Jacksonian Democracy and the States’ Rights Debate
Governance and Civics
Summary of the task, challenge, investigation, career-related scenario, problem, or community link.
Students will examine the era known as “The Age of Jackson”. Beginning with the presidential election of 1824 and the emergence of sectionalism in the election process, students will understand what types of political divisions were prevalent in the Northeast, the West, and in the South. Students will evaluate the reasons behind Jackson’s political come back in 1828 and how his election to the presidency changed the perception of the American people with regards to the public’s involvement in government. Students will also analyze President Jackson’s policy regarding Native Americans, especially the tribe’s native to the Southeastern United States and the role that Native Americans play in westward expansion. Lastly, students will study Jackson’s distrust of the Second Bank of the United States and why he supports its ultimate destruction.
The project for this unit will be an organized debate on the topic of mountaintop removal mining. Students will be required to familiarize themselves with both sides of the debate, thus connecting the role of being an informed citizen with social studies. Students will learn the positive side of mountaintop removal mining especially its impact on job creation and economic sustainability as well as the negative effects of mountaintop removal mining with emphasis on the environmental impact.
Hook for the week unit or supplemental resources used throughout the week. (PBL scenarios, video clips, websites, literature)
Day 1: Andrew Jackson Clip
This video is a brief synopsis of the presidency of Andrew Jackson. It begins by describing the humble beginnings of our nations seventh president from his birth in North Carolina to his move west into Tennessee. The video explains how Jackson will eventually become Tennessee’s first representative in Congress and later become a national hero when he leads American forces against the British at the Battle of New Orleans in 1815. It mentions his election to the presidency in 1828 and his eventual movement of the Cherokee people out West, which will famously be known as the “Trail of Tears”. It ends explaining the battle between Jackson and South Carolina regarding the tariff that South Carolina threatened secession over, which Jackson promptly halts.
Materials & Resources
I can explain the political divisions that appeared around the time period of the 1824 presidential election.
I can summarize how democracy changed during Jackson’s presidency.
How did American democracy change during the Jackson presidency?
Grouping- The teacher reserves the right to group students based on learning abilities after groups are chosen.
Students may research the presidential elections from 1992 to 2012. Students will create graphs of the percentages of eligible voters that did vote in each presidential election.
Students will choose both I can statements and answer on an index card.
1/2 Project Day – See Unit Plan
The Cost of Creating Energy - Introduction
Set: Students will use their i-pads and complete the following task that will be written on the board: Identify unique cultural and geographic features of the region in which you live. Allow about four minutes for students to answer and then randomly select students to airplay their responses and initiate classroom discussion.
Students will view a brief PowerPoint presentation on the Jacksonian era.
Students will choose one boy and one girl from each class period to run for the 8th grade class American presidency. Next, the candidates will select their own running mates from the remainder of the class. Once that is completed and the tickets established, each ticket will choose from the rest of the class its campaign workers.
Each candidates group will be required to create the following items to conduct a successful campaign: Party name, campaign yard sign, four campaign buttons, four campaign posters, one campaign flyer with pictures of the candidates and information describing their campaign platform, campaign commercial, and a five minute speech explaining what they would do if elected president.
Students will present their campaigns to the class on January 22, 2014. The teacher will play the role of the American voter. It will be up to each parties campaign to convince the teacher to vote for them.
Summarizing Strategy: Students will create a political cartoon depicting Andrew Jackson’s election to the White House in 1828 and another depicting the spoils system.
I can identify economic issues that increased tension within the states.
I can describe the issue of states’ rights from two opposing points of view.
In what ways did economic issues increase sectional tensions?
Students may answer half of the questions from the States’ Rights article.
Students will write a letter to the editor from the viewpoint of a South Carolinian regarding the Tariff of Abominations.
Students will be asked if they could answer today’s I can statements by showing thumbs up or thumbs down.
Set: Students will use a compare/contrast graphic organizer (Appendix A) and research sectional interests during the Jackson years. Students will look at the Western, Northeastern, and Southern interests.
Students will view a PowerPoint presentation on the Nullification Crisis and the states’ rights debate.
Students will answer questions from the States’ Rights article (Appendix B).
Students will create baseball cards about the key players of the Nullification Crisis: John C. Calhoun, Daniel Webster, and Henry Clay.
Summarizing Strategy: Students will investigate the similarities and differences between tariffs and taxes. Students will then illustrate the words tariffs and taxes without using any words in the illustrations.
I can explain why Jackson wanted the Native Americans to move West.
I can summarize the effects of the Indian Removal Act on Native Americans.
i-Pads, Apple T.V., Jackson Indian Removal political cartoon with discussion questions. (Appendix C)
What were the effects of the Indian Removal Act?
Students may complete only one of the two political cartoons with discussion questions.
Students may research in further detail the event known as the Trail of Tears. Students will keep a journal for one week and write about the hardships they experience.
Students will answer one of todays two I can statements on an index card before exiting the classroom.
Set: Trail of Tears Clip
Students will view a brief video explaining the reasons behind President Jackson’s removal of the Cherokee to the Oklahoma Territory. Students will gain a deep appreciation for the hardships that the Cherokee people endured during their “Trail of Tears” journey.
Students will view a PowerPoint presentation on Jackson’s Removal Policy, Indian Removal Act, The Trail of Tears, and Seminole Resistance.
Students will complete the political cartoon and portrait interpretation with discussion questions. (Appendix C)
Students will write a newspaper article to be published in the next issue of the Cherokee Chief newspaper. The purpose of the article is to inform readers about the passage of the Indian Removal Act. Students should warn readers of any possible effects this act could have on the Cherokee people and how they might prepare.
Summarizing Strategy: Students will create chart using their i-pads and develop their own opinions on why Jackson decided to relocate the Cherokee, taking into consideration the views of the white settlers, Jackson’s personal beliefs, the ruling of the Supreme Court, and the history of the Cherokee people. Students will then write a one-page essay in which they must place themselves in President Jackson’s shoes and decide on how they would have handled the issue of Indian Removal.
I can provide at least three arguments in favor of placing Andrew Jackson on the twenty-dollar bill.
I can provide at least three arguments for not placing Andrew Jackson’s image on the twenty-dollar bill.
i-Pad, “Should Andrew Jackson be placed on the Twenty-dollar Bill?” Web Quest
Does Andrew Jackson deserve to be on the twenty-dollar bill?
Group a lower level learner with a higher-level learner on the web quest activity.
Students may research the actual requirements that exist today regarding the placement of an individual’s image on currency in the United States. Students will create a PowerPoint presentation of their findings.
Students will turn in the completed web quest and a final vote will be taken after presentations are complete to determine whether or not Andrew Jackson’s image should be on the twenty-dollar bill.
½ Project Day – See Unit Plan
The Cost of Creating Energy – Learning from a STEM Professional
Place the students in groups and assign each group one of the seven roles found on the Web Quest site. (Appendix D)
Students will use the videos and primary source documents to develop a persuasive essay in which they argue as to whether or not Andrew Jackson deserves to be on the twenty-dollar bill.
Summarizing Strategy: Students will create a visual presentation for the class in which they try to convince their fellow students to vote for or against placing Andrew Jackson’s image on the twenty-dollar bill.
Project Day – See Unit Plan
The Cost of Creating Energy – Building a Generator
Project Day – See Unit Plan
The Cost of Creating Energy – Debating Mountaintop Removal Mining Research
I can explain why political cartoons can be useful to educate and inform the viewing public.
i-Pads, Political cartoons and questions for understanding.(Appendix E)
How does the use of political cartoons inform and assist in public perception?
Extended time to finish interpretation of the cartoons.
Allow students to find three to four political cartoons that have been created since President Obama has been in office. Students will write a one paragraph summary about what the cartoons mean in relation to the topic/situation the cartoon is about.
Students will answer today’s I can statement on an index card before leaving class.
Set: Students will be given the task of finding a political cartoon pertaining to the presidencies of Andrew Jackson, James K. Polk, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, or Theodore Roosevelt. Students will be chosen randomly to airplay their findings and the teacher will help to explain what message the cartoonist is trying to convey.
Students will use their i-pads and look up the meanings of the words symbol and metaphor.
Students will analyze three political cartoons (Appendix E) and answer the questions that go along with each one. Students may work in groups of no more than two.
Students will be chosen at random and airplay their answers to the questions.
The entire class will analyze the cartoons for a better understanding and allow for discussion on the topics portrayed in the cartoons.
Summarizing Strategy: Students will create their own “political” cartoon about Innovation Academy and their experiences so far at a STEM school.
I can identify the effects of Jackson’s destruction of the national bank.
I can explain the formation of the Whig Party in American history.
i-Pads, Apple T.V., poster board, and markers.
In what ways did the Whig Party differ from the Democrats?
Students may create an annotated time line of at least four events that led to the depression that followed the Panic of 1837. Students incorporate that information into a letter to the editor written by someone living either in the South, North, or West.
Students will create five diary entries as if they were living during the Panic of 1837 and include how it affected them and their family.
Students will answer both I can statements as an exit-ticket before leaving class.
Set: Students will answer the following question at their tables: What are some of the ways that banks can affect the world of business?
Students will view a PowerPoint presentation on the following topics: Martin Van Buren, Jackson’s War on the Bank, Panic of 1837, the birth of the Whig Party in 1840.
Students will create a movie poster featuring the “Panic of 1837”.
Students will need to show the main characters, which include Andrew Jackson, Nicholas Biddle, Congress, the Supreme Court, Henry Clay, Martin Van Buren, William Henry Harrison, and the Whig Party.
Summarizing Strategy: Students will write a letter to the editor that provides more details on the battle between Jackson and the Bank. The student will give his/her opinion on whom, if anyone is to blame for the depression that followed.
I can summarize the evolution of America’s two party political system.
i-Pads, construction paper, markers.
How did America’s two party system develop from the origins of the republic up to the Civil War years?
Extended time to finish timelines.
Allow students to add to their timelines information about notable third parties in American history. Students should include the following political parties: Progressive Party, Bull-Moose Party, Dixiecrats, and the Greene Party.
Students will answer today’s I can statement before exiting.
½ Debate Day – See Unit Plan
The Cost of Creating Energy – Debating Mountaintop Removal Mining
Set: Using the “stop-watch” function on the i-pad, tell students they have three minutes to name as many political parties from United States history as possible. Next, ask how many named five or more. Instruct the student to airplay his/her answers. The student who correctly names five or more parties will be given a piece of candy for their effort.
Students will watch the following Flocabulary rap about the birth of American political parties: Party Rap
Using their i-Pads, students will create a timeline showing the evolution of America’s political parties. Students should begin with the Federalist Party and end with the Republican Party.
Students will find pictures on the Internet to place on their timelines. Students will also provide captions that explain the circumstances that led to the creation of that specific political party.
Summarizing Strategy: Students will write a one page essay based on the “Party Rap” video they saw at the beginning of the lesson and explain to me which party they would tend to gravitate towards and at least three reasons why they would select that particular party.
Identify what you want to teach. Reference State, Common Core, ACT
College Readiness Standards and/or State Competencies.
GLE 8.3.04 Understand the geographic factors that determined the locations and patterns of settlements in the United States and Tennessee.
GLE 8.4.01 Appreciate the development of people's need to organize themselves into a system of governance.
GLE 8.4.03 Understand the relationship between a place's physical, political, and cultural characteristics and the type of government that emerges from that relationship.
GLE 8.4.04 Discuss how cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and control of resources, rights, and privileges.
GLE 8.4.05 Understand the rights, responsibilities, and privileges of citizens living in a democratic society.
GLE 8.4.06 Understand the role the Constitution of the United States plays in the lives of Americans.
GLE 8.4.07 Understand the role that Tennessee's government plays in Tennessean’s lives.
GLE 8.5.15 Discuss sectional differences brought on by the Western movement, expansion of slavery, and emerging industrialization.
GLE 8.5.17 Identify Tennessee's role within expansion of the nation.
SPI 8.2.5. Identify various forms of taxation (i.e., tariffs, sales tax, excise tax).
SPI 8.2.6. Interpret a variety of economic graphs and charts with topics (i.e. the Columbian exchange, numbers of slaves, population of colonies, population diversity).
SPI 8.3.1. Recognize the causes and examples of migration and immigration in early America (i.e., land, religion, money, pioneer spirit, indentured servitude, displacement, and slavery).
SPI 8.4.3. Recognize the purpose of government and how its powers are acquired, used, and justified.
SPI 8.4.4. Recognize the rights and responsibilities of individuals throughout the development of the United States.
SPI 8.4.5. Identify how conditions, actions, and motivations contributed to conflict and cooperation between states, regions and nations.
SPI 8.4.7. Recognize the impact of major court decisions have had on American life, (i.e., Marbury v Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, Dred Scott v. Sandford).
SPI 8.4.9. Analyze the contributions of Tennessee political leaders on the national scene (e.g. Andrew Jackson, Andrew Johnson, James K Polk, Sequoyah, Sam Houston).
SPI 8.5.13. Examine the demographic changes brought about by westward movement (i.e., slavery, industrialization, and Native American relocation).