, pleasant acoustics etc.).

Understanding the message of literary works better by revealing connotative meaning.

Making use of semantic and stylistic studies in the enrichment of personal vocabulary and the improvement of a subtle way of expression depending on topic, audience and genre.

Observing the interpretative and aesthetic role of spelling in various texts; exploiting such possibilities for the creation of own texts.
Literary modes of expression
Observing, identifying and construing the transformation / dissolution of traditional genres: new novel types and novel structures, objective lyric poetry, complexity of tone, the role of grotesque and irony.

Comparing works according to given thematic and poetic criteria.

Noticing and identifying the joint effect of Hungarian / European tradition and modernity and its unique manifestations in an artist’s oeuvre or individual work.

Describing the typical features of stylistic trends or movements through some works of literature and fine arts (from impressionism to surrealism).

Linking trends to periods, classification, associating with typical features, characteristic works of art.
Literary education, judgement, moral and aesthetic sensitivity
Typical heroes, characteristic situations and conflicts (love, forgiveness, growing up, sin, punishment, lie, defencelessness etc.), perceiving, interpreting and discussing dilemmas arising from personality.
Sensing, perceiving and evaluating the micro-events and social content of human relationships.

Discussing and explaining the role of various mentalities, attitudes and world views in the shaping of an artist’s oeuvre.

Observing the effects of world view, social criticism and philosophy in one’s oeuvre, the individual works. The consideration and comparison of possible interpretations, the explanation of differences.

Observing and explaining the transformation of values, the process of searching for values and the crisis of values on the basis of one or several works. Drawing consequences.

Giving evidence of the stylistic diversity of the discussed period; drawing a few conclusions from the coexistence of various trends.

Hungarian language



Style and meaning in everyday language use

Semantics as the basis of stylistics: the structure of word meaning, semantic components; the relation between form and meaning, semantic field.

Denotative and connotative meaning.

Motivated and unmotivated words.

Elements of style, stylistic effect, permanent and temporary stylistic value.

Violations of correct language use and poor style in everyday speech.

Forms of individual expression in the various technical-scientific, public, journalistic and conversational stylistic layers.

The literary style

Sound symbolism, rhythmic phenomena.

Tropes from a linguistic point of view.

Figures of speech, various types of repetition on the level of sound, word usage, sentence and text.

Other stylistic devices in the use of words, sentence and text creation.


The possibilities of using spelling to reflect sense and aesthetic value in literary and other texts.

Literary terms
Semantic structure, semantic component, semantic field, rules of sign usage; denotative and connotative meaning; motivated and unmotivated; stylistic element, stylistic effect, permanent and temporary stylistic value, figurative language.

Figures of speech: metaphor, simile, synaesthesy, metonymy, synecdoche, complex poetic image; tropes: ellipsis, missing conjunction, repetition, parallel thoughts; syntactic stylistic devices: verbal style, nominal style, periodic style, grammatical metaphor, sound symbolism, onomatopoeia, emotive style, alliteration, enjambement, figura etimologica; expressiveness, euphemism, evocation, archaism, individual word formation, poetising.




Imre Madách

The Tragedy of Man - literary analysis and discussion.

World literature -

fiction, lyric poetry, drama

Works and passages from the fiction, drama and lyrical poetry written in the second half of the 19th century.

One work in full or in part written by Gogol, Tolstoy or Dostoyevski

A play by Czekhov or Ibsen; a symbolist and/or impressionist lyrical poem.

Portrays from Hungarian fiction

A novel or novelette and at least two short stories written by Kálmán Mikszáth. Two short storeys written by Gyula Krúdy. A novel and two short storey by Zsigmond Móricz.

Endre Ady

Typical themes and periods in the oeuvre. At least eight works showing thematic diversity. More extensive study of one cycle and a journalistic piece.

Portrays from the first generation of the periodical Nyugat

Three works written by Frigyes Karinthy including at least two fictions; two poems by Gyula Juhász and Árpád Tóth each; a few works written by the authors of the periodical Nyugat (e.g. Margit Kaffka, Géza Csáth, Milán Füst).

Mihály Babits

Characteristic themes, periods and genres within the oeuvre. At least eight works, including Jónás könyve (Book of Jonah) and a passage from an essay or study.

Dezső Kosztolányi

Characteristic themes, periods and genres within the oeuvre. At least two short stories, one novel, five poems and an essay or an extract from an essay.

Stylistic trends, images,


Works representing European and Hungarian Avant-garde (e.g. Apollinaire, Lajos Kassák).

Literary terms
Positivism, naturalism, impressionism, symbolism, Art Nouveau, Avant-garde, futurism, expressionism, surrealism, activism; expressive lyric poetry, role poem, poems addressing the self, image poem; developmental novel, career novel, polyphonic novel, novel sequence, short story, sequence, dramatic poem, analytic drama, non-dramatic drama, tragicomedy; essay, sketch; parody, simultanism, scenery, vision, polyphony, heroic type, paraphrase, poem with a mixed rhythm, free verse.

Texts to memorise
Citing entire literary works and passages (at least five poems, a 20-25 lines from a prosaic work and a drama); using quotations in speech and writing in accordance with purpose and textual environment.
Authors and works
Az ember tragédiája (The Tragedy of Man) by Imre Madách; a novel or novelette written by Kálmán Mikszáth, at least two novels by Gyula Krúdy; a novel by Zsigmond Móricz, e.g. Az isten háta mögött (Behind the Back of God), Árvácska (The Little Orphan), Tündérkert (Elf-Garden) plus two of his novels; Az eltévedt lovas (The Lost Rider), A Sion-hegy alatt (Under Zion) , and six other poems written by Endre Ady, e.g. Góg és Magóg fia vagyok én (I am the Son of Góg and Magóg), Kocsi-út az éjszakában (Ride into the Night), A Tisza-parton (On the Bank of the Tisza). Az ős Kaján (The Ancient Fiend), Héja-nász az avaron (Hawk Wedding on Fallen Leaves); De ha mégis? (But What If?), plus one of his journalistic works; Tanár úr kérem (Please Sir) and two other works written by Frigyes Karinthy; two poems written by Gyula Juhász and Tóth Árpád each; a few works written by the authors of the periodical Nyugat, e.g. Margit Kaffka, Géza Csáth, Milán Füst; Jónás könyve and at least seven other works written by Mihály Babits, including Esti kérdés (Evening Question), Balázsolás (Celebrating Balázs Day), and an excerpt from an essay or study; at least two short storeys, one novel, a few poems, and an essay, either in part or in full, written by Dezső Kosztolányi; a work by Gogol, Tolstoy or Dostoyevski, either in full or in part; a play by Ibsen or Czekhov; Avant-garde authors and works from Hungarian and world literature, e.g. two works by Lajos Kassák and Apollinaire.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Experience in assessing various speech situations; finding the appropriate style and attitude in unknown communicative situations.

Forming an individual opinion during the discussion of the read 20th century literary and other works, and justifying such opinion.

Focussed utterance with a clear structure using an informative, argumentative, persuasive or polemic form. Expressing views regarding the problems of everyday life, experience related to art and literature both in speech and writing, using various genres: commentary, recommendation, report, short essay. Identifying problems of text creation, editing and spelling. Correcting mistakes independently. Library research and data collection according to individual or given criteria, for oral and written assignments requiring long preparation, and by observing the rules of information processing.

Using the names of discussed semantic and stylistic phenomena, and applying these terms for the interpretation of technical-scientific and literary texts. Observing the interpretative role of spelling in texts of various genres. The analysis of a short epic or a lyric work not discussed in class, according to given criteria. Presenting long epic and dramatic works in speech and in writing. Comparing works according to various thematic and poetic criteria. Describing and explaining characteristic heroic types and conflict situations. Identifying the characteristic features of stylistic trends in a few works of literature and fine arts (from impressionism to surrealism).

Year 12
Number of teaching hours per year: 128 (language: 32, literature: 96)

New activities
Educated linguistic behaviour
Summarising knowledge about personal, community and public communication. Applying this knowledge in language use in all speech situations and to assess linguistic phenomena, to polish one’s own linguistic performance and to correct one’s own mistakes.

Conscious use of communicative criteria for the analysis and evaluation of various texts: to judge communicative function, presuppositions, frame of knowledge, pragmatic meaning, etc.

Developing a reader’s attitude by taking literature’s form of existence into account, forming opinions supported by emotional and rational arguments, the objective expression of views.
Understanding texts
Developing a critical acumen for the consideration of the conciseness, coherence, structural and stylistic quality of texts written in various genres and topics, and for the recognition and reconstruction of the author’s presuppositions and position.

Revealing and discussing the social and historical background and meaning of texts on the basis of the study of the history of language and literature.

Reading and working with simple texts in the field of the history of literature and linguistics. Incorporating the information conveyed by them into the learnt material.

The application of what is called the interaction of text and the reader’s knowledge of the world (previous knowledge, experience of life, emotions, ideas).

An unbiased approach to the reception and understanding of contemporary literary texts with unusual structure and language, and the reception of works attempting to rewrite and reinterpret Hungarian and European textual traditions.
Creating texts
Multiple approaches to and the discussion of a given or individually defined problem. Considering the diversity of the various aspects of discussion, justifying decisions.

Experience in writing studies and essays with correct spelling, language use, spare but individual style.

Genuine and focussed oral presentation using various forms of communication (e.g. description, comparison, elaboration, summary) suitable for the topic of speech.

Expressing familiarity with a wide range of literary and other readings and personal involvement in writing and speech, in a manner suitable for the genre and topic in question.

Learning skills
Writing a longer paper as a means of preparing for further education: work in the library, professional collection and organisation of material, elaboration, indicating and using the information of sources.

Orientation in contemporary literary publications, e.g. anthologies, the genres popular works on literature (book reviews) use, certain issues of adapting literature to television and film.

Thematic orientation in the printed and electronic sources of information (e.g. literary databases, CD-ROM, Hungarian electronic library), selecting and reorganising information for the discussion of literary and other questions.

Collecting, selecting and evaluating arguments used for the explanation or discussion of a moral dilemma or literary experience.

The life and system of Hungarian language
Applying general linguistic knowledge to create awareness of approach to language use and correct judgement of concrete linguistic phenomena.

Finding appropriate answers to questions of language conservation knowing that the current state of the language is the result of historical development, synchrony and diachrony as well as the stratification of language and society are inseparable.

Sufficient knowledge about the relationship of Hungarian to other languages, its type and place among the languages of the world.

Linking knowledge about the historical stages of the development of the Hungarian language with the history of literature.

Knowledge and opinion on some fundamental questions of language planning (e.g. guarding and cultivating the language).

Knowing the various theories on the roots of the Hungarian language, rejecting unscholarly approaches and showing unbiased interest in new scientific research.

In the possession of historic and descriptive linguistic knowledge, developing a mature attitude towards the preservation and active protection of the values of the Hungarian language.

Preparing for the secondary school leaving examination and further education by reviewing what has been learnt about the system of the Hungarian language and the role of speech in society and personal life.

Literary modes of expression
The coherence of topic, composition, language and motives in the read works; observing signs of attempts to change the language of literature.

Gradual expansion of analytic skills by the inclusion of textual, semantic, stylistic, rhetoric knowledge.

Drawing conclusions from the genre and trend related features of recently read works, their stylistic features, diction, verse form, by using appropriate literary terms.

Observing the changing meaning of the terminology of genres and poetry, and giving evidence of it by using terms appropriately with respect to specific works, topic and context.

The comparison of works from different ages from a thematic and poetic aspect. The investigation of their changes in the course of history.

Illustrating the interaction between different branches of art (literature, music, architecture, fine arts, theatre, film) with the help of examples.

The determination of world view, philosophy and form of behaviour in various periods, and their artistic expression: comparing the thematic features and modes of expressions of two different branches of art in at least one period.

Describing theatre in different ages on the basis of theatrical conventions related to plays read or seen.

Literary education, judgement, moral and aesthetic sensitivity
Giving evidence of familiarity with various author’s literary portray and oeuvre.

Studying the survival and impact of some authors in literary tradition, contemporary literature and art (e.g. Attila József, Dezső Kosztolányi, Mihály Babits).

Observing and discussing typical trends and attitudes in the expression of the problems of the recent past and the present.

Collecting and studying contemporary literary texts to find evidence of the interdependence and interconnectivity of literary texts. Proving evocation.

Using a few examples to prove that literature is a continuous process and a historically changing tradition at the same time.

The main features of the various periods of Hungarian literature: facts and examples from the discussed works.

Fundamental chronological and topographic knowledge.

Comparing oeuvres on the basis of ideas, themes and motives used by the authors.

Developing a good personal view of contemporary culture.

Learning about the cultural and literary heritage of the region and the community, and the local institutions disseminating culture.

Illustrating literary borderline cases with the help of a few examples: works and genres which can be linked to other branches of art, established and emerging ‘genres’ which are outside the field of aesthetic judgement, but influence people’s taste and world view (e.g. folklore, mass culture, music).

Studying and explaining the attraction and pitfalls of light reading; the presentation of its typical genres, situations and motives.

Hungarian language



General linguistic knowledge

Language as a sign system.

Speech acts.

Language and thought; the relationship between Hungarian language and culture.

Families and types of European languages.

The history of the Hungarian language

Change and stability in language.

The origins and relatives of the Hungarian language. Contact with other languages (spatial connections).

The methodology of comparative linguistics.

The main periods of the history of the Hungarian language.

The evolution of the Hungarian sound system and grammatical system, changes of meaning.

The milestones of the history of spelling.

Language and society

Modern Hungarian, and variations in contemporary Hungarian language: dialects, argot.

Hungarian language beyond the borders.

Principles and objectives of language planning.

Summary and systematisation of what has been learnt about the mother tongue

The factors and functions of communication.

The requirements of educated individual and collective communicative behaviour.

The grammar of linguistic levels (phonetics, morphology, syntax).

The definition of text.

The connection between the formal and thematic features of various text types and the process of communication.

The essay.

Sign, sign system, speech act; Indo-European languages, Finno-Ugric languages, main types of languages; comparative linguistics, diachrony, synchrony; linguistic monuments, sporadic monuments, inserted text, codex, ancient script; ancient words, borrowed words and foreign words, internal word formation; he historical periods of the Hungarian language: period without monuments, ancient Hungarian, old Hungarian, middle Hungarian, period of neology, modern period, contemporary Hungarian language use, pidgin, bilingualism.

The Funeral Oration, Old Hungarian Lament to Mary, the ‘Mondolat’ debate, the achievements of neologists György Bessenyei and Ferenc Kazinczy, János Sajnovics, Antal Reguly, the Dictionary of the History and Ethimology of Hungarian Language (TESZ).




Attila József

Characteristic themes and periods in the poet’s oeuvre. At least eight or ten works showing thematic diversity.

Hungarian literary portrays

Five works written by Lőrinc Szabó, including passages from one lyric cycle; one prosaic and two poems by Gyula Illyés; four works by Miklós Radnóti, including at least one eclogue.

Authors and works

Two works by László Németh, including one essay, either in full or in part; one or two works by Sándor Márai, including a passage from a fiction.

World literature in the 20th century - Part I.

One work or passage by at least one of the following authors: Franz Kafka, Thomas Mann, Hemingway, Garcia Lorca, Brecht, Bulgakov.

Fiction, lyric poetry and drama

A novel, a passage from a novel or two novelettes by Géza Ottlik; two or three works by Sándor Weöres, including one composition in several movements, e.g.. symphony, cycle; two or three poems and a prosaic work by János Pilinszky; four works by István Örkény, including one-minute stories and a play.

World literature in the 20th century - Part II.

Works of fiction, passages from works of fiction, a full work or passages written by three different authors as a minimum, at least one drama: e.g Camus, Golding, Garcia Marquez, Hesse, Orwell, Solzhenitzin, Dürrenmatt, Beckett, Hrabal.

Contemporary Hungarian literature

Works and passages from contemporary Hungarian literature in Hungary and beyond the borders, written by at least three different authors, e.g. László Nagy, Ágnes Nemes Nagy, Domokos Szilágyi, István Vas and others. (Two or three poems, one essay or other prosaic passage.)

At least one novel representing Hungarian literature in the second half of the 20th century.

The borderline of literature

The mode of existence of literature adapted to film and television, lyrics of songs, and in virtual reality.

Literary terms
Existentialism, postmodernism, mass culture, virtual world; eclogue, idyll, bucolic poetry, objective poetry, four liner, one liner, long poem; sonnet sequence, essay novel; absurd drama, epic drama and theatre; sociography; Utopia; counter-Utopia; diary, complex image, changing planes; archetype, myth, parable, absurd; subjective time, objective time.

Texts to memorise
Citing entire literary works and passages (at least five poems, a 20-25 lines from a prosaic work and a drama).

Using quotations in speech and writing in accordance with purpose and textual environment.

Authors and works
Óda and eight or ten other works written by Attila József, at least one of the following optional poems: Külvárosi éj (Night in the Outskirts of the City), A város peremén (On the Edge of Town), Téli éjszaka (A Winter Night), and at least one of the following poems: Karóval jöttél...(You Came with a Stick), Tudod, hogy nincs bocsánat (You Know There Is No Forgiveness), Bukj föl az árból (Come out of the Tide), Talán eltűnök hirtelen...(I May Disappear Suddenly), Íme, hát megleltem hazámat (Lo, I Have Found My Home); five works by Lőrinc Szabó, including passages from a sequence; one prosaic work by Gyula Illyés, e.g. Puszták népe (The People of the Puszta), or one passage of the foregoing and two poems; four works by Miklós Radnóti, including one eclogue; one fiction, in full or in part, and one essay by László Németh; one work or a passage from a fiction written by Sándor Márai; One novel by Géza Ottlik, e.g. Iskola a határon (The School on the Border), or two novelettes; two or three works by Sándor Weöres, including one composition in several movements; two poems and one essay by János Pilinszky and Ágnes Nemes Nagy each, four works by István Örkény, including one-minute stories and one play; works and passages from contemporary Hungarian literature, at least one novel representing Hungarian literature in the second half of Hungarian literature.

One work or passage by at least two authors representing 20th century world literature, e.g. a few short stories or a passage from a novel by Franz Kafka; one or two short stories or a passage from a novel by Thomas Mann; short stories or a passage from a novel by Hemingway; some lyric poems by Garcia Lorca; one play by Brecht; one work or a passage by Bulgakov, e.g. The Master and Margaret; works and passages and at least one play by the following: Camus, Garcia Marquez, Golding, Hesse, Orwell, Solzhenitzin, Dürrenmatt, Beckett, Hrabal.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Reading ability ensuring understanding of text; making an effort to use neat, legible handwriting and correct spelling in every written work. Applying knowledge of face to face, community, private and public communication in personal language use and for the interpretation of various text genres.

Understanding new technical, journalistic and practical texts. Creating precise text with a clear structure in speech and writing regarding the problems of life and literary experiences. Using the opportunities offered by a library for individual assignments: collection and organisation of material, quotation according to the established practice and rules.

Familiarity with the relations and type of the Hungarian language. Its place among the languages of the world, its main historic periods, examples of major linguistic changes.

The interpretation of the social-historical background and meaning of the read literary and non-literary texts on the basis of what has been learnt about the history of language and literature. Writing essays and studies using correct spelling, correct language use, clear but individual style. Making a genuine oral presentation, review and summary in accordance with the topic and purpose of speech. A thematic and poetic comparison of works representing different periods.

Giving evidence of familiarity with various authors’ oeuvres: presenting the milestones of a literary career as well as the diversity of themes and forms. Noticing and evaluating connections between and common themes of different works. Demonstrating a few changes of theme, genre and topic in the oeuvre in line with the specific features of the various oeuvres. The presence of authors discussed earlier in the 20th century, their impact on literary tradition. Portray: the author and the author’s work through the presentation of the typical topics and genres in the oeuvre.
Another possible approach for teaching Hungarian language based on the material learnt in years 9 and 10 is described in the following section of the Framework Curriculum.

Year 11
Number of teaching hours per year: 37

New activities
Educated linguistic behaviour
The systematisation and extensive application of rules pertaining to the relation between communicative situation and language use.

Collecting examples to illustrate the changes and cultural determination of the norms of language use.

Discussing and evaluating the accidental and deliberate violence of the norms of language use and rules of grammar (e.g. as a source of stylistic effect or as a sign of linguistic difficulties / disadvantages).

Discussing topical issues of correct language use from the point of view of applying grammatical rules and norms of languages use. The form of discussion should be presentation, review and debate.

Collecting examples to illustrate the norms of language use in a foreign language being learnt. Comparing these norms with the ones in Hungarian (e.g addressing people informally and formally).

The evaluation and application of sound symbolism as a tool of linguistic expressiveness.

Understanding and creating texts
Identifying language variations and registers in written and spoken texts.

Creating oral and written texts by using the rules and norms of different language variations and registers.

Comparing artificial texts (i.e. scientific conventions or programme languages) with their counterparts in natural language.

Solving and correcting typical translation problems / errors.

Practising understanding on the basis of the relation between meaning and context (identifying and applying dictionary meaning vs. contextual meaning, grammatical vs. situational meaning, and explain the relations between them).

Learning skills
The interpretation of multimedia texts.

Practising the routine application of linguistic and other scientific formalism (e.g. graphs, formalised rules, figures).

Identifying and formulating rules, norms, tendencies, relationships.

Gathering information from departures from rules and norms.

Comparing linguistic and non-linguistic structures (e.g. the relation of form and meaning, concrete manifestation of general rules, the equivalency of units).
The life and system of Hungarian language
The explanation of the relation between language, grammar and language use with the help of examples.

Revealing the content of proficiency in the mother tongue through activities such as collecting and systematising.

Collecting examples to illustrate specific and common features of Hungarian and the foreign language being learnt (e.g. agreement, definite vs. indefinite conjugation).

Demonstrating the relations among the various linguistic levels by creating words and sentences.

Exercises in word and sentence formation to observe the role of various components (i.e. word components, words) and modes of construction in the determination of meaning.

Identifying sources of homonymy and synonymy, and their systematisation on the various levels of the language.

Identifying the system of Hungarian phonemes within the structure of words and word-forms.

Illustrate phonetic rules in other languages with the help of examples.



Language, grammar,

language use

Language as a system of components and rules.

Natural and artificial languages.

Grammar as the model of proficiency in the mother tongue.

Language use as practice based on language proficiency (in the mother tongue) and influenced by non-linguistic norms.

The relation between form and meaning in Hungarian and other languages

The role of phonemes in the differentiation of meaning.

Synonymy, polysemy on the level of words, word components and sentences.

Grammatical vs. situational meaning.

Motivated word meaning.

Stress, intonation and meaning.

The stylistics of everyday language and literary use.

Phonetic analyses

The Hungarian system of phonemes.

Phonetic rules.

Some characteristics of the phonological structure of Hungarian words.

The reasons why sounds have an effect on each other.

Phonemes in dialects.

The main features of dialects and contact variations.

Sign, sign system, model, rule, norm; language type; pidgin, bilingual, dialect; figures of speech: metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche; meaning component, motivation, denotative and connotative meaning; sound symbolism, onomatopoeia, expressing mood; poetisation; expressiveness.
Prerequisites of moving ahead
Understanding the relation between language and language use. A conscious adherence to norms of language use. The identification and characterisation of literary style, defining the main tools used in literary style. Understanding the relation of speech sounds and phonemes, familiarity with the most important phonetic rules, adherence to them in speech and writing, if necessary.
Year 12
Number of teaching hours per year: 32

New activities
Educated linguistic behaviour
Conversion of statements expressed by creating nominal or attributive structures embedding sentences and co-ordinate clauses; placing them into various situations.

Proper names, pet names, creating names by consciously using appropriate acoustic structure, the possibility provided by form and connotative meaning.

Pronunciation and spelling of words with foreign origin in Hungarian texts.

Collecting, explaining and correcting errors related to government and conjugation.

Practising how to exploit the opportunities provided by the system of Hungarian verb forms (e.g. the declining ‘ik’-conjugation) and word order in speech.

Listening, reading, interpreting and assessing texts in dialects.

Understanding and creating texts
Exercises to use the meaning of background sentences for the interpretation and creation of texts.

Interpreting and creating texts with different level of detail.

Correcting texts lacking the necessary amount of detail.

Correcting texts without coherence by inserting references to previous and further parts of the text, omission.

Indicating logical-rhetorical information expressed by sentence accent and intonation in written texts.

Identifying archaism.

Stylistic exercises in the application of archaism (e.g. use of archaic verb forms, typical forms of address in different periods, conversational phrases).
Learning skills
Exercises facilitating the identification and application of the relations between word order, accent, stress, intonation and the logical-rhetorical structure of sentences.

The separation of old and new information within a sentence.

Interpreting and correcting texts not containing the appropriate amount of information (e.g. redundancy, digression, vacant and scruffy texts).

Identifying and applying generalisation contained by formalism.

Transformation of text of formulae and natural texts.

Explaining and applying the function of monosemy and polysemy in various texts.

The life and system of Hungarian language
Comparing verbs with various forms of government.

Reviewing and systematising the criteria related to the classification word components and word classes. Explaining borderline cases.

Graphical representation of simple and complex sentences, and identifying their meaning.

Exploring and applying the rules governing word order in Hungarian syntactic units and sentences.

The graphical representation of sentence structure.

Comparing the meaning related to word order variations.

Analysing homonymy of word order.

The study of the origins, kindred and historical periods of Hungarian language. The main issues related to the contemporary state of the Hungarian language.



Analysis of word class and morphological structure

The morphological typology of Hungarian language.

General grammatical relations, morphological structure in Hungarian: case, agreement, active and passive forms.

Designation of time, mood, number and person of subject.


Syntactic analyses

The rules governing Hungarian syntax and complements in the syntactic structure.

The structural location and semantics of syntactical functions.

The place of the verb prefix, its aspect indicating function.

The syntactic structure and semantic content of the main types of complex sentences.

Word order and morphological structure in Hungarian

The classification of the Hungarian language based on word order.

The logical-rhetorical function of word order in Hungarian.

The state and change of the language

The origins, kindred and historical periods of the Hungarian language.

The natural process of change and intervention.

The role of neology and language cultivation.

Illustrating linguistic problems / questions in written and oral genres.

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