Framework curricula for secondary schools

Prerequisites of moving ahead

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Prerequisites of moving ahead
Marching and formation used at events according to commands. Performing free exercises containing two 8 phased basic forms with hand apparatus or partner according to instructions, designing and executing a series of 4-8 phased exercises, doing exercises improving posture. Maintaining or improving physical condition. Improved measurable athletic performance, established technical implementation. Performing a short series of exercises on a selected apparatus with assistance. Active participation in two selected sports games, playing according to the rules. Active participation in some outdoor sport. Active participation in one to one fights. Continuous swimming in both styles, swimming at least 25 meters in one style.

Year 12
Number of teaching hours per year: 64

New activities
Using commands necessary for managing the class and executing events. Walking and running with various pace, performing transition. Gymnastics with hand apparatus, exercises with partner, bench and wall bars based on free exercises (3/4 basic forms, 8/16 phases). Exercises improving posture. Improvement of physical condition. Secure execution of various movements in athletics, competitions, racing.

Performing a series of exercises consisting of 3/4 elements on the selected apparatus in gymnastics. Applying the learnt techniques and tactics while playing the selected sports games (at least two. Precise knowledge of rules. Active participation in outdoor sports. Practising the learnt fighting techniques, competitions. Continuous swimming in both styles, striving for the extension of distance. Using wrestling and judo techniques and playing situations in real situations in games (blocking a player, defending a spot).




Running in one / two or more columns and keeping the pace.

Turning body while running on the spot and forward.

Advances and dropping behind while running.

March, counter march, cross cutting counter march while running.

Preparation, groundwork, prevention

According to the requirements of Year 11, however with exercises containing 3 or 4 8 to 16 phased exercises or free exercises with hand apparatuses and exercises on an apparatus.

Exercises ensuring a biomechanically correct posture.

Gymnastics with music.


Special, focussed and skills development exercises needed to acquire the various branches of athletics.


Dynamic force of legs: knee bending, stretching, hopping, jumping up, jumping across using apparatus or weights.

Arms: throwing exercises with a 3-5 kg medicine ball, increasing the weight of the bll and the number of repetitions.

Rope-climbing, hanging, ‘roaming’ in hanging position.

Rope climbing and hanging competition.

Exercises to strengthen the body muscles: using apparatuses and hand apparatuses, exercises to strengthen the abdominal / back and lateral muscles, changing number of repetitions and intensity.

Improving speed: practising start, competitions with different starting positions.

Rapid execution of complex exercises with / on apparatus.

Improving endurance: intervals to improve strength and skills.

Running at medium pace trying to establish a steady rhythm.

Running parts of a race repeatedly with inserted resting periods.

Running a given distance without stops, running increased distances within a given time, decreasing the targeted time.

100 meter fast run.

60 to 100 meter racing.

30m races with standing and kneeling start

Running with increasing speed, running at a high speed.


High jump with chosen technique.

Continuous improvement of technique, striving for perfection in performing the various elements of the jump, developing an optimal individual run-up.

High jump competitions.

Long jump with chosen technique.

Improving technique, increasing performance by developing an optimal individual run-up.

Long jump competitions.

Throwing a small ball: improving what have been learnt in Year 11,

focusing on distance with full run-up.

Throwing competitions.

Shot-put: shot-putting with correct direction and angle.

Improving technique.

Shot putting competitions.

Gymnastics type exercises

Special stretching, loosening and strengthening done individually.

Improving balance by means of focused gymnastics.

Gymnastics on the apparatus

Floor exercises


Creating a series of exercises by creatively linking elements learnt in Years 9 through 12 and using connecting elements.
Jumping over a box

Male students: lengthways (5 pieces) practising jumping techniques learnt earlier.

Crossways: somersault.

Female students: crossways (5 pieces), practising jumping techniques learnt earlier, somersault.

Parallel bars (male students)

Jump up into upper arm hang, swing forward into support.

Swing back and forth while hanging on upper arms, upper support, tip into support.

Swing into handstand at the end of bar with face turned outwards.

Designing a series of exercises with the elements learn in Years 9 through 12.
Horizontal bar

Moving from basic swing into support. Designing a simple exercise with the elements learnt in Years 11 and 12.

Rings (males)

Practising what have been learnt in Year 9 through 11.

Presenting a choreography.
Beam (females)

Jumping up into a straddle - feet support.

Waltz step with 180 turn.

Choreography with elements learnt in previous years.

Rhythmic gymnastics (females)

Transition from one arched body position into another.

Waltz step with 180 turns.

Choreography with elements learnt in Years 9 through 12.


Performing the tasks prescribed for Year 11 with a higher intensity and taking individual considerations into account.

In-class activity must focus on games selected in Year 9.


Practising how to play against defended territory.

Practising six-member wall and 5+1 defence.

Shooting a goal with broad jump in.


Defending territory (2:3), distribution of defence area, defender movement and position in a designated area, playing against defended territory with 1:3:1 set-up.

Practising and applying elements learnt earlier.


Defence against attackers outnumbering defenders.

Defending a territory.

Getting rid of a defender by means of simple ball dribbles.

Step on dribble, dribble imitating start, pull away.

Playing with two goals.


Improving to hit the ball down and blocking.

Saving the ball by rolling.

Playing games by observing rules, trying to move constantly in attack and defence alike.

Taking a position according to the opponent’s anticipated intention.

Defending territory behind block.

Outdoor sports

See Year 11.

Depending on local opportunities and weather.

Self-defence and fighting

Improving physical condition (strength, speed) by means of fighting exercises done with a partner.


Applying the elements learnt in Year 10 and 11, continuous wrestling.


Learning new techniques.

Fighting in pairs according to the rules.


Swimming in the three learnt styles.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Marching and formation according to commands. Performing exercises on bench or wall bars containing two 8-phased basic forms according to instructions, designing and executing a 4-8 phased series of exercises with hand apparatus based on the form of free exercises. Maintaining or improving physical condition. Improved measurable athletic performance, competitions according to established rules. Performing a short series of exercises on a selected apparatus. Active participation in two selected sports games, playing according to the rules. Active participation in some outdoor sport. Active participation in one to one fights. Continuous swimming in both styles, swimming at least 50 meters in one style.

Years 9 through 12 of Education
Objectives and tasks
Social Studies, this new subject, has its own material which can be taught within the framework of other subjects as well. It intends to provide students with systematic knowledge in fields which may be directly conducive to students’ social integration and contribute to the development of a conscious way of living.

This subject is to help the preparation for undertaking a responsible role in society, participating in public life actively and performing well at work and in business. It introduces students to the principles of law, the institutions of the state, the main features of the life of society and the working of the economy.

A scientific approach to psychological phenomena and social behaviour may provide students at a very sensitive age with a point of reference they can rely on when interpreting everyday situations in order to develop their character and relationships consciously. At the same time, this knowledge may be a very useful theoretical grounding in all fields of the humanities.

The subject deals with the significant changes of civilisation at the turn of the previous century, as well as the systemic relations of various processes in the world of the society, the economy and nature. It provides help for a generation who must build up a personal and national identity in an intellectual environment shaped by the developments of global integration in understanding the burning issues of our age. The new thematic structure makes it possible to link the fundamental economic and social knowledge to actual contents.

Developmental requirements
Citizenship and society
Learning the rules of social co-existence by conscious insight and from a critical standpoint.

The joint development of a sense of justice and responsibility.

Facilitating the development of the cognitive and communicative skills necessary for developing an independent lifestyle and convictions, as well as an ability to understand and respect others’ views.

Developing a social attitude, where the needs for autonomy and solidarity are harmonised by the realisation that the contribution to the benefit of the public, showing tolerance and a readiness to help in social interaction are not constraints but prerequisites of the realisation of one’s potentials.

Awareness of the basic terminology of social theory and the characteristics of the democratic mentality.

Strengthening the capability of independent interpretation, investigation and conclusion used in understanding personal experiences and information from traditional and modern sources.

Promoting a behaviour based on an entrepreneurial attitude making students able to consider personal and social benefits and risks.

Facilitating career orientation based on the esteem for creative work and the development of commitment for one’s profession.

The acquisition of knowledge necessary for the analysis of economic processes and decision making. Developing planning and analysing skills in the following fields: business enterprise, employment, applications, business plans, family budget.
Familiarity with the methods and criteria of analysing psychological phenomena deepens the ability of self-reflection. It improves one’s co-operative, communicative and conflict solving skills. It facilitates the understanding of man’s social nature, including the role of relationships in personal development and one’s personal responsibility for one’s relationships. The psychological characteristics of certain age groups, such as teenagers and young people, should be given special attention during the training.

These studies help students understand the issues of sexual identity. They contribute to the development of an adult person who is mature enough to cope with joy and suffering, able to create a balance between adaptation and the assertion of personal interest, and takes efforts to evaluate him/herself realistically while understanding others.

Understanding the present
Here, the focus of development is to lay down the foundations of a personal and collective attitude which will make the individual able to face the challenges of globalisation. The prerequisite for that is the capability of independent orientation in the new communicational and cultural environment. Our students should be familiar with the major tendencies and contradictions of modernisation.

It is desirable to understand the regularities prevailing in the world economy of the present, and to be familiar with the impacts and dynamics of contemporary processes. Understanding the meaning and significance of national and European identity. Working out many-sided explanations to the socially and economically determined nature of the changes of the natural environment caused by human activities.

Facilitating the development of the attitude of an independent evaluator who is able to handle the risks and dilemmas related to the change of lifestyle.

Year 9
Number of teaching hours per year: 18

New activities
Case studies, role play.

Practising decision making, debate and how to reach a consensus in a class-room environment.

Collecting information individually and collectively, discussing historical, legal and literary examples.



Social rules

The origin and purpose of the rules of social co-existence.

Custom, tradition, morals, law, manners.

The change of rules - law and legislation.

The individual and the law

Basic human rights.

The principle of equity.

Children’s rights.

Students’ rights.

Rights and obligations in the family and at school.

Moral and legal dilemmas of family and community life: case studies based on everyday and historical examples.

Introduction to law

Responsibility for one’s actions.

Voluntary actions, wilfulness and coercion.

Legal and illegal.


Grievance, remedy, punishment.

In court.

Civil actions.

The actors and main stages of criminal procedures.

Arranging personal matters

Where to turn? Authorities in daily life.

Administrative procedures.

Client and rules of procedure.

The major document templates and their handling.

Institutions for the protection and children and young people.

Court of guardians.

Political studies

The concept of state.

Forms of state, political systems.

Legitimate power.

The principle and protection of constitutionalism.

Separation of powers.

The state and its citizens.

The working of democracy.


Private and public affairs.

Participation and share.

Choice, decision, handling conflicts.

The current system of political institutions in Hungary and in the Member States of the EU.

International conflicts, alliances.

War and peace.

Private interest, public will, public benefit.

Social and political conflicts.

Autonomy and solidarity.

The issue of social justice.

Political and social rights.

The situation and rights of minorities.

The duties of the state.

Public policies.

The levels and branches of public administration.


The principle of subsidiarity.

The role of NGO’s.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Students are familiar with the basic rules of social co-existence, and should be aware of their fundamental rights and obligations. They know the institutional system of public administration and government in the Hungarian Republic.

Year 10
Number of teaching hours per year: 18




The family

Generations living together.

Taking care of offspring in various cultures.

The function of the family and its changes in history.

Sexual roles in the family and in society.

The transformation of the relationship between the sexes.


Changes in the duration of childhood and youth and its perception by society.

Conflicts in the family.

Family planning.

The issue of prospective population and life span in Hungary.

The household.

Division of labour in the family, family budget.

Culture, community

Individual, community, society.

Learning and social integration.

Living tradition.

The world of culture - cultures of the world.

Dialogue of cultures: self-understanding and openness.

Natural environment and cultural environment.

The nation

Self-identity and social national status.

The community of communities: the nation.

Specifics and dilemmas of Hungarian national identity.

Nation, state, ethnic group.

Majority and minority.

The life of the society

Basic concepts: social action, social relation.

Division of labour.



The stratification of society by age, sex, education, wealth, occupation, type of settlement, religion and ethnic group.

The relationship between lifestyle and social status.

Advantages and disadvantages.

Minority life situations.

Prejudice, tolerance, solidarity.

The components of lifestyle.

Work and leisure.


Changes in social status: individual and group mobility.

The origin and treatment of social conflicts.

Social change.

The local society of the workplace.

Rights, roles and conflicts in the world of labour.

Economy and society: basic concepts.

(Subsistence, demands, production, consumption, exchange, interest, money, market.)

Local society

The place of living as a local community.

Conflicts in the local society (e.g. environmental hazards, safety, poverty, unemployment).

Contemporary changes in the Hungarian structure of settlements.

Towns and villages.

Urbanisation and regional problems.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Students are able to identify social problems, recognise their components, discuss them and form individual opinions.

Students are familiar with the fundamental rules of social co-existence, and are aware of their fundamental rights and obligations. They are familiar with the institutional system of public administration and government in the Hungarian Republic.

Year 11
Number of teaching hours per year: 18
For preparing the local curriculum for year 11, schools have the option of using either the below version A or version B.

Version A
New Activities
Reading in economics.

Analysing graphs and charts.

Discussion about the possible solutions of economic problems.

Gathering information for various economic topics individually.

Planning business activities.

Simulations (e.g. job interview, selling).

Analysing short films.

Browsing the Net for information on firms, financial information, exchange news.



Running a business

The classification of business by size, scope of activities, form of business, form of ownership.

Partnership, limited partnership, joint-stock company, limited liability company, state ownership, private ownership.

Starting a small business (business idea, plan, market, resources).

Profit, sales, expenses.

The major reasons why a business is a success / failure.

A marketing based approach, marketing tools.

The main fields of activities and the specific features of the non-profit sector.

Entrepreneurial characteristics.

Communication, decision-making, creativity, management and teamwork.

The world of work

Employment, labour contract, collective bargaining.

The employer-employee relationship.

Personal and collective interests, representation of interests, organisations safeguarding interests.

The labour market.

Looking for a job, writing a CV, job interview.

The national economy

The budget.

Production, services, infrastructure.

The cornerstones of the economy: economic growth, employment, inflation, internal balance (budget), external balance (balance of payments), debt position.

The reasons and dangers of budget deficit.

Taxes (personal income tax, VAT, corporation tax, local taxes.

Prosperity and recession.

The main national economy performance indicators (GDP, GNP).

The world economy

Foreign trade, export, import.

Main types of external economic relations, foreign trade. The domestic features of export, import.

Specialisation and interdependence in world trade.

Currencies and exchange rates.

Trade barriers.

Tariffs and protectionism.

Hungary and the international economic organisations (IMF, World Bank, WTO - former GATT).

EU membership from an economic point of view. The economic advantages and disadvantages of EU membership (e.g. the impact of the free flow of labour and capital on the life of students as future employees and entrepreneurs).

The pollution of the environment, limited resources, poverty.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Students should tell the difference between form of business and form of ownership. They should be able to give examples to the activities of a business venture.

Students should be able to write a CV. They should be able to form their own opinions on the reasons and possible solutions of certain economic problems.

Version B
New Activities
The discussion of case studies, literary works and documents from a historico-cultural perspective. Observing the activities of individual adults and children or groups of adults and children. ‘Debating society’ type of work, group discussions, communication and co-operation exercises.



Body and soul, the human ego and consciousness

The human system, personality and psychological phenomena.

Innate and acquired qualities.

Human evolution.

The human self and consciousness.

The levels and working of consciousness: self-image, consciousness, the subconscious.

Psychedelic state: the effects of drugs.

The ego and the world: mental functions

Experience, knowledge, perception of the self.

Sensation, perception and ‘processing’: attention, memory, thinking, learning.

Animal and human learning, conditioning, learning by insight, linguistic memory, memory of previous life.

Creativity, problem-solving, intelligence.

Speech and communication

The role of language in human evolution and society.

The process of language acquisition.

Verbal and non-verbal communication.

Special feature of communication in various groups of people.

Mass communication.

Motivation, emotions

and will

Instinct, impetus.

Sense and emotion.

The ‘struggle’ of motives.

The origin of emotions and their role as motivators.

Wilfulness and will.

Human sexuality.

The process of social integration, character and social phenomena

The social environment of human development: primary affection.

Parents and children; the family as a micro environment; intimate emotional relations.

Childbearing, the role of a parent, the structure of the family.

Personal development, the change and stability of one’s personality.

Roles and the individual.

Competition, co-operation, care.

Mental hygiene and mental illness

Physical and mental health.

Coping with difficulties.

The culturally determined nature of normality and abnormality.

Self-understanding, balanced personality.

Resistance, crisis.

Mental illness, antisocial behaviour, deviancy.

The specific problems of adolescence and youth.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Students understand the phenomena of individual and social psychology. They have developed a need for expanding their knowledge in psychology. They are familiar with the basic terminology of psychology.

Year 12
Number of teaching hours per year: 18

Understanding the present
New Activities
Discussing, analysing and interpreting cases.

Individual and collective information gathering.

Working with contemporary literature, press and documents independently.

Group work: discussion, debate, role play.



The age of scientific


The dynamics and ideological presuppositions of technological and economic development.

The idea of conquering the environment and the liberation of man in the ideology of the Enlightenment.

The relationship of freedom, prosperity, social justice and technological modernisation.

The reign of reason.

Critical criteria to understand what ‘modern’ is.

The new economic order of the world

The global trends and mechanisms of market economy.

The dilemma of growth.

The components of rational economic behaviour in a market economy.

The conflicts of micro- and macro-economy.

The ‘invisible hand’ and the ‘tragedy of common pastures’.

State and market.

Economy and ecology.

Within and beyond the nation-state

Hungary and the challenge of globalisation.

European integration.

The concept and working of ‘local society’.

The principle of subsidiartity.

The significance of national sovereignty in the age of globalisation.

Conflicts between civilisations (ethnic, environmental, religious and economic conflicts).

The international organisations and the community of nations.

The impact of economic world competition on the national economy, local societies and the international system of political institutions.

Information and society

Changes in learning, gathering experience and personal interactions as a result of developments in information and communications technology.

Changes in the concept of knowledge.

Knowledge and performance.

The role of expertise and the danger of specialisation.

Culture and globalisation

Understanding the phenomena of mass culture.

Entertainment industry and techno/telemedia.

The significance of cultural diversity. Trends threatening the existence of cultural diversity.

Beliefs and hopes

Spiritual and religious panorama at the turn of the millennium.

The impact of technological and economic development on daily life

Changes in the world of employment.

Taking a job, choosing a profession, employee strategies in the economy of the present.

The consequences of the principle of efficiency and economic world competition.

The risk of a mechanical and impersonal society.

The issue of unemployment.

The transformation of the social environment as a result of developments in traffic technology and telecommunication.

The question of speed.

The society of consumers

The features of a lifestyle dependent on technology.

Consumers’ freedom and defencelessness.


Prodigal consumption.

The welfare state.

Share and participation.

Changes in political publicity.

The changes of family life

The transformation of the cultural, economic and social role of the family.

Changes in sexual behaviour and sexual roles.

Feminist endeavours.

The impact of a changed lifestyle on physical and mental health

The development of hygiene and the health industry.

Environmental hazards and the diseases of civilisation.

The issue of safety in chemistry.

The social and ecological risks of genetic engineering.

The main fields, principles and institutions of health and environmental protection.

Mental hygienic problems and behavioural difficulties in the period of becoming an adult.

The limit of growth

The social and economic implications of the biosphere crisis.

The limited sustaining capacity of the living earth.

The impact of technical civilisation and economic growth on the natural environment.

Climatic change, deforestation, soil erosion, exhausting the drinking water supply and natural resources.

The reasons and consequences of prodigal use of resources.

The pollution of the environment: the issue of how to handle the growing amount of industrial and communal waste; prevention and recycling.

Demographic issues

The social and economic background of demographic boom in ‘third world countries’.

The problem of population decrease and ageing in Hungary and in other European countries.

The ecological and social consequences of overpopulation on Earth. Migration in the age of globalisation.


The necessity and possibility of attitude change in technology and economy.

Cultural, economic and political conditions promoting / hindering the spread of environment friendly human behaviour.

The political and economic principles of a sustainable society.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Students understand be the current processes of modernisation and globalisation. They are familiar with and form their own opinions on world phenomena and domestic problems they come across. They can explain the effect of these processes on the cultural and natural environment.

Years 9 and 10 of Education
Objectives and tasks
The focus of the curriculum module ‘Dance and Drama’ is not teaching theoretical content. Its aim is to provide students with an opportunity of getting frontline experience of the tools of drama and the elements of the different theatrical modes of expression through student activities. Of course this cannot mean that academic knowledge should be neglected. On the contrary, theory does appear, however mainly as the outcome of practical activities, as the lesson from the experience gained in practice.

Dance and Drama is built around activities. The analytical discussion which follows practical activities may lead to the expansion of knowledge, however this cannot be achieved without students transforming their acquired knowledge, emerging views and arising question into actions. Therefore the study and use of the different dramatic and theatrical conventions are for the benefit of teacher and student alike, as it is an opportunity for expressing thoughts and emotions which are difficult to verbalise (or being in the process of formulation). It is also a means of checking the acquired knowledge in practice.

The terminology used in the curriculum is intended to reflect this focus. The words ‘play’ and ‘work’ are frequently used. We hope that using these terms together will be conducive to our intention that, although the artistic activities pursued in different fields are governed by technical processes, participation in the in-class activities should be a pleasure and an intellectual excitement for students.

Dance and Drama intends to provide opportunities for the following:

giving students special attention according to ability and aptitude;

giving students an opportunity to experience the joy and the sense freedom offered by drama, dance and puppetry;

trying drama, dance and puppetry as a form of communication;

acting out realistic human situations and fictive events in various theatrical forms;

applying students’ knowledge and skills acquired in other fields of the curriculum in drama, dance and puppetry;

planning and producing performances individually or in groups, and performing their creations;

watching as many live and recorded theatre / dance / puppet shows or performances, including peer productions, as possible.

Developmental requirements
Participation in diverse activities in the field of drama, dance and puppetry; applying techniques and conventions of drama and puppetry through diverse exercises. Learning the technical elements and forms which constitute dance, and using the extensively. Improvisation and experimenting with dramatic form, puppetry techniques and the technical elements of dance. Students should become able to recognise their own achievements and incorporate their experiences into their artistic activities. They are required to study the cultural traditions of the different forms of theatre and the basic methods of stage-craft. An important aspect is to expand students’ terminology and active vocabulary in connection with drama and various theatrical forms.

New activities
Complex improvisations in motion and dance using various techniques.

Conversion of epic material into dramatic material. Group work.

Recognising the structure of dramatic / theatrical pieces; analysing the intentions, actions and relations of characters.

Using dramatic conventions in practice.

Recognising and distinguishing recently learnt theatrical genres and styles.

Analysing a play or improvisation seen on stage by using the terminology learnt in class. Making traditional and theatrical masks using a chosen technique.

Creating masked plays adequate to the tradition and nature of masks.

Adaptation and elaboration of motives.

Creating series of motives on the basis of individual design.

Recording and performing complex improvisations.

Years 9 and 10

Number of teaching hours per year: 36




Improvisation around the topic and in the style determined by the teacher, on the basis of the outline of a story elaborated by students, by joining the learnt dramatic conventions, applying the elements of masked play and the styles learnt in class.

Making masks

Make-up as a mask. Paper masks, textile masks, pasting, etc.

Masked plays

In dramatic stage-like plays and theatrical work.

Basic terminology of the theatre and dramaturgy

Knowing the terms focus, contrast, symbol, model of plot complication, dramatic structure, etc.

Classification of dramatic conventions. Building a system of dramatic conventions.

Editing and performing stories by using different theatrical and dramatic conventions.

Theatrical genres and styles

Historical genres and contemporary theatrical genres.

Recognising the typical features of various theatrical styles in plays and dramatic pieces seen or performed on stage. Watching and discussing theatre plays representing various trends.

Creating motives for a given situation, music or topic

Translating a given situation into posture then into movements.

Free elaboration of a motive introduced in a mirror image exercise.

Improvisation based on a given piece of music or topic by using given motives.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Application of complex dramatic conventions in collective improvisation. Knowing and recognising the major theatrical genres and styles. Knowledge of the most important theatrical and dramatic concepts. Participation in mask making and / or masked improvisation. Participation in at least one etude built around learned movements.

Years 11 and 12 of Education
Schools wishing to incorporate this module into their local curriculum may choose either of the following two versions (A and B).
Version A
Objectives and tasks
The primary aim of teaching film and media studies, as part of grammar school provision, is to improve students’ ability to interpret motion picture (film, television, video, computer games, web) and text, to help them develop a critical acumen and a better understanding of the social role and working principles of audio-visual media. At the same time it is a tool for personal development.

Building on the basic knowledge of film and cultural history obtained in grade 8 at primary school, the primary aim on the secondary level is to teach some important elements of the history of styles, learn about specific films and improve analytic skills in addition to improve students’ expressive skills and ability to understand the language of films. An important element of teaching this subject in grammar school is to highlight the relationship between elite culture and popular culture, and to make students recognise authors and audience can have a range of roles. Media studies focus on the exploration of the fundamental economic, political and legal factors having an effect on media institutions, as well as the factors influencing the audience and determining how the message of the media is received. Discussions should cover the relationship between empirical reality and the virtual reality or the media, as it appears on various screens. In addition to the fact that there is a difference, it is necessary to explore the reasons causing the difference, e.g. in the case of different cultures and ethnic groups. The discussion of films in years 11 and 12 strengthens conceptual thinking and abstraction skills, whereas the exercises in the interpretation of the language of motion picture provides an opportunity to apply knowledge. At the same time creative exercises, individual activities and project work should remain crucial.

New activities
Most of the activities based on experiences and creative situations, which are used for teaching film and media studies at the end of primary school, can be adapted to grammar school conditions.

Watching films and programmes, in full or in part, in groups or small groups (Due to the length of these ‘texts’ (film, television, video, computer games, web) classroom activities can only include analysis of the entire ‘text’ is only possible through reference by means of excerpts. Watching the full programme or film should be organised as extracurricular activity).

Working with motion pictures individually, in small groups or in groups:

- creative exercises (e.g. evocation, association, selecting / grouping / re-editing scenes, image series);

- discussion (e.g. formulating statements, contrasting assumptions, interpretation).

Studying the tools of expression: individual or group work (e.g. planning image series, story-board /set plan illustrated with sketches / or planning scenes, tableaux vivants /momentarily frozen situation /, experimenting with exposure, making headlines / e.g. for a TV programme /, commentary, dubbing.

Short report, presentation, demonstration (e.g. presentation on a film director’s life and work, film styles, film genres, demonstrating audience information, explaining consumption patterns, trends, exploring cultural and historical background on the basis of literature or individual research).

Age-specific activities improving conceptual thought and expression skills, such as problems discussed in essay, e.g. comparative analysis, review. Reading specialist journals, collecting literature in foreign language, making notes, summaries and abstracts of literature. Exercises in editing, making headlines and heralds.

Project work: individual or group assignment beyond the time frame of classroom sessions, with a longer deadline (3-6 weeks), often chosen by students themselves from several options (e.g. research activity, collecting / organising / processing data and facts with regard to press releases, cinema programmes, radio and TV programmes, web sites, advertising campaigns, making case studies, making scripts or photo / video etudes, reports and interviews, designing and making a herald, logo or front page design, preparing log books.

Year 11
Number of teaching hours per year: 18



The language of motion picture

Introduction to creating image on film

The boundary between image and reality: framing.

The camera and the subject of the image (framing mask, view, camera movement).

The position of the narrator in the ‘text’ of the film (descriptive and subjective image).

The role of the montage in creating a ‘text’

The role of the montage in the creation of meaning.

Typical montage types (linear story telling, parallel and serial montage).

Internal montage.

Role play.

Reality and film

Realism and authenticity.

Taxonomy of film text types

Characteristics of film genres and genre films

Categorisation from the perspective of cultural history. Elite culture and popular culture.

Style and archetype.

Categorisation by genre. Typical genres. E.g. western, melodrama, thriller.

Stars in popular culture.

Film stars and media stars.

The role of media in society

Further characteristics of the mode of communication used by the media

The role of the media in verbalising topics which have validity for citizens: the principle of cultivation.

The global and the local: cultural diversity and uniform culture.

The audience of the media as a virtual community.

Typical media texts,

types of programmes

Soap operas

The representation of reality in soaps.

Typical themes, hero types and narration in soaps.

Commercial and clip

Composition techniques in commercials and clips: association.

Target group.

Influencing techniques in commercials.

Year 12
Number of teaching hours per year: 16



Taxonomy of film text types

Artistic film and popular movie

Categorisation by the filmmaker’s intention and the expectations of the audience: artistic films, popular movies.

Styles in the history of artistic films

Soviet avant-garde, German expressionism.

Italian neo-realism, European new waves.

Episodes from the history of Hungarian film making

Before the war; 50’s, 60’s, 70’s, contemporary Hungarian film.

The role of media in society

Publicity and media institutions

Media institutions.

Limitations to the freedom of the media (political, economic and legal control, legislation, quotas) moral limits; norms of expression: protection of the individual, violence in the media.

Representation of reality by the media

Representation of ideology and politics.

The relationship between empirical reality and the virtual reality of the media.

Typical media texts,

types of programmes

News programmes

The problem of objectivity.

News and opinion.

News in the market.

Credible media personality, addressing the audience.

Mode of expression in the new forms of media

Multimedia and internet.

Text creation, choice and reception after the disappearance of linearity and text hierarchy.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Students are familiar with the basis of the form of expression motion picture uses. They are able to apply the tools of expression discussed in class for the interpretation of film ‘text’. They can tell the difference between the typical products of the art of film and mass entertainment in terms of choice of topic, form and mode of delivery. They are able to mention a few characteristic films from the history of film making , and know some of the influential Hungarian film directors. They participate in the production of reports, video etudes, coverage of school events. They are aware of the manipulation techniques used by the media, conscious of and shape their reception habits.
Version B
Objectives and tasks
The task of subjects introducing students to the world of technology is to provide guidance in fields which have an increasing importance in the education of this age group and the shaping of their view of the world. For the better utilisation of the available time, the thematic structure of the curriculum contains two large units. The unit film studies, which start in Year 11, is to pass on knowledge connected to communication, cultural history and aesthetics. These are intended to prepare students for Year 12, that is the study of audio-visual mass communication systems and the social phenomena related to them, for which Year 11 provides a good basis.

Another aim of this subject is to teach how mass communication systems work, demonstrate the diversity of technologies and fields of application and to give an introduction to the theory of culture, in particular the issues raised by the rapid propagation of audio-visual telecommunications systems and the transformation of publicity in society.

These studies are interdisciplinary by nature, as the discussion of themes often requires the application of economic, social and aesthetic considerations at the same time.

Developmental requirements
Review of the milestones of social, cultural and technical development leading to the evolution of the ‘virtual reality’ of the media. Familiarity with the language and expressive tools of audio-visual communication, differentiation of fields of application. Learning about contemporary cinematic art and cinema classics, Hungarian trends, specific aesthetic problems, the development of the form and genres of film.

Acquisition of basic analytic skills necessary for the recognition of stylistic features, composition principles and narrative strategies.

Encouraging an active, open attitude towards reception, creating a need for the development of an all-round audio-visual education.

A basic requirement is to learn how to use the devices of audio-visual communication, which have become indispensable in activities, such as understanding the world, , forming opinions, keeping contact, as well as in fields, such as education work and entertainment, and is a prerequisite for social integration and success in our age.

In addition to teaching communication procedures and improving text interpretation skills, this also requires the development of an ability to recognise the social and political context which determine how the institutions of mass communication function. Students need to have an idea of the strategies used for influencing public opinion, the effects and social psychology of the media, as well as the phenomena which ensure the privileges audio-visual media have in society.
Year 11
Number of teaching hours per year: 18
New activities
Analysing audio-visual texts and works of art: film club, film museum, visiting cinema series and events, collecting and working with documents in connection with the development and topical events of film culture, learning the use of certain audio-visual devices, creative exercises depending on the available technical facilities.



Technical image

The cultural and social circumstances of the birth of film.

The development of film technology: photographic imaging, capturing motion, image and telecommunications.

The perception of moving pictures. The impact mechanism of cinematic experience.

The language of film

Body language, language of images, time in films.


Specific procedures of organising space and time.

The basic concepts of film narrative (plot, story, tension, etc.)

The process, levels and components of understanding.

Creative reception.

Moving pictures

The medium of moving pictures (film, electronic, digital information technology), the channels of moving pictures (e.g. cinema, television, internet), functions (e.g. information, education, advertising, entertainment, art), credibility (documentary, fiction).

Genres and types of programmes.

The development of moving picture culture

Technological development from the laterna magica to the internet.

Social differentiation in the use of moving pictures in the age of cinema and television and in network communication.

The cultural institutions of moving picture.

The cultural impact of moving pictures, and its effect on daily life.

The evolution of modern popular culture and its problems.

Education, art, entertainment.

The industry of the mind and the society of experience.

The autonomy and diversity of culture in the age of techno-telemedia.

Passages from the history of film

E.g. classical silent films, burlesque, film avant-garde, the birth of Hollywood, neorealism, new wave, etc.

The route of Hungarian cinematic art.

Trends in contemporary cinematic art.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Students can find the place the various instances of the development of moving pictures in the context of twentieth century cultural history. They are familiar with the typical features of popular audio-visual culture / consumption society, as well as the problems related to forming a judgement of them. They can express their opinion about the discussed films, programmes or genres accurately both in speech and writing. They know some of the expressive tools used in the language of films, and can apply their knowledge in this field to the interpretation of audio-visual texts.

Year 12
Number of teaching hours per year: 18

New activities
Analysing and designing programmes, analysing the impact of programmes and media events, attitude surveys in relation to them.

Insight into the work of local or national programme providers, participation in real or simulated public debates.

Making interviews, creative media work, analytical exercises with audio-visual devices (depending on the available technical facilities).

Involvement in network communication, practising the use of multimedia tools.



The message of the media

From cinema to television.

The transformation of publicity as a result of the impact of technical mass communication systems.

Differences and correlation between the printed press, radio, television and network communication.

The copy becomes authentic: the virtual reality of the media.


The institution and the programme.

Information, persuasion, entertainment.

The message of the TV programme.

News value and stimulus threshold.

Cultural diversity and uniform culture.

The freedom and defencelessness of the audience.

Addressing strategies.

The qualities of the credible media personality.

Politics, business and commercial in the media.

Public, commercial and community broadcasting.

The specifics of tv programme types.

Programme and programme analysis.

Life in a media environment

The impact on television on personal development and socialisation.

Violence and sex on the screen.

The freedom and ethics of the press.

Protecting the individual.

The rules and fundamental ethical issues of public speech.

Interactive media

Multimedia, internet - communication, contact and orientation on the network.

Worshipping information.

Information, knowledge, education.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
The acquisition of basic knowledge about the functioning of audio-visual mass communication, telecommunications systems and media publicity. Students are aware of and can interpret the changes in the public and private sphere and in the various fields of social interaction taking place as a result of the impact of the media.
Appendix 2 for Ministry of Education Decree ........./2000. ( )


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