Framework curricula for secondary schools

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Recommended works of art
Teachers are free to choose the characteristic works of a genre in accordance with the topic. Beyond that, the main selection criteria are that the presented works should include outstanding works and artists from the history of universal and Hungarian art, as well as some samples of popular culture, in addition to art. It is recommended to provide ample room for the presentation of contemporary art among the important works representing the discussed genres from the history of art. It is highly important to discuss the ordinary environment, local and regional treasures.
Stonehenge, Pyramid of Cheops, Amon temple in Luxor, Parthenon, Theatre in Epidauros, Greek columns, aqueduct in Nimes, Pantheon, the facade of the Colosseum, atrium of the House of Vettii in Pompei, Zen-garden in Kyoto, mosque of Edirnei Selim, Basilica San Apollinaire Nuovo, the cathedral of Worms, the abbey of Bélapátfalva, the vault of church La Madelaine in in Vezela, the facade of the chapel of the royal palace in Esztergom, the interior and exterior of the cathedral of Reims, the castle of Diósgyőr, Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, Brunelleschi: Tempietto, Alberti: exterior of Palazzo Rucellai, the yard of palazzo Medici in Florence, Loggia Perényi in Sárospatak, the palace gardens of Versailles, Berninin: the columns of St. Peter Square, Esterházy Palace at Fertőd, Hungarian Baroque townscape (Eger), Mihály Pollack: National Museum, Eiffel: Western Railway Station, Ödön Lechner: Post Office Savings Bank, W. Gropius: Bauhaus building, Le Courbusier: Villa savoye, F.L. Wright: Housing Project with ‘waterfall houses’ (Wekerle), Imre Makovecz: Catholic Church in Paks.
Hungarian folk art
Church with belfry (Zsurk, Szabolcs County), street with two-storey buildings (Hollókő, Nógrád County), house with arched porch (Somogy County), two-storey houses with Székely gate (Szentesegyházasfalu, Rumania), church interior with panelled ceiling (Körös, Drávaiványi, Baranya County or Csenger), wooden roadside crucifix (Szilvágy, Zala County), kitchen interior (Börzsöny, Hont County), room from Sárköz (Museum of Ethnography), wooden trousseau box (Nógrád County), corner cabinet (Vargyas, Rumania), Spanish mirrored piece made by Zsiga Király (Győr County), water jug (Tata, Komárom County), wedding pot (Sümeg, Veszprém County), bottle with birds made by Mihály Rajczy (Mezőcsát, Borsdo County), bokály with Székely border guard (Kézdimartonos, Rumania), jar from a weaver guild (Karád, Somogy County), bowl (Csákvár,Fejér County), woven fabrics (from Sárköz, Somogy, Baranya) embroidered pieces (table cloth, pillow case, decorated sheet), embroidered felt cloak of a shepherd (Békés, Heves or Hajdú County), women’s frock (Somogy, Heves or Baranya County), costumes (Sárköz, Torockó, Rimóc, Mezőkövesd, South-Alföld).
There is no special list of recommended works for visual communication and the objects and the available present-day communicational devices, local artefacts and buildings. The list of paintings provide help for the teaching of graphic representation, whereas the lists for architecture and folk art can be used for discussing objects and the environment.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Use of the acquired visual sign system on a high-standard, for the purpose of learning, self-expression, visual commination and making objects. Familiarity with the process of creation in the fields of aesthetic expression, construction of meaning and functional form creation. Ability to describe the main features of the discussed branches and genres of art. Familiarity with the most influential artists and their outstanding works, understanding the correlation of period and work of art. Discussing experiences and knowledge in connection with the visited exhibitions and buildings.

Awareness of the role and media of visual communication, critical approach to information transmitted by them. Using indirect sources of learning (library, CD, internet). Application of the main techniques learnt in class, familiarity with some special techniques, procedures and creative methods.

Years 9 through 12 of Education
Objectives and tasks
The objective of Physical Education and Sports is to be an organic part of the overall education provided by the school, and through the synergetic effect of the components of physical culture (training, active games, doing sports and acquiring the related intellectual knowledge) and the health preserving factors of nature, make a contribution to the development of young persons who has a positive view of life and consider health as a core value in their own lives. They need to explore the level of their motor abilities, know how to develop and/or maintain their motor abilities, experience the joy of physical activity during games and races, and develop a need for those. They should learn to respect their peers’ achievements, acquire an expected level of physical culture, be aware of the value of physical education and sport as a preventive tool. Regular physical activity should become part of their behaviour.

Exercises related to health
The improvement of the level of fitness and resistance to diseases, compensating orthopaedic deformation. Students need to understand the essence of prevention, and they should be able to perform relaxing exercises themselves.

Exercises related to the improvement of physical culture
The improvement of physical condition and co-ordination skills in line with students’ age and aptitude. Bringing motor skills up to the appropriate level. Expanding knowledge related to games and sports activities. Communication with movements.
Providing positive experience in learning, games and sports
Learning various sports, developing a drive to perform well, experiencing collective success and the joy of being active. Strengthening positive personal traits. Handling failure, overcoming difficulties, endurance, learning to bear monotonous activity, environment friendly attitude.

Developmental requirements
The basic requirement, which is defined as the objective of physical education, is that each student should be able to perform on a regular basis and on the level of application all the learnt activities they know have a key role in the preservation of health. In other - simpler - words they need to do regular exercise.

In order to achieve physical development, students are required to improve their motor abilities continuously (strength, speed, endurance). This makes it possible for them to acquire skills related to athletics, gymnastics, sport games and swimming on a level which allows good performance.

Students should develop a sense of security of actions, which, as a result of the development of physical culture, helps incorporating regular physical activity into their life style.

Students should develop a need to understand the physical, biological and pedagogical principles which constitute the background of active forms of activities. They need to be familiar with the major events of sports history, sportsmen and women who have achieved world records. They should be interested in the events of Hungarian and international sports life.

Year 9
Number of teaching hours per year: 74
New activities
Use of instructions and formulae needed to move and reorganise a group of students. Basic gymnastic forms and exercises improving posture. Improvement of physical condition tailored to the original level of condition. Developing running, throwing and jumping techniques selected from the material of athletics. The acquisition of selected apparatus work, elements, combinations from the material of gymnastics. Playing selected games with simple rules, team efforts. Doing at least on outdoor sport. Learning fighting exercises and games. Continuous swimming. Wrestling, swimming for those who cannot swim, aerobics.




Starting and stopping a march.

Transition from marching on the spot to stepping.

Changing speed and stride while marching.


Lining up in various configurations.

Turning without moving ahead.

Preparation, groundwork, prevention

Free exercises with 4-8 phases or pair work / interactive work based on free exercise forms to general and diverse strengthening and stretching.

Hand apparatus exercises.

Exercises ensuring a biomechanically correct posture.

Gymnastics with music.

Athletic type exercises

Special, focussed exercises needed to acquire the various branches of athletics.

Running school: running with lifting knees or heels.

Jogging, skipping on the spot, moving ahead or with breaking out.

Criss-cross running, running backwards.

Skipping and jumping school: galloping with switching legs, skipping Indian style with alternate or parallel arm swings.

Hopping: on one leg, switching legs, and the combinations of these.

Running and hopping steps.

Serial jump from a standing position and after a three or four steps.

Jumping up and down a step, a 3 or 4 piece box, jumping over the foregoing apparatus using one or two legs and with weights.

Jump rope exercises.

Throwing school: throwing, tossing, hurling a medicine ball, weight or other apparatus in various standing positions.

Turning, making an arch with the apparatus thrown from a stationary position.

Throwing with the emphasis on the lifting or turning motion of the leg.

Shooting a target.

(Students must be made to throw with both hands.)


Start from a standing or kneeling position. 20-30 m races.

Running with increasing speed, running at a high speed.

60 to 100 meter fast run.

Running competitions.

Continuous running.


High jump: over a bar with 3 to 5 step run-up, starting from various directions and with various targets.

Learning different jumping techniques (stepping, rolling, ventral, flop).

Developing the appropriate upward movement within the selected jumping technique (armwork, legwork, take-off), air work, landing.

High jump competitions.

Long jump: jump with a crouch or a hollow back technique.

Ensuring displacement by a vigorous take-off, arm and leg swing.

Long jump competitions.


Throwing a small ball: throwing the ball as far as possible from a stationary position and with a run-up trying to form an arched ball movement and developing a three step throwing rhythm.

Throwing competition, shooting a target.

Shot-put: males with 4/5 kg, females with 3-4 kg weights.

Developing the thrust, shot putting from a stationary position or with a walk up and turning.

Shot-put from a lateral standing position.

Shot putting competitions.

Gymnastics type exercises

Stretching to extend the range of shoulder girdle and hip-joint movement, free exercises, exercises with hand apparatus and gymnastics on the apparatus in various positions (support, hanging, mixed) to increase strength of kicking by leg, the pulling strength of the abdomen, the upper body and the arm, the supporting strength of the shoulder.

Gymnastics on the apparatus

Floor exercises

Turning a series of somersaults forward and backward starting from various positions and landing in various positions.

Moving into a headstand and rolling forward into a standing position.

Swinging into a headstand.

Cartwheel in both directions.

Balancing on one leg.

Jumping over a box

Male students: lengthways (4-5 pieces) somersault, with a squat, straddle, straddle jump.

Female students: crosswise (3-4 pieces) jump over in a squatting position, lengthways jump with a somersault.
Parallel bars (male students)


Moving forward and backward with support.

Arm bending and stretching.

Swing in support position.

Jump into hanging position and swing forward into a straddle.

Somersault from straddle to straddle.

Jump down.

Straddle, basic swing.


Rings (males)

Basic swing in a hanging position.

Swing forward into a contracted hanging position.

Floating hang.

Lift into downward hang.

Lift into downward hang from a contracted hanging position.

Descend into back hang and pull back.

Backward swing in hanging position, jump down with hollow back.

Support experiments.


Beam (females)

Walking forward and backward.

Various positions: standing, kneeling, crouching, press-up, lying etc.

Transition from one position to another.

Jumping up from frontal lateral standing position with leg swing and arrival in 90 straddle.

Jumping off: vertical fly.

Combined exercises.
Rhythmic gymnastics (females)

Fundamental elements of rhythmic gymnastics (aiming at correct execution), walking, turning, jumping across, positions, arched posture.

Moving in synch with the music.

Simple exercises with jumping rope and ball.


Complex relay competitions with balls, handling and passing balls.

Obstacle races including exercises from specific sports.

Ball games.


Defender movements.

Defence with one or two opponents, position of defenders in a designated area.

Attack against 5+1 and 4+2 configurations.

Loosening defence, breaking in, shooting.

Passing ball with one hand while moving.

Catching ball coming from various heights.

Shooting a goal by smashing the ball once.

Exploiting advantage in a game situation in case of 2:1, 3:2 and 4:3 situations.


Principles of defence by blocking players: defence line, defence distance, moving to back position.

Getting rid of defender by means of dribble, swift start, changing pace or direction.

Basic movements with and without a ball: start, stop, heel, change of direction.

Pass with one or two hands.

Throwing the ball through the basket in a standing position and with run-up.

Game situations: 1:1, 2:1 attack and defence.

Creative play with two baskets.


Blocking players in a loose manner by post.

The positioning of the defender.

Getting rid of the defender by running away.

Techniques of kicking stationary and moving ball.

Leading the ball with inner side of foot.


Game situations: 2:1, 3:2 games.


One on one game with finger and forearm touches in a reduced court.

Playing on a 9x9 m court with finger and forearm touches.

Upper and lower serve.

Outdoor sports

Winter sports (skating, skiing, toboggan) depending on the geographical location of the school as weather allows.

Orienteering, mountain biking, skateboard, roller skating etc (whatever is available).

Self-defence and fighting

Fights and games in pairs and in various positions.

Combat situations including a ball.

Lifting and carrying in various positions.

Wrestling in standing position, getting a grip.

Basic grips.

Ground wrestling competitions.


Swimming in two selected styles.


Physical condition: strength, speed, endurance.

Concepts to be learnt while doing various sports: support position, arching, speeding.

Rules of games and competitions in various sports.

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