Prerequisites of moving ahead Students are able to observe physical phenomena, and give an account of experiences from these observations.
They can use the fundamental terminology of mechanics (inertia, mass, force, weight, velocity, acceleration, energy, work, power, efficiency).
They are familiar with the graphical representation of measured data: they should be able to draw simple graphs and analyse graphs (e.g. distinguish constant quantities from variables, characterise change).
They can solve simple mechanical problems with the help of the fundamental relations learnt in class. They know and use the metrical units of physical quantities learnt in class.
They can give examples to the phenomena discussed in class, an to the manifestation of the discussed laws in nature and in the case of certain technical devices. They can use the metrical units learnt in class in the case of quantities used in everyday life.
They are able to select the known laws and constants from the reference book of formulae and tables, and explain the various formulae.
They know that a great deal of interesting and useful data and information are available on the world-wide web.
Number of teaching hours per year: 92
New activities The abstract notion of ‘ideal’ gas as a generalisation of the experience from experiments with concrete gases.
Demonstration of how to develop concepts with general validity, and how to formulate laws with mathematical tools in the simplest possible way on the occasion of introducing the scale of gas temperature.
The explanation of indicators and changes of state. Graphical representation with p-V diagrams.
Conclusions with regard to the invisible micro-structure of matter drawn from macroscopic measurements and complex physical experiments.
The interpretation of macroscopic thermodynamic quantities and phenomena with the help of the particle model.
Application of PC simulation software to illustrate the kinetic gas theory.
The development of the physical concept of field (electric, magnetic) imperceptible to our senses. Field characterisation using physical quantities.
Identification of analogies between laws with different content but similar form (e.g. law of gravitation and Coulomb’s law).
The classification of matter according to electric conductivity (conductors, semiconductors, insulators).
The application of electrophysics in everyday life (electric shock protection, accident prevention, saving energy).
Physical explanation of how electric appliances work, on the basis of models and schematic figures.
The analysis of the complex technical system of electric energy supply from the point of view of physics.
Highlighting the links between physics and chemistry (e.g. electric interaction and ion bond, the basic concepts of thermochemistry and the first law of thermodynamics, the basic concepts of chemical kinetics and the kinetic gas model, the correlation of the chemical bonds and the electric conductivity of pure and contaminated semiconductors).
Collection of additional information in the library and on computer networks.
Indicators of state (temperature, volume, pressure, amount of matter).
The Boyle-Mariotte Law and Gay-Lussac’s laws. Kelvin’s temperature scale.
The universal gas law and the state equation.
The explanation of isothermal, isobar and isochore change of state, p-V diagrams.
The atomic structure of matter
Organisation of old knowledge from a new perspective (law of proportions, Avogadro’s law).
The size of atoms / molecules.
The ‘ideal gas’ and its model.
Interpretation of macroscopic thermodynamic quantities and phenomena on the basis of the particle model (the fundamentals of kinetic gas theory).
The internal energy of gases.
The First Law of Thermodynamics
The generalised concept of internal energy.
Changing internal energy by work, heating.
General formulation of the law of energy conservation - the first law of thermodynamics.
Investigations into thermal interaction. The volumetric heat of solids and liquids.
The qualitative study of gases’ change of state (isobar, isothermal, isochore and adiabatic process) on the basis of the first law of thermodynamics. Volumetric heat of gas.
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
The direction of processes.
Study of temperature change in spontaneous thermodynamic processes.
Changes of state
The characteristics of melting-freezing, boiling / evaporation - condensation.
The role of pressure in change of state.
Energetic study of change of state. Heat of fusion, heat of evaporation.
Basic electric phenomena
The concept of electricity, charge. Electrically charged bodies, electric polarisation, conductors, insulators.
Force acting between two charges, Coulomb’s Law.
The electric field
The concept of field strength, homogenous field, field of a single charge, lines of force.
The concept of voltage and potential.
Conductors in an electric field (practical applications: point effect, shielding, electric discharge, earthing).
The concept of capacity.
The energy of a condenser (electric field).
The direct current
The concept and characteristics of direct current.
Resistance of conductors, specific resistance.
The charge of the electron
The atomic structure of electricity (electrolysis, Millikan’s experiment - the charge of the electron).
The mechanism of conduction in metals and semiconductors.
Direct current networks
Kirchhoff’s laws, resistors connected in series / parallel.
Measuring intensity of current and voltage. Connecting instruments, measuring limit.
Direct current power source - the galvanic cell.
The concept of electric power.
The magnetic field
Experiment based investigation of magnetic fields. The magnetometer.
The characteristics of magnetic fields.
The concept of magnetic induction vector, lines of force.
The magnetic field of current (long straight conductor, coil)
Magnetism on Earth.
Conductors in a magnetic field.
The interaction of conductors.
The principle of the direct current motor.
Moving charge in a magnetic field. The concept of Lorentz force.
Experiments with cathode rays - the concept of specific charge.
Experiment based study of motional induction. The explanation of the phenomena, the calculation of induced voltage.
Generating alternating voltage in an experiment. The concept and characteristics of alternating voltage, alternating current. The concept and measurement of effective power, effective voltage, effective intensity of current.
Generating mains electric energy.
Experiment based study of static induction. The generalisation of Lenz’s Law.
The phenomenon of self inductance in everyday life.
The energy (magnetic field) of a coil.
The principle of the transformer.
The practical application of transformers.
Prerequisites of moving ahead Students realise that the general laws of thermodynamics, i.e. the generalisation of the conservation of energy (first law of thermodynamics) and the irreversibility of spontaneous natural processes (second law of thermodynamics), are applied by other natural sciences as well. They can prove this with some simple examples.
With the help of the kinetic gas model, students should be able to interpret the physical properties of gases. They understand the correlation of the macroscopic system and the microscopic model.
They recognise and the discussed thermodynamic phenomena in everyday life, and know how to explain them.
They know some results of experiments and empirical facts which indicate that as far as structure is concerned, matter is considered to consist of atoms.
They can recognise conductors and insulators among the materials found in their environment.
They can measure voltage and intensity of current safely, and build a simple circuit on the basis of a drawing. They know what a short circuit is, and what effects it may have.
They are clear about the physical principles underlying the operation of common electric appliances.
They know how electric energy is produced. They are familiar with the necessity and possibility of saving electric energy.
Number of teaching hours per year: 74 New activities Formulation of generalised wave properties. The development of an abstract wave concept based on experience from experiments (experiments with waves in a thread, waves in water).
The application of general concepts for the explanation of simple, concrete cases.
The correlation between the perceptible properties of wave phenomena (sound, light) and their physical properties.
The interpretation of physical experiences and experimental facts with the help of models. Understanding the correlation of model and reality.
Various approaches to physical reality: the ‘point-like’ and wave-like properties of matter.
Analysing the role of historical experiments in physics with respect to the evolution of atom models.
Using computer simulation and demonstration programmes to help understanding the phenomena of modern physics which cannot be demonstrated directly.
The difference between hypothesis, scientific theory and statements proved by experiments and experience.
The consideration of arguments and counter-arguments related to a single problem (e.g. in connection with the utilisation of nuclear energy).
The difference between science and pseudo-science.
Critical reading and analysis of topical issues in physics appearing in the press.
Creating a link between nuclear physics and previously acquired knowledge about the structure of atoms, as learned in chemistry.
Creating a link between and providing a synthesis of the various phenomena, concepts and laws of physics discussed in secondary grammar school.
A look at current research in the connection with the topic of space research (using popular scientific material from the Internet).
Vibration and waves
Experiment based study of harmonic oscillation. Graphical representation.
Quantities describing oscillation.
The application of Newton’s Second Law for a body on a spring.
Calculating the period of oscillation.
Energy of oscillation, conservation of energy.
Consequences of external factors influencing vibration (experiment based study of damping and resonance).
Experiment based study of the pendulum.
The wave as a state of oscillation propagating in a medium. Longitudinal and transversal waves, parameters of waves: wavelength, period, velocity of propagation.
Experiment based study of wave phenomena on elastic thread and in wave tank.
The colour separation of white light, mixing colours.
Deflection and optical grating / optical slots, interference, polarised light.
Light speed as velocity limit.
The dual nature of light
The recapitulation of the wave-like properties of light.
Photoelectric phenomena - the ‘point-like’ nature of light.
Photocell, solar cell, practical applications.
The dual nature of the electron
The electron as a particle.
Electron interference, electron wave.
Practical application: electron microscope.
The experimental basis, progressive features and deficiencies of the various models.
Thomson’s atom model.
Rutherford’s model (the nucleus)
Bohr’s model: discrete energy levels.
Line spectrum, emission and absorption of light.
The atom model of quantum mechanics.
The structure of the nucleus
Nucleons (proton, neutron), the properties of nuclear interaction.
The characteristics of alpha / beta / gamma decay.
The concept of radioactivity, radioactive transformation in time.
Radioactive radiation in our environment, the fundamentals of protection against radiation.
The application of natural and artificial radioactivity in practice.
The phenomenon of nuclear fission, chain reaction, multiplication factor.
A-bomb, nuclear power plants.
The advantages and risks of using nuclear energy.
The phenomenon of nuclear fusion, the energy production of stars.
The hydrogen bomb.
The life of the stars
The birth, development and extinction of stars.
Quasar, pulsar, neutron stars, black holes, galaxies.
Introduction into cosmology
The expansion of the Universe.
The theory of primeval explosion.
The exploration of outer space, paths of research.
Prerequisites of moving ahead Students are familiar with the meaning of frequency and wavelength.
They know how simple optical instruments work (spectacles, magnifying glass, microscope, telescope).
They are aware that noise (sound) and electromagnetic radiation may be specific forms of environmental pollution.
They are familiar with the experiments which played an important role in the evolution of the atom theory in the history of physics.
They are familiar with the composition of the nucleus.
They know the various types of radioactivity, as well as their specifics, the role of natural and artificial radioactivity in our life (risks and utilisation).
They are familiar with the main types of nuclear transformation (fission, fusion). They are aware of the possibilities of their utilisation. They can compare the advantages and disadvantages of using nuclear energy with those of other ways of energy production, with special regard to environmental effects.
They have an idea of the methods of investigation used in astronomy.
They know the most important astronomic objects (planet, various types of stars, galaxies, black hole), and they should be clear about their real physical properties.
By the last year of their grammar school studies, students have developed the outline of a modern scientific view of the world, as a result of the synthesis of the material of previous years and the components of modern physics. They are aware of the fact that nature is an undivided whole, and it should be approached holistically. Breaking it up into disciplines is only justified by the need to be able to study and understand it better. The fundamental general laws of physics are also valid in fields, such as chemistry, biology, geography and applied technology as well.
BIOLOGY Years 9 through 12 of Education
Objectives and tasks Building on the knowledge, skills and abilities acquired in primary school, the objectives of teaching biology in grammar school is to teach students the major laws of the life of nature, make them aware of the inseparable relation between human health and a sound human environment, and - together with other subjects - develop a need for acquiring new knowledge independently.
It follows from the above objectives that teachers of biology have the following tasks:
Teachers of biology must explain how vital functions become possible in living beings with various levels of organisation. They should develop a view of nature and a body of biological knowledge built around the fundamental principles of the diversity of populations and the significance of biological diversity. They should highlight the important links perceptible in the organisation of populations, and present the living and the inanimate environment as part of dynamically changing ecological systems. Teachers should provide an overall picture of how genetic information necessary for the formation of individual traits is passed on, and make students understand that stability and change in the living world is based on material foundations. They should provide students with supporting evidence of the unity of the living world, and show the place of human beings in the evolution and system of the living world of the Earth. They should teach students the means of sustenance and control in the human body, which allow the maintenance of the internal equilibrium of the human body within a constantly changing environment. Teachers should make students able to choose the right alternatives in connection with lifestyle by equipping them with sufficient information. They should promote the understanding of the rules of co-existence with other people and with the environment. They should make it clear that biology as a science has a crucial role in finding solutions for the global issues of the world, but everybody must make their own individual contribution.
Teachers should make students able to place the acquired knowledge in a context or into a system all the time, and to use scientific methods of investigation with regard to biological objects.
By making students conduct studies, make scientific experiments and read intermediate level scientific works suitable for their age specific interests, teachers should develop students’ need for independent learning. They should make it clear for students that biological knowledge must continuously expand in a constantly changing world, and one can only understand the phenomena of the world by keeping up with them. This is what will make individuals able to direct the processes of nature and society towards the path of harmonic development.
Teachers should highlight that biology is closely connected to ethics and social issues.
In co-operation with their colleagues, teachers of biology should prepare their students for recognising, criticising and refuting pseudo-scientific reasoning.
By using group work teachers should develop students co-operative skills, and provide them with a model of an attitude which helps accepting the diversity of people.