Framework curricula for secondary schools

Music Musical theory

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Musical theory

Asymmetrical beat: 3/8, 5/8, 7/8.

Polyrhythmic patterns.

Chromatic scale, full note, bi-tonality and polytonality, dodecaphony, atonality.

Musical instruments

Cor anglais, celesta, guitar, gong, finger-cymbals, drum, saxophone, tambourine, xylophone.

Musical compositions

Song composed in folk style, Hungarian songs in the folk style, gypsy music.

Song, mazurka, waltz, polonaise.

Etude, fantasy, nocturne, rhapsody.

Symphonic poem; romantic and national opera.

Ballet, operetta, musical, chanson.

Spiritual, blues, ragtime, Dixieland, swing, rock etc.

Contemporary popular music.

History of music

Romanticism, national romanticism.

20th century trends in music: impressionism, expressionism, neo-Baroque, neo-classical, folk style, dodecaphony.

New forms and modes of expression: bruitism, aleatory, minimal art, electronic music; film music; rock-opera, folk-pop, new trends.

Composers (19th century): Schubert, Schumann, Mendelssohn, Brahms, Chopin, Dvoøak, Tsaikovsky, Musorgsky, Liszt, Erkel, Verdi, Wagner.

Composers (20th century): Debussy, Ravel, Gershwin, R. Strauss, J. Strauss, Stravinsky, Honegger, Hatsaturian, Britten, Schönberg, Berg, Penderecki, Lutosawski.

20th century: Bartók, Bárdos, Kodály, Lajtha, Weiner and other contemporary composers.

Jazz: free jazz and cool jazz.

Film music and popular music: Lehár, Joplin, Rota, Bernstein, Presley, the Beatles, Webber, topical issues.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Singing 10 new melodies selected from the list under ‘Content’ - folk song, composed songs from the learnt periods from the history of music, excerpts from oratorios and operas - by heart. Male students with a breaking voice get other assignment.
Recognising the musical style of the 19th and 20th centuries in the music listened to. Listing links between music and other branches of art.
Improvisation of rhythm with asymmetrical beat for given rhythmic and melodic patterns.
Reading and writing music
Reading the scores of samples with asymmetrical rhythm and melody. Writing down simple asymmetric rhythms and melodies by heart up to 3#3b.

Recommended singing and listening material
Folk songs
A bolhási kertek alatt (By the gardens of Bolhás)

A nagy bécsi kaszárnya (The big barrack in Vienna)

Annyi bánat a szívemen (So much sorrow in my heart)

Béres legény (The farm-hand)

Beteg asszony (Sick woman)

Duna parton van egy malom (There is a mill on the bank of the Danube)

Elindultam szép hazámból (As I left my beautiful homeland)

Erdő mellett estvéledtem (As the night fell upon me by the forest)

Este, este, de szerelmes (Oh night, lovesick night)

Hej, rozmaring (Hey rosmary)

Istenem, istenem áraszd meg a... (God, send a flood on...)

Katona vagyok én (I am a soldier)

Körösfői kertek alatt ( By the gardens of Körösfő)

Megkötöm lovamat (I’ll tie my horse)

Mgerakják a tüzet (Making up the fire)

Röpülj páva (Fly, peacock)

Szép a gyöngyvirág (How pretty the lily of the valley is)

Szivárvány havasán (On the snow-covered top of the rainbow)

Tavaszi szél (Spring wind)

Tiszán innen, Dunán túl (This side of the Tisza and over the Danube)

Vocal music from the history of Hungarian music
Bocsásd meg Úristen (Forgive me my God) - song written by Balassi from the Codex of Kájon

Hej Rákóczi, Bercsényi (Hey, Rákóczi, Bercsényi)

Áll előttem egy virágszál (A flower is standing in front of me) - love-ditty from the 18th century

Ej, haj gyöngyvirág (Oh, the lily of the valley) - song from the song book of Ádám Pálóczi Horváth

Aranyideim folyása (My golden days) - song from the song book of Ferenc Kovács

Simonffy: Három a tánc (Dance must be three)

Szentirmai: Csak egy kislány van a világon (There is only one girl in the world)

Passages from vocal compositions
Alleluia melodies

Händel: My Tears Are Flowing (from the opera ‘Xerxes’)

Beethoven: Symphony IX, Movement IV

Schubert: Desert Rose (song)

Schumann: The Two Grenadiers (song)

Gaudeamus igitur (Brahms: Academic Overture)

Kodály-Berzsenyi: For the Hungarians

Kodály: When David (Psalmus Hungaricus)

Gershwin: Porgy’s song (Porgy and Bess)

Listening material
Lassus: Mercenary Serenade

Bach: Suite in H minor

Bach: Prelude and Fugue in C minor (from Volume I, Wohltemperiertes Klavier)

Händel: Suite in F major (Water music)

Haydn: String Quartet in C major (Kaiser), Movement II (Op. 76. No. 3)

Mozart: Piano Sonata in A major (K. 331)

Mozart: Figaro’s wedding

Beethoven: Symphony V (Fate)

Beethoven: Symphony IX, Movement IV

Schubert: (Unfinished) Symphony in H minor

Schumann: The Two Grenadiers

Brahms: Academic Overture

Mendelssohn: Midsummer Night’s Dream - suite

Liszt: Les Preludes

Wagner: Overture and Walther’s song from the opera ‘Master Singers of Nurnberg’

Ravel: Bolero

Kodály: Háry János (suite)

Kodály: Psalmus Hungaricus

Kodály: Székelyfonó (Szekler Spinning Mill)

Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue

Bartók: 15 Hungarian Peasant Songs (for piano) and Eight Hungarian Folk Songs (vocals and piano).

Bartók: Cantata Profana

Bartók: Concerto

Orff: Carmina Burana

Bernstein: West Side Story

Years 9 and 10 of Education
Objectives and tasks

This subject intends to introduce students to one of the basic types of everyday, artistic, scientific and technological cognition, communication and expression. With respect to the general objectives of education, it facilitates the development of creativity, problem identification and solving skills, intellectual abilities, thought rich in images and notions, taste, empathy, communicative skills, sensibility and openness. Due to the artistic nature of the subject it is a means of value transmission and creation, and has an impact on students’ characters. It plays an important role in the development of an attitude which places a high value on the achievements of culture and the protection of the environment, as well as in the improvement of the intellect and emotional intelligence.

The subject visual art teaches students to see and show things through the visible dimension of the world. In other words, the aim of teaching visual art is to develop students’ creative and receptive skills in the visual field. Within the visible and visualised world, this subject improves the understanding of the meaning and aesthetic message of what is seen, the ability to depict the theme in line with the intention of the communicator, abounding in thought and emotion, and teaches how to express and construct things by means of images and plastic art. It focuses on the sensory-empirical conquest of the world through the ‘education’ of the senses, with special emphasis on the eye, and the improvement of a ‘manual intelligence’. The perception of space and the knowledge of forms, colours, materials and structures are taken to a higher level as a result of education in visual arts. In the age of multiplied technical and persuasive images, the subject takes a new purpose, which is developing the ability to select and critically interpret information.

The aim of teaching visual creative and receptive skills is to provide a synthesis of what was learnt in visual arts on the primary level and to prepare for everyday life, i.e. for the recognition and solution of visually perceived problems, for work, the responsible use of the natural and built environment, the critical approach to information, the conscious choice of commercial goods, and develop a sensibility for artistic and aesthetic values. An additional aim of teaching this subject is to facilitate the learning of other subjects through teaching students how to handle visual information.

It is typical to the members of the age group who attend secondary schools to be concerned with finding their place in the world. One of the tasks of this subject is to help students find their place by demonstrating examples from the field of visual culture, and offering role models, styles to follow. Identification can be best achieved in a state when one is absorbed in creative work, therefore students must be provided with a wide range of opportunities and options for visual self-expression. In addition to drawing and sculpture, opportunities must be provided for graphical design and designing and constructing objects, which is a major interest of this age group.

Contents are divided into three major categories within the framework curriculum. Expression and fine arts contains the description of activities for self-expression and expectations in the field of analysing works of art. Visual communication covers the world of informative and scientific visual information students encounter in their daily lives. Objects and environment contains creative and analytical activities in connection with objects used in daily life, arts and crafts, folk art and architecture.

The proportion of creation and reception in year 9 and year 10 is approximately the same, or the proportion of creative work may be increased. Due to the nature of this subject the content is organised around practical activities.

Developmental requirements
It is reasonable to expect a secondary school leaver to have developed view of space, understand visual information one encounters in daily life, make conscious decisions as a customer, use the environment properly, be familiar with the outstanding works of art history and have an opinion of them. At the same time, secondary school graduates can be expected to have representation skills required in daily life, as well as sufficient experience and taste to use as a basis of making everyday aesthetic decisions.

A general requirement is to improve students’ openness towards the treasures of art and to develop an environment conscious attitude, critical acumen, the esteem of works of art, objects and information. Secondary education must provide a good basis for higher education or employment. The listed general requirements can be achieved through the accomplishment of the specific requirements of this subject.

Basic skills
A clear, unambiguous drawing or geometric representation of an imaginary or real object or space (Cavalier projection, isometric and dimetric Monge projection, perspective with two vanishing points). Visual representation of data, correlation on the basis of what has been learnt. Depiction of a story, series of events, change and motion in an easy-to-understand way.

Two or three dimensional, conscious visual representation of emotions and thoughts in with expressive tools and techniques chosen specifically for the topic. Independence at the various stages of problem solving: interpretation of situation, orientation, sketches - design, creation - construction and evaluation of work. The ability to choose the right branch of art (e.g. fine arts, applied arts). Aesthetic expression on the scale required by the problem, construction of communicative meaning, harmony of form and function.

Knowledge of the major genres, specific features, correlation, historical milestones, outstanding achievements and personalities of the discussed branches of art, the ordinary environment and mass communication (e.g. sculpture, applied graphics, industrial design). Application of the appropriate analytic method depending on the subject of analysis (e.g. criticism of style, iconography, analysis of subject). Analytical skills covering the process from description to judgement. Openness towards non-European works of art and genres. Tolerance in judging new works and objects. A critical approach towards the reception of the phenomena of ordinary life, visual information, conscious judgement of commercial goods on the basis of the learnt criteria.
Development of skills facilitating learning and work
Making thoughts transparent, giving a graphic account of thoughts, understanding visual information in learning, work and daily life. The aim of the subject visual art is to teach these methods and to train students in the proper use of sources of visual information (e.g. library, gallery, internet).
Year 9
Number of teaching hours per year: 37
New activities
Synthesis and application of knowledge of visual language. Independent work in a certain sphere of tasks organised around a given problem, topic, experience. Analysis of the genres of sculpture, painting, graphical arts in the context of the appropriate period and culture. The exploration of the visual content and laws of a visual object, analysis of form and space in pictures and plastic arts. Transition from perspective to perspective geometry (axonometry). Interpretation and application of the form of representation in visual communication, in relation with the function of visual communication. Applied graphics and industrial design exercises with implementing the whole process of creation. Selection and application of an appropriate mode of expression and technique for a topic. Justification of choice.



Fine arts,


Visual language

The elements of the language of visual expression. Linking elements and the construction of form in students’ own works, works of art, objects and visual information.


Two and three dimensional representation of emotions, moods, states of the mind through the individual use of expressive tools.

Working with experiences of art (e.g literature, music) in an associative manner, using illustrative, graphic or plastic representation or painting.

Transformation of visual experience into colours and forms. Individual expression of experiences based on synthesis.


Application of genre specific terms of reference for analysis (iconography, history of styles) form description to judgement.

The definition and function of painting

Painting styles (cultural, social and historical factors)

Genres and genre specific themes (e.g. portray, still life, landscape), typical forms (e.g. panel picture, mural painting), techniques (e.g. oil, fresco).

Expressive tools and impacts of painting.

The concept, function, style, topics, techniques form and language of image graphics.

The concept and function of sculpture.

Forms used in communication with sculpture, styles (cultural, social and historical factors).

Genres of plastic art (round sculpture, group, relief). Themes and techniques of plastic art.

The impact of sculptures.

Contemporary genres of fine arts (e.g. environment, installation)

Studying an available art collection.

Visual communication

Visual language

The elements of the forms used in graphic representation and design graphics. Links between the elements.


Study of nature, interpretation of visual objects and models: study and analysis of form, structure, material and function.

Making strips and flow charts expressing or explaining evolution, operation and change.

Representation of complex forms of space, position of objects in the system of descriptive geometry (Monge projection, isometric and dimetric axonometry, Cavalier projection) with free-hands and construction.

Reconstruction, modelling.
Applied graphic design using image and text. Use of type face (e.g. scientific illustration or Ex libris, invitation card, business card).

Everyday and scientific use of systems of representation.

Genre specific features of ordinary and scientific communication.

Design graphics as a carrier of message, its informative, communicative and imperative function.

Objects and environment

Visual language

Elements of form in the world of objects. Correlation between content and form.


Designing an object to satisfy a real need (e.g. jewel, piece of clothing, accessory, musical instrument, machine). Making a three dimensional model of the object. Documentation of design process in a log book (definition of task, orientation - collection of information, ideas -, drawings of the subject, colour and material samples).


The process of creation (definition of task, design, implementation, testing, evaluation).

Function and form, meaning, scale, material, structure, production method in relation to making judgements of objects.

See Year 10.

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