Marcus Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) with the goal of uniting Africans from all over the world to "establish a country and absolute government of their own."
Like Booker T. Washington, Garvey traveled to the United States in 1916 to raise money for a school like the Tuskegee Institute in Jamaica. He settled in New York City and formed a UNIA chapter in Harlem to promote a separatist philosophy of social, political, and economic freedom for blacks. In 1918, Garvey began publishing the widely distributed newspaper Negro World to convey his message of a Black America that was completely separate from White America.
1. What organization did Garvey discover AND what was its goal?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Did Garvey believe in segregation of white and black people? How do you know?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Black Business
In August 1920, the UNIA claimed 4 million members and held its first International Convention at Madison Square Garden in New York City. Before a crowd of 25,000 people from all over world, Marcus Garvey spoke of having pride in African history and culture. Many found his words inspiring, but not all. Some established black leaders found his separatist philosophy ill-conceived. W.E.B. Du Bois, a prominent black leader and officer of the N.A.A.C.P. called Garvey, "the most dangerous enemy of the Negro race in America” because of Garvey’s beliefs about sending African-Americans back to Africa. Garvey felt Du Bois was an agent of the white elite.
4. Why did DuBois disagree with Garvey?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Charges and Loss of Authority
In 1922, Marcus Garvey and three other UNIA officials were charged with mail fraud involving the Black Star Line. On June 23, 1923, Garvey was convicted and sentenced to prison for five years. Garvey claimed to be a victim of a corrupt investigation (and he was probably right). In 1927 he was released from prison and deported to Jamaica. Although Garvey continued his political activism and the work of UNIA in Jamaica after his release, he never gained back his earlier influence. Garvey did try one last desperate act. He worked with a known KKK member and tried to pass the the Greater Liberia Act of 1939 which would deport 12 million African-Americans to Liberia at federal expense to relieve unemployment. The act failed in Congress, and Garvey lost more support among the black population for promoting segregation.