Framework curricula for secondary schools


Number of teaching hours per year: 148 (language: 37, literature: 111)



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Number of teaching hours per year: 148 (language: 37, literature: 111)

New activities
Educated linguistic behaviour
The application of knowledge about the factors and functions of communication for the critical and knowledgeable interpretation of the genres of mass communication.

Gaining experience in recognising manipulative intentions; critical attitude towards false judgements.

Creative exercises: creating written and oral texts in the genres of mass communication; creating audio-visual text with the appropriate arrangement of pictures, graphics and typographic elements (editing student paper or other publication).

Recognising problems of communication in literary works and in-class discussion; trying to identify reasons and finding solutions.

Recognising perceptible manipulative intentions in literary characters’ behaviour.

Interpreting characters’ body language (non-verbal means of expression) in the world of theatre and film.


Understanding texts
Transformation of texts by changing point of view, preparing summaries of given length, working with texts on the basis of questions and aspects.

The exploration of the macro- and microstructure of texts, the relations between the whole and its parts in technical-scientific, journalistic and literary texts.

Working out the extra meaning conveyed by the communicative situation or the specific organisation of the read literary text.

Comparing various possible interpretations with one another and the work being interpreted during the analytical presentation of at least one literary work.

Exercises to understand texts written in other than standard Hungarian (e.g. archaic, elliptic, complex sentence structure).
Creating texts
Creating the appropriate text in various communicative situations (who, for whom, in what form): considering structure, articulation, level of detail, content, coherence, mode of expression and genre in various topics.

Appropriate utterance depending on addressee, topic, speech situation and expressing personal involvement.

Taking an individual position in various genres, e.g. squib, review, book review, presentation, on the basis of collating the arguments of evaluations expressing different views.

Creative exercises taking the position of the ‘co-author’. Description of characters from another character’s point of view, narrating scenes with changed tone, writing stanzas, creating alternative endings, rewriting stories from a new point of view, completing blanks in a text, reorganising the order of sections or lines.

Formulating characters’ presumable thoughts in relation with a given dramatic situation.

Writing director’s instructions for a scene: stage-set, stage movements, costumes.


Learning skills
Experience in making notes or the draft of a written text or presentation.

Working with lectures and studies, systematisation of data through individual or group work.

Expanding the material learnt at school by adding the results of research done in the library independently, selecting, evaluating and using various types of documents (e.g. books, periodicals, video, multimedia, CD) in a given or chosen topic.
The life and system of Hungarian language
Naming the concepts having learnt about the rules and set of elements pertaining to the various levels of the language. Applying theory independently in analytical and composition exercises. Exploring the micro- and macrostructure of texts: the investigation and evaluation of the role of paragraphs, references, relations and grammatical agreement.

Analysing journalistic, technical-scientific and public texts with various content independently by describing the structure, the thematic network, the semantic layers and the logical relations between the text components.

The consideration of word order, actual articulation and meaning.

The ability to correct mistakes and exercise self-control independently based on the knowledge of the grammatical principals of the Hungarian language.

Familiarity with and application of the possibility of using spelling to reflect meaning.

Knowing and perceiving the role of phonetic devices in the text, and mastering the application of these tools to interpret and read out various texts and to recite texts learnt by heart.


The relationship between reader and literature
Literature as the model of reality and a created world.

Knowing a few examples of the historical assumptions about meaning and effect as well as how these assumptions changed. The historical aspects of interpretation and the transmission of meaning.

Gathering experience on the impact of the two major sources of European and Hungarian literature, i.e. Greco-Latin antiquity and the Bible system as well as how these traditions are used as a common system of reference.

The ability to recognise certain archetypes, recurring motives (e.g. seasons, island, mountain, garden, fire, travelling). Putting them into the context of motives in the works discussed.




Literary modes of expression
Recognising the structure of time and events in epic works. Differentiating between various plots in case of a narrative with several strands. Exploring the relationship between the structure of events and the structure of text.

Making distinctions between author, narrator and characters, perceiving viewpoints, identifying the narrator’s viewpoint, the speech situation (perspective) and understanding their functions in the works read.

Recognising references to future events and retardation, and identifying the role of such devices.

Interpreting the function of descriptions and identifying the tools of characterisation.

Distinguishing the real-life character of the poet from the lyrical self speaking in lyric poems.

Describing the speech situation, and the relationship between the addressee and the addressed in poems.

Identifying some decisive elements of lyrical composition (e.g. speech situation, chronological structure, logical structure, refrain).

Naming the tone, genre and verse type of lyric poems.

Familiarity with various types of rhythmic patterns and rhymes, their emotional effect, knowing a few verse forms. Recognising the role of acoustic pattern used in the works discussed.

The definition of drama as a genre and its characteristics. Describing the components and structure of the plot; identifying text types in dramatic works.

Recognising the handling of time, space and plot in the learnt dramatic works. Comparing parallel scenes, the epic and dramatic plot organisation with the handling of time.

Defining and characterising tragedy and the tragic hero.

Presenting the dramatic conflict, the relationship between action and diction, the written drama and the performance.

Characterising the relationship and interaction of drama and theatre with respect to a few major periods in the history of European theatre and acting.

Orientation in the chronological history and geography of literature based on the knowledge of literature and cultural history.

Placing read works in the right period, recalling a few important details of the authors’ biography.

Noticing the typical topics and problems of various periods in the discussed literary works and essays.

The impact of certain literary works in their own age, and the significance of these works for later generations.

Recognising relations between the early period of European literature and Hungarian literary works from later periods.

Recognising contemporary relations between literature and other branches of art in the works discussed.


Judgement, moral and aesthetic sensitivity
Using the experience of the function of literature as a tool to help self-understanding and self-interpretation.

Recognising and identifying human roles, group standards and values appearing in literary works.

Characterising differing and conflicting truths, different behavioural reactions triggered by the same question.

Writing a position paper on the values of a literary work or one of its characters.

Highlighting theses of interpretations, and supporting or refuting them with one’s own arguments.

Hungarian language


TOPICS

CONTENTS


Mass communication

Review of the factors and functions of the communication process.

The dominant genres used by radio and television for transmitting information. The linguistic form of expression related to them, the common and specific features of the tools used to create an impact.



The grammar of various grammatical levels

Phonetics: the sounds and phonetic rules of the Hungarian language. Morphology: word components, word roots, affix, marker, suffix - their relations and variations. Word classes: the definition and system of word classes. Syntax: sentence classification, syntactic units, simple and complex sentences. Semantics: the relationship of word form and meaning on various linguistic levels. .




The structure and syntactic level of text

Text and sentence, text sentence, system sentence.

Structure of texts, textual unit.

The syntactic level of texts, the grammatical tools of cohesion.

Logical relations, the cohesive role of absence.

The relationship between the word order of a sentence and its textual integration, its actual articulation.




The meaning of the text

The semantic and the pragmatic level. The relationship between text and the communication process.

Dictionary meaning and lexical meaning.

Thematic network, thesis sentence, key words.

The role of text phonetic devices in the determination of meaning.



Spelling

Punctuation.

Spelling principles in the Hungarian language.



Using books and libraries

Working up topics by using various verbal, audio-visual and digital information carriers.




Terminology
The genres of mass communication used for informing, shaping opinions and disseminating knowledge: article, squib, review, critique, commentary, interview, report.

Text, textual sentence, system sentence, textual units: paragraph, block, section; cohesion (linear, global); connecting devices: conjunction, article, adverb, references back and forward, agreement within the text; the cohesive role of absence; semantic layers, thematic network, thesis, key word; fixed and communicative (free) word order, actual articulation: old and new information (theme, rheme) ; text phonetic devices.

Punctuation: the role of dash, parenthesis, colon and quotation marks. Spelling principles: the principles of pronunciation, word analysis, tradition and simplification.

Literature


TOPICS

CONTENTS


Author - literary works - recipient

The analysis and interpretation of literary works written in verse and prose through creative discussion.




Myth and literature

The literature of antiquity

Mythological stories, Hungarian folk-poetry.

Characteristic excerpts from the Iliad and Odyssey.

Selected Greek and Roman lyric poetry (at least four pieces).

The Greek drama: a drama written by Sophocles.



The Bible and its impact on literature

Selected passages from the Old and New Testaments.

Recurring Biblical themes in Hungarian literature.



The literature of the Middle Ages

A selection of European and Hungarian medieval literature. At least five works illustrating the variety of topics and genres (hymns and legends).





Portrays, lyric poems and prose from European and Hungarian Renaissance literature

Janus Pannonius and Bálint Balassi - poet portrays.

The literature of Hungarian reformation.



Portrays from Hungarian Baroque literature

Miklós Zrínyi and the Baroque epic poem.

Excerpts from the works of Péter Pázmány and Kelemen Mikes.



From the history of European theatre

Shakespeare’s dramas. The discussion of at least one play.

The drama of the French classicism.




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