Framework curricula for secondary schools

Topographic concepts necessary for covering the syllabus

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Topographic concepts necessary for covering the syllabus
Teaching geography on the secondary level requires the treatment and application of geographical names learnt at primary school from a new perspective.
New topographic terms
Aconcangua, African Plate, Antarctic Plate, Atacama Desert, Australian-Indian Plate, Azores, Békás Strait, Borneo, Pacific Plate, South American Plate, North American Plate, Eurasian mountain system, Eurasian Plate, Philippine Plate, Gondwana, Grossglockner, Japanese Trench, Caledonian mountain system, Krakatau, Laurasia, Libyan Desert, Mariana Trench, Mount St. Helens, Mt Pelée, Namibian Desert, Nazca Plate, Olympos, Pacific mountain system, Pangea, Popocatépetl, St. Gothard Pass, Takla-Makán, Teleki Volcano, Turanian Plain, Variscian mountain system;

Lake Arlo, Lake Boden, Brahmaputra, Lake Csád, Danube Delta, Lake Erie, Eufrates, Lake Superior, Lake of Geneva, Lake Gyilkos, Lake of Hévíz, Lake Huron, Dead Sea, Lake Ijssel, lake Ladoga, La Plata, Polish Lake Land, Mekong, Lake Michigan, Niagara Falls, Lake Ontario, Lake Fehér of Szeged, Lake Szelidi, Lake St. Ann, Watt Sea;

Benguela Current, Humbold Current, Kuro-shio Current, Oia-shio Current;

Bratsk, Greenwich, Irkutsk, Karlovy Vary, Manaus, Monterrey, New Orleans, Vancouver.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Students can determine locations and calculate distance with the help of maps. Students can solve simple problems related to astronomy and the calculation of time. They can describe the structure, the make-up and the most important processes of the geospheres with the help of diagrams and models. They can explain the effect of the typical processes of the geospheres on everyday life. They can describe processes which are hazardous to the geospheres and the environment, and they can give examples to these processes. On the basis of examples, they can explain the basic correlation of the natural environment and social-economic processes.
Year 10
Number of teaching hours per year: 74
New activities
Describing the geographical occurrence of factors damaging the environment with the help of thematic maps. Exploring the background of the damage done. Comparative analysis of statistics and diagrams demonstrating the role and significance of the various sectors of the economy. Comparing the role of regions and areas in the world economy on the basis of various statistics and thematic maps. Explaining the changing role and significance of regions, and exploring the background of this phenomenon.

Collecting information on the specific features of the economic development of continents / regions using maps of economic history. Collecting data on the changing role of a particular product or product group in the world market. Explaining the reasons for these changes, and describing their impact on the economy. Collecting data on the significance and rapid development of information services. Press and television monitoring: the coverage of topical regional and global environmental issues and processes endangering the state of the environment. Describing the typical features, recent developments and processes of globalisation on the basis of articles and news from the media. Obtaining information from the press and news programmes on the role of international monetary institutions in the social and economic transformation of different regions. Finding examples to illustrate the different regions’ efforts for integration. Analysing the background of these efforts and comparing them with the teacher’s help. Collecting examples of the gradual transformation of the natural environment, the restoration of landscapes and regions damaged by human activities. Illustrating the difficulties and problems of recultivation.

Compiling list of products produced by multinational companies. Identifying the role of the various products in domestic consumption patterns. Giving an account of the environmental impact of the various sectors of the economy (written assignment, essay). Preparing a summary of the positions taken and acts passed recently in connection with the protection of the environment. Describing the problems and difficulties related to the enforcement of regulations and recommendations. Arguments for the protection of the environment. Illustrating everyday opportunities for protecting the environment. Comparing views on the differing interests related to global economic processes and national economies. Simulations: stock exchange, establishing an industrial park, the expansion of multinational companies.



The changing social and economic make-up of the world

The transformation of the economic structure

The main factors determining the settlement of the various sectors of the economy, and their altered significance.

The typical features of the various sectors of the economy.

The advance of the tertiary and the IT sectors.

The mainstream processes of global economy

The increasing value of globalisation, integration and regional relations. Attempts at independence in the national economy. The historical and spatial alteration of global economic roles. International co-operation, the role of international organisations in shaping social and economic activities in the world.

Links between production, consumption and commerce

Market economy.

The regional co-operation of the various sectors of the economy.

The role of multinational companies.

The world of working capital and money

International capital flow.

Debt crisis.

The stock exchange.

The major monetary organisations of the world.

Regions, groups of countries and countries with different roles in the world economy

Economic polarity

The development of the poles and their role in the world economy: South Asia and South-East Asia, North America, European Union.

Developing countries

The general problems of developing countries. Groups of developing countries with different levels of development. Their place and role in the global economy.

The chance of closing the gap.
Concrete examples of other, individual roles

Benelux Countries, Switzerland, Israel, Egypt, China, Kuwait, Turkey, Banana Republics, tax havens, tropical islands with holiday resorts.


Hungary’s place and role in the international social and economic processes.

The geographical basis of accession to the European Union.

The specific situation caused by the regime change.

Hungary’s role in the various regional co-operations.

The geographical dimension of environmental issues

The geographical consequences of the growth of population, production and consumption

Demographic boom, food crisis, raw material and energy crisis, environmental effects of urbanisation. Changes in the quality of the environment. Its impact on the quality of life.

The development of the environmental crisis

The interaction of the damage to the different geospheres.

The correlation of regional and global environmental hazards.

The possibility of international collaboration on different levels against the environmental crisis. The principle of harmonic and sustainable development. Obstacles to implementation

Topographic concepts necessary for covering the syllabus
Teaching geography on the secondary level requires the treatment and application of geographical names learnt at primary school from a new perspective.
New topographic terms
High Dam at Aswan, Kuznetsk Basin, Sachel Belt, Silicon Valley, Gibraltar;

Arab Emirates, Bolivia, Chile, Chad, Guinea, Iran, Kenya, Kuwait, Libya, Liberia, Malta, Monaco, Nicaragua, Tunisia, Uruguay;

the Bahama Islands, Bali, Dominica, Canary Islands, Panama, Seychelle Islands,

Alexandria, Antwerp, Atlanta, Burgas, Caracas, Chelyabinsk, Chernobil, Dallas, Dnepropetrovsk, Donets, Dortmund, Duisburg, Europoort, Cape Town, Galai, Hannover, Haifa, Houston, Jerusalem, Karachi, Karaganda, Kobe, Krasnoyarsk, Kyoto, Lvov, Manila, Mecca, Ostrava, Perth, Randstad, Rijad, Schecin, Seattle, Tehran, Tel Aviv-Jaffa, Thessaloniki, Triest, Usty-Ilimsk, Várna, Zurich.

Alps-Adriatic Region, Carpathian Euroregion, Middle East.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Students can characterise the major sectors and industries of the economy. They can explain their changing role and significance. They can interpret the integration processes which ca be observed in the various regions of the world, and explain their role in the world economy. They are able to identify the location of the poles of the world economy, and explain their role in the social and economic system of the world, and highlight their links to the developing world. They can analyse the historical and geographical rearrangement of various areas and economic regions using information from maps. With the help of thematic maps, they can describe the geographical occurrence of factors damaging the environment. From these, they can deduce the development of global threats. They can use examples to illustrate the environmental impact of growing production and consumption demands.

Years 9 and 10 of Education
Objectives and tasks
The main objective of teaching music in grammar schools is to make music an organic part of daily life. The effect of music has an emotional and an intellectual dimension, music has a strong impact on one’s character. The experience of collective musical activity, making music in a group, the joy of actively participating in music encourage students to become active and responsible members of the community.

Teaching singing in grammar school aims at providing a synthesis of knowledge, skills and active ways of making music students have learnt or practised earlier, raising them on a higher level due to the specific characteristics of this age group. This subject intends to make a contribution to shaping students’ view of music. Its objective is to organise students’ musical experiences, knowledge, and the diverse, often contradictory musical influences into a conscious approach to music.

Developmental requirements
For many students singing is the only way to make music actively. In secondary school, if the appropriate emotional and intellectual background is given, singing can be raised to a level where it becomes the means of artistic self-expression. Students should consider the human voice as the most perfect musical instrument which is always at hand. The objective is to develop students’ voice as a tool which can take them closer to the masterpieces of Hungarian and world music.

Collective or individual singing with a clear intonation, precise rhythm, articulated and expressive pronunciation of words, and with the right modulation also improves students’ ear for music. Moving from collective singing to polyphonic singing improves the ear for polyphonic music, the clear intonation of intervals and the sense of tonality.

Reading and writing music
On the secondary level, the objective is to further develop the sign system used for reading and writing music. Practice will help students to develop the skills of reproduction. The key components of musical reproduction are familiarity with the names of musical notes (in solmisation or the ABC system), score reading, recording tune and rhythm, and the interpretation of musical scores.
Listening to music
Listening to music and making students observe the music they are listening to will also help developing an ear for music. It allows the reception and observation of the musical process, the exploration of formal relations and awareness of all constituents of music. It is a good supplement to working on singing skills. Collective listening should increasingly focus on the application of existing knowledge and the observation of unknown musical pieces.

Musical reception skills are improved by means of listening to music. In years 9 and 10 listening to longer extracts allows for the observation of the overall context, the form, the principle of composition and musical solutions. Becoming aware of all these helps distinguishing between the general artistic features of the various periods of music, and exploring the boundaries and similarities between the different styles. Students general taste and ability to express opinions develop in parallel with these.

An important task is to develop learning methods compatible with the age specific characteristics. Students should be able to work on individual assignments with the help of their library and IT skills, using musical scores, reference books, dictionaries, encyclopaedias, listening material, CD (CD-ROM).

Learning about the masterpieces of the music of the world helps understanding the language of other branches of art better.

Keeping up with the range of music offered by the media, the ability to select the right thing, going to concerts regularly, organising and arranging the musical activities of the school are all important tools to make music an organic part of the life of young people.
Collective artistic activities
All fields of collective artistic work, i.e. choir, orchestra, folk dance group, improve performing skills and expands the means of self-expression.

Year 9
Number of teaching hours per year: 37




Learning folk songs from scores.

Efforts to copy authentic performance (especially in the world of Hungarian folk-songs).

Participation in group performances (singing or playing an instrument).

Singing polyphonic compositions (including compositions for mixed choirs).

Singing pieces from the period discussed in group or solo with instrumental accompaniment.

Expressing musical characters, stylistic features with the teacher’s conduct.

Folk songs representing all genres of Hungarian folk songs (folk ballad, lament, marching song, highwayman’s song, drinking song, matchmaker song, wedding song, dance, song).

Vocal music from the history of Hungarian music up to the end of the 18th century (lay, love-ditty).

Medieval tunes (Gregorian chant, minstrel song).

Renaissance vocal music.

Baroque compositions, passages from vocal music.

Themes of classical songs and compositions.


Identifying and interpreting musical components (e.g. rhythmic patterns, melody) on the basis of listening material.

Describing folk or composed music, period and style on the basis of recordings or written sources of folk music.

Describing periods and styles from the history of music on the basis of recordings or scores.

Creative work: library use, data collection, image collection, video, CD and other teaching aids.

Recorded folk music.

Hungarian and European musical compositions before the end of the 18th century.

Characteristics, genres and stylistic features of periods from the history of music.


Sequence for a given basic theme.

Improvisation of composed music or a folk song cycle with a given theme sequence, then independently.

Model melodies: The contents of sung and heard music (melodic themes: periodic melodies from composed and folk music.)

Reading and writing music

Establishing key on the basis of the analysis of the scores.

Solmisation of the themes of songs, musical pieces from scores in G-clef, in the known keys, until 3#3b.

Identifying abc notes in F-clef (the role of bass clef in the score).

Recognising triads from the score. Independent analysis on the basis of given criteria.

Writing down known melodies by heart, in the keys discussed.

The rhythmic, metric and melodic structure, key, form, written and acoustic specifics of singing and listening material.


Folk music

Folk song; folk ballad, lament, marching song, highwayman’s song, drinking song, matchmaking song, wedding song, dance.

Folk songs: structure, form, scale, range, modulation, style.

Folk instruments: bagpipe, zither, cimbalom, folk band.

Musical theory

Rhythm: short prolonged, short sharp, short syncope, eighth triplet, semiquaver triplet.
Beat: 3/8, 6/8, 2/2.
Score reading: Key signature 3#3b, modified solmisation and abc notes (in the known keys), alteration.
Scales: pentatonic scale, diatonic scale, major and minor scale, modal scales; modulation.
Chords: major / minor, principle of diminished and extended triad. Principle of T-S-D functions.
Musical terminology, performance instructions: pp. P. mp, mf, f, ff; crescendo, decrescendo, tempo giusto, parlando, rubato, allegro, moderato, andante, staccato, legato; da capo al fine, coda; solo, tutti; opus, numero.

Musical compositions

Genres from the history of Hungarian music:

Love-ditty, lay, ungaresca.

Genres from the history of European music:

Ecclesiastical music: Gregorian, organum, mass, motetta, chorale, cantata, oratorio, passion, requiem.

Secular music: canon, minstrel song, madrigal, opera; concerto gross. Suite, overture, prelude, fugue, rondo, variation, minuet, sonata, symphony, concerto, string quartet, trio.
Musical structures and forms:

Homophone and polyphone composition, sequence, period, trio form, sonata form.

Musical instruments:

Violin, viola, cello, double bass; flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon; trumpet, trombone, horn, tube; kettledrum, cymbal, triangle; organ, piano, lute, harp.

History of music

Periods in the history of music:

Middle Ages, Renaissance, Baroque, Vienna classics.


Josquin, Palestrine, Lassus; Purcell, Lully, Monteverdy, Corelli, Vivaldi, D. Scarlatti, J.S. Bach, Händel.

Prerequisites of moving ahead
Singing 10 new melodies - folk song, composed songs from the learnt periods from the history of music, excerpts from oratorios and operas - by heart. Participation in collective performance (group or class).
Listening to music
Describing the stylistic features of the following periods: medieval music, Renaissance, Baroque and classical music. Recognising these features in compositions or passages heard several times.

Recognising themes or passages from certain famous compositions.

Improvising rhythm with a given length using a given rhythmic pattern.

Improvising melodies with quint shift.

Improvisation of a simple ostinato rhythmic pattern for given melodies.
Reading and writing music
Follow-up solmisation of known melodies.


Establishing key based on key signature.

Writing down known melodies in G-cleff in the learnt key.

Individual analysis (key, form, mode of composition etc.) on the basis of the score of a known composition.

Interpretation of scores for vocalists and orchestra.

Identification of major / minor key.

Year 10
Number of teaching hours per year: 37




Solo singing of selections from Hungarian folk music.

Collective singing of songs of other peoples in the original language.

Singing polyphonic compositions together.

Collective singing with instrumental accompaniment.

Expression of musical characters.

Old and new Hungarian folk songs.

New songs of national / ethnic minorities.

New songs of other peoples.

19th century Hungarian songs.

20th century excerpts.

Vocal music by Béla Bartók, Zoltán Kodály and their disciples.

Singing easy-to-sing themes from famous compositions.


Learning the characteristic and influential stylistic features of 19th and 20th century music from the heard selections.

Recording and knowing the criteria needed for the analysis of musical phenomena.

Identifying the genres, forms and other characteristics of Romanticism and 20th century modern music. Comparison and analysis based on listening.

Describing the history of the evolution of certain genres using examples.

Identifying and explaining links between music and other branches of art.

Library work, data collection, collecting images; using video, CD and other learning aids.

Folk music recordings.

Compositions around folk songs.

Compositions and passages from outstanding 19th and 20th century pieces.

Music as entertainment in the course of history (with special regard to the music of the 19th and 20th centuries).

Popular music today.


Improvisation of rhythm for an asymmetrical rhythmic pattern.

Model melody:

20th century musical models (rhythm and melody).

Melodies from sung and heard 19th and 20th century samples.

Reading and writing music

Reading the scores of samples with asymmetrical rhythm and melody.

Writing down simple asymmetric rhythms and melodies by heart up to 3#3b.

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