Framework curricula for secondary schools


Prerequisites for moving ahead



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Prerequisites for moving ahead
Students can argue for the importance of nature conservation areas and against behavioural patterns contaminating and destroying the environment.

They can see the correlation of the life of living organisms in their environment and the daily or annual alteration of the environment.

They can illustrate the quantitative features of nutrition chains and biomes with a diagram. They are able to interpret similar diagrams

They have a need to learn about the biological environment from as many aspects as possible in the greatest possible depth. In order to do this they use scientific journals, books, reference books and other sources of information.

They can solve simple biological problems without help.

They have a need for a healthy lifestyle and conscious diet. They understand the personal and social disadvantages of unhealthy habits.

They understand that regular exercise is the basic need of the so-called civilised human being.

They understand that vaccination is for the benefit of the individual and society alike.

They are able to recognise values strengthening human health and to acquire behavioural pattern conducive to the preservation of health.

They understand that the biological properties of living organisms are materially determined, and qualities not coded in genetic information cannot be developed artificially.

They must come to understand that the living world and living organisms are in a constant process of change.

They can see clearly that less genetic diversity would endanger life on Earth, and this should be the motive of their environmentalist activities.

They can understand that certain human activities cause extreme alterations in the global environment or accelerate changes to an extent which evolution is unable to keep up with.

CHEMISTRY
Years 9 and 10 of Education
Objectives and tasks
Teaching chemistry in years 9 and 10 intends to further improve students’ knowledge of chemistry building on the basis laid down at primary school. Through providing an increasing number of touch points to the knowledge of other fields of science, students’ knowledge, view of the world and abilities are further improved.

This age group does not only able to understand abstract concepts, but requires the use of such concepts, therefore the learning process is dominated by understanding. Students’ previous knowledge of physics and the discussion of general chemistry based on a scientific approach provide new interpretations for old knowledge of inorganic chemistry, and provide a basis for the understanding of phenomena which will make them able to handle the organic chemical processes in living organisms. Examples taken from daily life close the gap between the learning process and reality.

The properties of organic matter which have a significance in the household, the immediate environment, the economy or in nature are added to students’ knowledge of matter. They can learn about the key compounds causing harmful addiction (alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, drugs), as well as the biological and social impact of these compounds.

Children, who already have some experience in experimenting, can now learn how to use more complicated tools, including instruments and computers, which are used in experiments and measures. Many of them will prepare and implement their own experiments and measures according to instructions, under the teacher’s supervision, and sometimes also interpret their experiments and measures. Those who are interested will be able to use their knowledge as a tool of problem solving: they can design experiments to investigate and solve a particular problem.

The use of molecule models during the discussion of covalent and secondary bonds, and organic chemistry is inevitable. Modelling helps understanding complex spatial relations, improve the sense of space, and children also like doing it. Preparing the model of a complex molecule is an exciting challenge for them.

Visits to plants have a crucial role in the presentation of the chemical industry, some of the unknown dimensions of everyday life and career orientation. It is a good experience and reassurance for students to hear the professionals working in a production plant using familiar concepts to describe the production process, the arising problems and the environmental issues.

As a result of the synergetic effect of subject concentration, students are usually able to prepare good oral and written work with some scientific value by the end of year 10. The fact that they like to use the computer to do such assignments is an opportunity teachers should not miss to exploit.

At the age of 14-16 children are very sensitive to environmental issues, intellectually and emotionally alike. They start to have an overall view of the world, sense anomalous situations, have a developed critical acumen, and extremely open both emotionally and intellectually. An important goal, and also an opportunity, to integrate biology, geography and physics in environmental education. Serious results may be achieved in the field of environmental education by doing this in terms of shaping students’ view of the world and the environment, their values and daily habits.

While learning chemistry, students acquire a body of knowledge and skills which provide a good basis for further development in daily life in terms of handling different types of matter and information related to them. With sufficient repetition and practice, this knowledge is enough for a successful school leaving examination. If it is complemented with some extra reading, students will become able to continue studies successfully on the tertiary level in the field of basic and applied science.

Developmental requirements
Learning and application skills
Students need to have a thorough knowledge of how to use printed broadcast and digital media in a critical manner. They need to be able to hold a presentation or write a paper with scientific aspirations by using their linguistic, communications and IT skills and exploiting the local audio-visual facilities.

Following repeated experiments and experiments made according to written instructions, students must be exposed to problems they can only solve by designing and implementing experiments themselves.

Students need to learn the routine of building molecule models. With the help of the finished models, they should be able to understand the structure, physical and chemical properties of molecules.

They need to realise that scientific and technological development, industrial, economic and social processes constitute the backdrop of environmental problems, and it is questionable whether society will be able to solve these problems with the help of science. They need to be aware of the fact that possible solutions are sometimes hindered by political or economic interests which is not in favour of the solution. Students need to recognise environmental issues in their daily lives, and should try to seek solutions for some of the simple concerns in collaboration with their parents and teachers. Their daily routines should be built around an environmentally conscious lifestyle to the greatest possible extent.

Students need to understand from the experience taken away from home, school and their broader environment that the healthy condition of the human body and the environment is not a replaceable value for neither the individual nor the community of a smaller or larger size. We need to identify the environmental factors and the components of our contemporary lifestyle which endanger these values. They should have develop their own views on these issues.

Knowledge of matter
Students need to know about the particle like nature of matter in such depth which can be expected from am individual of their age and abstraction skills. As a result of their investigations and studies they need to be familiar with the particle structure of the most common inorganic and organic substances found in their immediate environment. They need to be able to guess properties related to structure and other factors, possible hazards, safety rules and precautions of use.

Students need to know the specific features of matter with different level of organisation, and they need to tell what is identical and what is different among these.

Out of the various substances in the environment one has the most immediate and long term contact with the foodstuff one consumes. Students need to have enough information of the natural ad artificial substances which get into the human body. They need to have an idea of the role, value and risks of these substances. They must be aware of the connection between nutrition and the preservation of health, and they need to know what sort of diet is healthy.

Alcohol, nicotine and drugs are those hazardous substances which present the biggest potential risk for this age group. In order to make sure children will restrain from the use of these substances, it is necessary to find the appropriate way to demonstrate the health hazards as well as the long term personal and social impacts of addiction to these substances. Students must know the dangerous effects of these substances and refuse their consumption.

Students need to be able to identify hazardous substances in their own environment. They should try to prevent or reduce the accumulation of these substances either themselves or with help.

Chronological orientation. Time and natural phenomena
Students need to know that time is a basic quantity, and with the help of time, it is possible to determine other quantities. They need to see that chemical processes may have different chronological patterns (from oxidation to explosion).

They need to be aware that certain chemical processes are reversible. They should use examples to understand the possibilities of changing the state of equilibrium. Students need to know that chemical, dynamic equilibrium only exists in inanimate systems, and living organisms have other types of equilibrium.


Orientation in space. Space and natural phenomena
Students need to have an idea of the dimensional proportions within the atom, and the scale of difference between the size of chemical particles and the size of bodies which can be perceived directly.

They need to have an idea of the three-dimensional form of molecules, how this form can change, and what is isomerism, which is based on this phenomenon. They need to be familiar with the spatial relations between sets of particles.


The nature of scientific investigation and the development of natural sciences
Students need to know that in terms of the constituent particles and the laws manifest in the links between these particles, the material world is in fact uniform, although it looks diverse. They need to understand that nature as a system is consistent. However, human cognition makes it necessary to study the different aspects of nature in segregation, according to different methods in the framework of the various disciplines. They need to be aware of the fact that the development of scientific knowledge is a winding path. The accumulated knowledge is the achievement of mankind, it contains all the experience of past generations, the work and talent of scientists who devoted their lives to the solution of scientific problems. Students need to know the names of outstanding Hungarian and foreign researchers whose achievements can be related to what they have learnt in chemistry.
Year 9
Number of lessons per year: 74
New activities
Students are required to use, establish and practise the knowledge, activities and skills which they have already learnt in primary school but can be connected to the content of grammar school chemistry.

Experiments and observations according to the teacher’s oral or written guidance. Appropriate handling of the human health related and environmental impact of substances used or generated in experiments.

Use of popular scientific literature, scientific and daily press coverage, encyclopaedias, library and media collection, broadcast and digital media in a critical manner and high demands.

Comparison, screening and categorisation of information gathered through observation and measurement or from the media. Individual assignments requiring systematisation.

Regular discussion of events and news with a background related to chemistry (e.g. accidents, disasters, scientific and technological achievements).

Follow-up, liking, comparing and assessing news of recent events.

Representation of information with bar diagrams, charts, graphs, figures and drawings. Interpretation and use of these.

Conversion of verbal and graphic information into each other.

Use of computer skills and exploitation of opportunities provided by available software in the above activities.

Giving a student presentation on what has been learnt, with or without help, using visual aids.

Correct use of terminology in oral and written work.

Recognising simple or complex natural phenomena, processes, technical applications requiring clarification, and explaining some of these.

Identifying the energy relations caused by the forces which keep matter together. Drawing conclusions regarding the energetic changes accompanying processes.

Explaining the properties of familiar substances on the bases of their inner primary and secondary bonds.

Guessing the properties of substances on the basis of composition, and guessing structure on the basis of properties.

Application of previously learnt knowledge of the structure of matter to understand elements and compounds introduced earlier.

Establishing the structural change of substances participating in a reaction.

Classification of known chemical reactions by type; recognising key features necessary for classification.

Interpretation of reactions with reduction and oxidation with the help of the changes of the oxidation number; sorting reaction equations on the basis of the change of the oxidation number.

Anticipating the direction of oxidation-reduction processes based on the comparison of standard potential.

Ion equations for simple cases.

Application of what have been learnt about chemical symbols and the quantitative interpretation of chemical equations.

Simple calculations (simple stoichiometry, formulas, composition of mixtures and blends, thermochemistry, electromotive force and standard potential, integer pH); using what have been learnt about the quantitative interpretation of symbols and the use of SI metric units to work out the solution.

Checking the scale of the result without a calculator.




TOPICS

CONTENTS


History of chemistry

The life, experiments and discoveries of outstanding scientists in connection with the discussed material. Milestones in the history of chemistry.




The world of particles


Atomic structure:

Atom models in the history of science.

The normal atom and its activation.

The structure of the electron cloud: electron shells, sub-shells, atomic orbits, electron pairs, electron without a pair.

Valence electrons, atomic kernel.

Ionisation energy. Electronegativity.

Use and hazards of radioactivity.
Structure of the molecule:

Covalent bond: sigma and pi bond, delocalised bond, dative bond, polar and apolar bond.

Bond energy.

Main factors determining the spatial structure of molecules.

Apolar molecules, dipole molecules, conditions of dipolarity.
Sets of substances:

Indicators of state, Avogadro’s Law.

Molar volume of gases, gas density.

Primary and secondary bonds. Types, properties and the formation of primary / secondayr bonds.

Composition: percentage by amount of matter and volume, concentration (mol/dm3). Dilution of solutions.

Types of crystal lattice, amorphous substances.





Chemical interactions in the light of the knowledge about particles



Thermochemistry

Reaction heat (exothermic and endothermic reactions), heat of formation, Hess ‘s Law.


Reaction velocity and equilibrium

Conditions of reactions, activation energy, factors influencing reaction velocity (concentration, temperature, catalysts).

Chemical reactions leading to equilibrium, the law of equilibrium, equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier’s principle.
Oxidation-reduction:

Oxidation and reduction (with electron transfer), oxidising and reductive agents, the correlation of the two reactions.

Oxidation number.
Galvanic cells:

The principle of the galvanic cell.

Electrode, cathode and anode.

Cathodic and anodic processes within the galvanic cell, electric force, standard potential.

The practical significance and environmental issues of the galvanic cell (e.g. batteries, lead storage battery).
Electrolysis:

Cathodic and anodic processes during electrolysis (in the discussed instances).

Faraday’s Laws.

The practical significance of electrolysis (e.g aluminium production, electrolysis of salt).


Acid and base reactions

The concepts of acid and base by Brönsted, acid and base pairs.

Strong and weak acids and bases. Autoprotolysis of water, water ion product (at 25C), pH.




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