Foreign and defense policy

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Chapter Goals and Learning Objectives

The Developments of U.S. Foreign and Defense Policy

The United States as a World Power

Foreign and Defense Policy Decision Making

Twenty-First Century Challenges

In each section, there are certain facts and ideas that you should strive to understand.

The Development of U.S. Foreign and Defense Policy




The Constitution

what the Framers’ wanted as U.S. foreign relations—

the Framers divided authority for foreign and military policy—

constitutional role of president in foreign and military policy—

constitutional role of Congress in foreign and military policy—

how this division of responsibility in the U.S. Constitution for foreign and

military powers differed from European foreign policy—
The Early History of U.S. Military and Foreign Policy

Washington's Farewell Address—

Washington’s foreign policy—

Barbary Wars—


Embargo Act—

Napoleonic Wars—

U.S.-British War of 1812—

1814 Treaty of Ghent—

Monroe Doctrine—

The United States as an Emerging Power

Trade Policy and Commerce

Alexander Hamilton’s Report on Manufacturers


MFN status—


“American system” of trade protection—

Continental Expansion and Manifest Destiny

acquisition of land from Native Americans and Europeans—

1846 Mexican War—

manifest destiny—

American colonialism—

Interests Beyond the Western Hemisphere

U.S. trade with Asia and the Pacific—

1898 Spanish American War and U.S. colonial acquisitions—

1899 Filipino revolt against U.S. colonialism—

The Roosevelt Corollary

Panama Canal, 1914—

Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine—

the “Colossus of the North”—

World War I

World War I begins in Europe, 1914

“he kept us out of war”—

German unrestricted submarine warfare—

collective security—

U.S. enters “war to end all wars” in 1917—

Wilson’s role in the League of Nations—

Senate rejects ratification of Treaty of Versailles—

The Interwar Years

isolationism and unilateralism—

1930 Smoot-Hawley Tariff—

effects of Great Depression—

Neutrality Acts—I
The United States as a World Power

Germany invades Poland, September 1, 1939, initiating World War II—

December 7, 1941 and Pearl Harbor—

U.S. declaration of war—

Axis powers—

Grand Alliance—

U.S. world role before and after World War II—
World War II and its Aftermath: 1941-1947

industrial and military mobilization—

the war transforms American society—

V-E Day—

Hiroshima, Nagasaki and birth of nuclear age—

V-J Day—=

United Nations—

international governmental organization (IGO)—

the “Big Three”—

Bretton Woods Agreement—

International Monetary Fund (IMF)—

World Bank—

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)—


The Cold War and Containment: 1947-1960

relations between U.S. and Soviet Union during war and after—

Truman Doctrine—

Marshall Plan—


George Kennan—

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)—

Korean War—


mutual assured destruction (MAD)—

Americans reject isolationism—

Cold War Alliances in Europe (Figure 19.1)—

Containment, Cuba, and Vietnam: 1961-1969

John F. Kennedy’s inaugural address—

Kennedy and Khrushchev in Vienna—

Cuban Missile Crisis—

hot line—

Vietnam War—

Lyndon Johnson and Vietnam War—
Détente and Human Rights: 1969-1981


Nixon Doctrine—

arms control agreements—

human rights—

Iranian hostage crisis—

Soviet Union invasion of Afghanistan—

Carter Doctrine—

Containment Revisited and Renewed: 1981-1989

Reagan arms build-up—

Reagan’s activist foreign policy—

Reagan Doctrine—

Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev—

Reagan-Gorbachev cooperation—

Gorbachev’s “perestroika”—
Searching for a New International Order: 1989-2001

George Bush in 1989—

Eastern Europe in 1989—

Gorbachev response to revolts in Eastern Europe—

collapse of “Iron Curtain”—

1990 Iraq invasion of Kuwait—

Operation Desert Storm—

Powell Doctrine—

1991 attempted coup against Gorbachev—

collapse of Soviet Union—

end of Cold War—

post-Cold War questions—

Bill Clinton, 1993—



no easy benchmark for intervention—

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)—

World Trade Organization (WTO)—

The War on Terrorism: 2001 to the Present:

George W. Bush, 2001—

September 11, 2001—


war on terrorism—

Osama bin Laden—


war in Afghanistan—

Strategic Offensive Arms Reduction Treaty—

impact of 9/11/01 attacks on U.S. foreign policy—

Bush Doctrine—

weapons of mass destruction (WMDs)—

Saddam Hussein—

changing Bush administration justifications for invading Iraq—

dismal assessments of situation in Iraq—

disagreements and controversies over how to combat terrorism—

Foreign and Defense Policy Making

The Executive Branch

The President

preeminence of president in foreign and military policy—

presidential use of authority to order U.S. forces to battle without

seeking approval from others—

exclusive sources of information for president—

president’s foreign and military power not absolute—

The Departments of State and Defense

Department of State—

Department of Defense—

National Security Agency (NSA)—

Joint Chiefs of Staff—

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)—

Director of Central Intelligence—

Director of National Intelligence—

CIA during Cold War—

CIA post-September 11—

National Security Council (NSC)—

members of the NSC—

special assistant to president for national security affairs—

The United States Intelligence Community (Figure 19.2)—

Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

Department of Homeland Security—

massive government reorganization under Department of

Homeland Security—

Transportation Security Agency (TSA)—

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)—

Customs and Border Protection—

Coast Guard, Secret Service, immigration services and


9/11 Commission—

criticisms of Homeland Security—

Michael Chertoff—

Congressional Leadership

Congress has power to develop and implement policy—



Congressional Oversight

oversight powers of Congress—

deference to president from World War II to late 1960s—

changes since Vietnam—

more vigorous oversight—

oversight by Senate Foreign Relations Committee in 2005 and


Treaties and Executive Agreements

Senate power to approve or reject treaties—

Senate has rejected treaties how many times?—

executive agreements—


Senate advise and consent power on presidential appointments,

including ambassadors—

1997 William Weld nomination—

John R. Bolton, 2005—


sole power to appropriate funds—

U.S. Defense Spending, 1940-2010 (Figure 19.3)—

Congress, Reagan and funding for Contras—

Congress, Clinton and funding for Kosovo—

War Powers Act of 1973

1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution—

support for Vietnam War—

elements of War Powers Act—

Nixon veto, Congress overrides—


President Ford—

fundamental weakness of War Power Act—

The Military Industrial Complex

Eisenhower’s farewell address of 1961—

military-industrial complex—

five ways military-industrial complex acquires power:






Representative Randy “Duke” Cunningham (R-Ca)—The News Media

reporting and investigation—

the press in Vietnam and Watergate—

the press in Gulf War—

military uses news media for its own ends—

media broke story of Abu Ghraib—

Defense Department paid contractors planting favorable stories—

influencing public opinion—


The Public

militarism/nonmilitarism and isolationism/internationalism—

rise in presidential popularity in foreign/military crisis—

The Most Important Problem: Domestic or Foreign (Figure 19.4)—

Bush and “Mission Accomplished”

Bush and Hurricane Katrina—


citizens exercise of electoral control over presidential power—

1952, Eisenhower and Korea—

1968, Nixon and “secret plan to end the war” in Vietnam—

Public Action

protests and Vietnam—

opposition to the draft—

nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)—

activists influence on NGOs—
Twenty-First Century Challenges

Identifying Policies to Pursue in the National Interest

what policies to pursue?—

pre- and post-9/11—

North Korea—

Iran and uranium—

Israel and Palestine—

war on terrorism—

Israeli-Palestinian conflict—

Deciding When to Intervene Overseas

decision to intervene—

Richard Perle—

Muammar Qaddafi—

Critics of Bush Doctrine say—




Promoting Democracy in the Middle East


National Assembly (Iraq)—



Transnational Threats to Peace

terrorists as nonstate actors—

information warfare—

Drug and Environmental Problems

Three tactics used by the United States against illegal drugs—




opium and Afghanistan—

1987 Montreal Protocol—

UN Rio Earth Summit—

1997 Kyoto Conference on Global Climate Change—

Kyoto Protocol—
Choosing Between Unilateralism and Multilateralism

how should U.S. interact with the world—

problem for policy makers—

in the twenty-first century—

lessons learned in Iraq—

Multilateralism and Unilateralism in American Foreign Policy—

Practice Tests


1) What early president warned in his farewell address to the nation against

entanglement in foreign alliances?

a. George Washington

b. Thomas Jefferson

c. James Monroe

d. Theodore Roosevelt

2) Under the leadership of this president, the United States sent a naval squadron to

Panama to help it win independence from Colombia, intervened in the Caribbean

and Latin America numerous times, and expanded on the Monroe Doctrine to

include U.S. intervention as an international police power. Name the president.

a. James Monroe

b. Theodore Roosevelt

c. Franklin Roosevelt

d. George W. Bush

3) The “war to end all wars” was the

a. War of 1812.

b. Spanish-American War

c. first world war.

d. second world war.

4) A Republican-controlled Congress in 1930 dramatically raised tariffs as a

response to European economic reconstruction with the passage of the

a. Roosevelt Corollary.

b. Treaty of Versailles.

c. Taft-Hartley Act.

d. Smoot-Hawley Act.

5) An isolationist Congress, seeking to keep the United States from becoming

involved in foreign conflict in the 1930s passed a number of

a. Interventionist Acts.

b. collective security agreements.

c. resolutions condemning Democratic President Franklin Roosevelt.

d. Neutrality Acts.

6) A few days after a U.S. declaration of war against Japan on December 8, 1941,

the United States, which countries declared war against the United States?

a. Germany and the Soviet Union.

b. Germany and China.

c. Germany and Italy.

d. Germany, Italy, and France.

7) The birth of the nuclear age occurred with

a. the development of the atomic bomb by the Soviet Union.

b. the American dropping of atomic bombs on Berlin and Hiroshima.

c. the American dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

d. the American development of the hydrogen bomb.


8) The policy adopted in 1947 to contain Soviet expansion, initially in Greece and

Turkey, was called the

a. Roosevelt Doctrine.

b. Truman Doctrine.

c. Churchill Doctrine.

d. Marshall Plan.

9) The first peacetime military alliance joined by the United States was

a. NATO.


c. the League of Nations.

d. the Organization of American States.

10) During the late 1960s and 1970s, the relaxation of tensions between the Soviet

Union and the United States was called

a. a thaw.

b. a respite.

c. détente.

d. containment.

11) The policy that the United States would provide arms and military equipment to

countries but not do the fighting for them was called the Doctrine.

a. Carter

b. Brezhnev

c. Ford

d. Nixon

12) The dramatic relaxation of tensions between the United States and the Soviet

Union and the decision to not subdue rebellions in Eastern Europe in 1989 came

under the leadership of

a. Nikita Khrushchev.

b. Mikhail Gorbachev.

c. Boris Yeltsen.

d. Vladimir Putin.

13) One of the greatest foreign policy advantages the president has over Congress is

a. the power to declare war.

b. greater access to and control over information.

c. treaty power.

d. All of the above.

14) The president has the power to make treaties

a. unilaterally.

b. with the consent of the House.

c. with the consent of the Senate.

d. with the consent of both houses of Congress.


15) A U.S. government-to-foreign government accord binding only the current

administration and not requiring Senate approval is called a(n)

a. executive order.

b. treaty.

c. tariff.

d. executive agreement.

1) Manifest Destiny was a declaration by the United States that European powers

should not involve themselves in our sphere of influence in the Western


2) The European Recovery Program, better known as the Marshall Plan, provided a

massive transfer of aid to Western Europe after WWII in order to rebuild the basis

for strong economies.

3) The doctrine of mutual assured destruction (MAD) deterred the United States and

the Soviet Union from attacking one another with nuclear weapons during the

Cold War.

4) The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 brought the world closer to nuclear war than at

any time.

5) Jimmy Carter dramatically decreased military funding and enhanced relations

with the Soviet Union as a result of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

6) The president is preeminent in foreign and military policy making.

7) Congress rarely plays a significant role in foreign policy.

8) John F. Kennedy warned against a military-industrial complex in his 1961

inaugural address.

9) Public action can lead to a change in foreign policy.

10) Solid evidence of the presence of weapons of mass destruction was discovered

prior to the U.S. invasion of Iraq.

1) What were the views of the Framers on foreign affairs?

2) What is an executive agreement, and why is it important?

3) What is isolationism? When and why did the U.S. adopt this policy?

4) Discuss the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, and NATO.

5) What is MAD?

6) Discuss the early history of U.S. military and foreign policy from the early days

of the country through World War I.

7) Explain how the U.S. became a world leader in WWII and the role it played in the

Cold War. What was the Cold War, and why is it so significant historically and in

our present development of foreign and military policy?

8) Discuss the role of the executive branch in foreign policy making.

9) Discuss executive-legislative conflict in the realm of foreign and defense policies.

What other actors also vie for influence in these decisions, and how effective

are they?

10) Discuss President George W. Bush’s initial rationale for the U.S. invasion of Iraq

in 2003? What errors were made or falsehoods told to lead the U.S. into invading

Iraq? What purpose has the war there served?


Multiple Choice Answers

1) a

2) b

3) c

4) d

5) d

6) c

7) c

8) b

9) a

10) c

11) d

12) b

13) b

14) c

15) d

True/False Answers

1) F

2) T

3) T

4) T

5) F

6) T

7) F

8) F

9) T

10) F


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