Framework curricula for secondary schools


Prerequisites of moving ahead



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Prerequisites of moving ahead
Students can describe the elements organic compounds are made up of. They are familiar with the basic types of organic compounds (saturated, unsaturated, aromatic, open chain, closed chain, hydrocarbon, etc.). They know which of the discussed organic compounds are used frequently in daily life, how they are usually called in ordinary speech. They are familiar with their composition, can describe their structure with the help of a molecule model, and describe their impact on the environment and on human health. They know the safety rules and precautions related to the use of the products of the organic chemical industry without causing harm to the environment and human health. They can recognise colloidal systems in daily life, can explain their structure and composition. They can list the substances associated with addiction, and are aware of what effect these substances have on the human body. They can demonstrate the experiments made in class; while making experiments, they can use chemicals and experimental devices properly. They can explain the chemical reactions which was executed or observed in class. They can construct simple equations in organic chemistry. They can list environmental issues associated with organic compounds, and can mention a few solutions. They are aware of the adverse effects of economic development and know what sustainable development means.

THE EARTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Years 9 and 10 of Education
Objectives and tasks
This subject is to teach students the natural and social-economic features of the geographical environment. Building on what has been learnt earlier at primary school, in grades 7 and 8, the subject helps students learn about the Earth, man’s sphere of living, the specific features, phenomena and processes of nature and society. It shows the interaction of nature and society, the spatial and chronological order and consequences of their effect upon each other.

The aim of the subject is to make students able to understand the effects the processes and the development of the inanimate and living natural processes have on the society, and the change of these effects over time. Students should understand how the working of society have an effect on people’s own environment. The subject must help students interpret natural and social processes holistically. Students must be made capable of generalisation and synthesis, and they should interpret phenomena and processes as a comprehensive system. As a result of learning about the interaction and link between nature and society students should develop an environmentalist approach.

This subject enhances students’ awareness that the Earth is a coherent system in which humans live as natural and social beings at the same time. It is to show that man’s social and economic activities have significantly altered and are still altering the environment. A reasonable limitation of these activities which is based on the consideration of the benefit of the environment and man alike requires a conscious environmentalist approach including planning the use of resources. It must be made clear for students that social, economic and environmental problems can only be solved by the harmonisation of science and technology, economic and political factors, and even international collaboration.

The aim of teaching this subject is to make students able to define the place of Hungary and Europe in the current global social and economic processes, and to make them develop the awareness of their national and European identity. Teaching this subject should facilitate the development of interest in and respect of the lifestyle, culture and values of other social groups, nationalities and nations. This subject wishes to contribute to the development of a geographical / environmentalist view and a historical-geographical approach. Another objective of teaching geography is to make students realise that the evaluation of the various components of geographical setting is changing with the alteration of the geographical spatial structure. In this subject students can learn about the production activities pursued to satisfy the growing demands of society, the different features and outcomes of production in the various regions of the Earth. Students should recognise multidirectional interdependence prevalent in the society and the economy. Teaching the subject must help students understand the relationship between production and consumption, the limits and consequences of their growth together with the global problems of the Earth. It should develop students’ need for active participation in solving the problems of their community, country, region, and eventually finding solutions to the problems of the world.

The syllabus of geography is complex and is aimed at shaping students’ views in several respects. Geography takes a holistic approach to understand geographical and environmental phenomena and processes, combining the approach of the natural sciences, humanities and other disciplines dealing with the environment. In line with students age specific characteristics, with respect to years 9 and 10, the curriculum desires to shape students’ views through the study of how general natural and social-economic processes change in time and space, exploring links and interactions.

Teaching geography in grammar school is to prepare students for a successful school leaving examination. The complexity of knowledge passed on in the framework of this subject help students choose a career, gives guidance in the world of employment, and provides a good basis for continuing studies in this field in higher education. It has a major role in making school leavers able to assume responsibility in their decisions as citizens.



Developmental requirements
Through the discussion of the content of the material of Years 9 and 10, students must be taken to the level where they can recognise the various formations on the earth, the important natural and social phenomena, processes and their correlation. Students should apply their knowledge of regional geography during the survey of the topics of general natural geography and general social geography. They should understand the correlation between natural conditions and social-economic features in the various geographical zones, belts, areas and regions. They should be able to recognise the links between local, regional and global events, as well as their consequences of different significance. They need to understand that nature is an undivided whole, the Earth is a coherent system, where man lives as a natural and social being. The actions of the individual and the society which have an adverse effect on the working of the global system will also have on effect on human life, thus such behaviour is nothing but putting man’s own life to risk.

The objective of teaching geography at grammar school is to make students able to analyse and interpret natural geographic and social-economic events. The primary goal is to make students think in systems, expand the range of the concepts they know, synthesise what they have learned earlier, and see the place of current global processes in space and time. They must be able to perceive, evaluate and explain the changes in their environment and the interactions between nature and society which have developed on the Earth. They need to have an idea of the size of the elements of nature as well as the magnitude of chronological changes and data which can be expressed in figures. For this end it is necessary to achieve that students are able to describe trends on the basis of various rows of data and indices. Knowing the geographical processes of the past and present students must have an idea of the social, economic and environmental future of the Earth, mankind and their country. Having completed their secondary level studies in geography students must be capable of independent orientation in their natural, social and economic surroundings. They should use their knowledge of geography for making important decisions in their daily lives. They should apply their knowledge of other subjects for the interpretation of social and economic phenomena and processes. They must develop the motivation for expanding their knowledge of geography at a later stage of their lives, at their own choice. On the secondary level, students must be able to co-operate with others. They should apply their communications, cognitive and practical skills (interpreting and processing data, recognising and solving problems, establishing general laws, making judgement). They must be able to use special sources of information (thematic maps and maps with varying scale, specialist and popular scientific literature, periodicals, statistics, encyclopaedia, almanacs, CD-ROM, internet, exhibitions, films). They must be able to describe their experiences and express their opinions in an articulate manner. They need to develop sound debating skills built upon the use of arguments. Lessons in geography should also help students develop decision making skills in a way which is beneficial for the individual and the environment as well, and to get used to the search for alternatives.


Year 9
Number of teaching hours per year: 74
New activities
The use of maps of the Solar System, orientation and finding stars in the sky.

Logical analysis of maps of sea currents.

Analysis of thematic maps showing the distribution of soil types.

Analysis of thematic maps in connection with geographical zones.

Zones, belts and regions / areas on contour maps.

Analysis of thematic maps in connection with the spatial distribution of the world’s population.

Comparative and logical analysis of thematic maps, rows of data and diagrams showing natural geographic facts.

Preparing simple maps with the teacher’s help.

Explaining the major movements of the Earth and their consequences with the help of models and various types of figures.

Explaining the background of eclipses of the sun / moon and the changes of the moon on the basis of a self-made sketch.

Explaining the movements of rock plates with the help of a model, flow chart or video recording.

Study of minerals and rocks (how to recognise and classify them; usability and place of occurrence).

Collecting data on the level of air pollution and its consequences.

Collecting abyssal data on the basis of the maps in the atlas. Establishing links between the location of measurements and the relief of ocean basins.

Characterising the demographic processes of the world. Illustrating them with diagrams of age distribution and statistical data.

Preparing a detailed timeline / chart of the history of the Earth. Graphical illustration of the chronology of the main events of the history of the Earth.

Exercises in connection with orientation and time zones.

Graphical representation of temperature data.

Calculation of mean temperature and variation of temperature. Drawing conclusions from data.

Identifying and analysing diagrams of climate. Linking diagrams to landscapes, finding examples using a map.

Calculation of crucial hydrographic parameters.

Preparing an informative diagram of cyclones and anticyclones, fronts.

Recognising atmospheric phenomena. Comparing atmospheric phenomena on meteorological maps.

Recognising atmospheric phenomena in satellite pictures. Interpreting weather reports, preparing a simple forecast on the basis of available data.

Interpreting water-level reports.

Describing and explaining the structure and natural geographical phenomena and processes of the various geospheres on the basis of different figures and models.

Recognising processes of surface development and surface forms in pictures or figures (e.g. cross section, block section and flow chart). Guessing the geological structure on the basis of the location of mineral deposits.

Summarising the characteristic features of different types of settlement on te basis of pictures, maps, ground-plans and descriptions).

Collecting and analysing descriptions of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and their consequences.

Collecting data of the environmental impact of human activities on waters. Forming opinions on the basis of the collected data.

Discussing articles on the topical ecological problems of the various geographical zones. Group work.

Collecting examples of natural disasters, the possibility of prevention, the gradual transformation of the natural environment, the altered role of natural conditions in economy and society.

Collecting examples to illustrate the correlation of infrastructural development and the development of the community. The evolution of natural conditions and the network of settlements. Illustrating links between various types of settlement with examples from different continents and areas.

Explaining processes using historical knowledge in connection with the social and economic background of the evolution and development of various types of settlement.

Presentation on the practical application of geology; using literature for preparation.

Student presentation on the process of damaging air, water and soil by exploring possible reasons.

Describing factors influencing the development of a settlement on the basis of a case study. Debate on the reasons of climatic change and its possible outcomes on the basis of articles.



TOPICS

CONTENTS


Maps

Methods used in the representation of the geographical environment. Thematic maps.




The cosmic environment


The solar system.

The evolution, structure of the solar system. Its location in the universe.


The Earth as a celestial body.

The Earth in the solar system.

The movements of the Earth and their consequences.

Orientation in geographical space and time.

Solar time and calendar time, local time and zone time.
Space research for the benefit of the Earth

The role of artificial celestial bodies in the study of the earth and the Solar System.

The application of the findings of space research in everyday life and in the economy.



The geospheres


The evolution of the Earth

The evolution and development of the Earth and the spheres of the Earth.


The rock shell

The spherical shells of the Earth, and their geophysical properties.

The structure of the rock shell.

The basis of plate tectonics. The evolution of the large structural units of the Earth.

The accompaniments and sub-processes of the processes in the rock shell: volcanic activity, earthquakes, folding, faulting.

The correlation between geological structure and the occurrence of mineral resources.

The formation, properties and classification of ores and rocks.
The atmosphere

The material composition and structure of the atmosphere.

Weather and climate forming factors and their alterations.

Basic processes of the atmosphere: warming up, precipitation, air movements.

Cyclones, anticyclones, fronts, the effect of weather changes on daily life.

The global air circulation.


The hydrosphere

The parts of the hydrosphere and their position. Types f water.

Geographical properties of oceans and seas.

The physical and chemical properties of seawater.

The movements of seawater.

The significance and natural resources of oceans and seas.

Continental waters: types, links and utilisation of surface and underground waters.

Continental ice.

The basis of water management. Flood protection.
The soil

The formation, composition and structure of soil.

Typical soil types on the Earth.

The ecological significance and utilisation of soil.


Surface forms on the Earth

The role of internal and external forces in surface formation.

Typical surface forms. Their formation and transformation.
The environmental problems of geospheres

Climatic change, air pollution, soil and water contamination, adverse effects of economic activities.




Geographical zonality


Climatic zonality

Solar zones and real climatic zones. The development and properties of zones.


Geographical zonality

Hot zone, temperate zone and cold zone. Regions within the zones.

The zonality of the living world, soil, hydrographic features and relief features, as determined by the climate.

The vertical zonality of mountainous regions.

The correlation between vertical and horizontal geographic zonality.



The effect of geographical zonality on the society and the economy

The components of the natural and the social environment. The interaction of nature and society.


The effect of geographical zonality on the society and the economy

The zonality of renewing resources and food production as determined by the climate.


The population of the Earth

The composition of the world’s population.

Spatial differences in the distribution of the world’s population.

Population movements.

Indices of demographic change.
Settlements on the Earth

Factors determining the geographical location of settlements.

The interaction between settlements and social-economic processes.

Types of settlement and their typical features.

Processes related to the transformation of the role, structure and network of settlements.




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