The Developments of U.S. Foreign and Defense Policy
The United States as a World Power
Foreign and Defense Policy Decision Making
Twenty-First Century Challenges
In each section, there are certain facts and ideas that you should strive to understand.
what the Framers’ wanted as U.S. foreign relations—
the Framers divided authority for foreign and military policy—
constitutional role of president in foreign and military policy—
constitutional role of Congress in foreign and military policy—
how this division of responsibility in the U.S. Constitution for foreign and
military powers differed from European foreign policy—
The Early History of U.S. Military and Foreign Policy
Washington's Farewell Address—
Washington’s foreign policy—
U.S.-British War of 1812—
1814 Treaty of Ghent—
Trade Policy and Commerce
Alexander Hamilton’s Report on Manufacturers—
Continental Expansion and Manifest Destiny
acquisition of land from Native Americans and Europeans—
1846 Mexican War—
Interests Beyond the Western Hemisphere
U.S. trade with Asia and the Pacific—
1898 Spanish American War and U.S. colonial acquisitions—
1899 Filipino revolt against U.S. colonialism—
Panama Canal, 1914—
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine—
the “Colossus of the North”—
World War I begins in Europe, 1914
“he kept us out of war”—
German unrestricted submarine warfare—
U.S. enters “war to end all wars” in 1917—
Wilson’s role in the League of Nations—
Senate rejects ratification of Treaty of Versailles—
isolationism and unilateralism—
1930 Smoot-Hawley Tariff—
effects of Great Depression—
The United States as a World Power
Germany invades Poland, September 1, 1939, initiating World War II—
December 7, 1941 and Pearl Harbor—
U.S. declaration of war—
U.S. world role before and after World War II—
World War II and its Aftermath: 1941-1947
industrial and military mobilization—
the war transforms American society—
international governmental organization (IGO)—
the “Big Three”—
Bretton Woods Agreement—
International Monetary Fund (IMF)—
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)—
relations between U.S. and Soviet Union during war and after—
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)—
mutual assured destruction (MAD)—
Americans reject isolationism—
Cold War Alliances in Europe (Figure 19.1)—
John F. Kennedy’s inaugural address—
Kennedy and Khrushchev in Vienna—
Cuban Missile Crisis—
Lyndon Johnson and Vietnam War—
Détente and Human Rights: 1969-1981
arms control agreements—
Iranian hostage crisis—
Soviet Union invasion of Afghanistan—
Reagan arms build-up—
Reagan’s activist foreign policy—
Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev—
Searching for a New International Order: 1989-2001
George Bush in 1989—
Eastern Europe in 1989—
Gorbachev response to revolts in Eastern Europe—
collapse of “Iron Curtain”—
1990 Iraq invasion of Kuwait—
Operation Desert Storm—
1991 attempted coup against Gorbachev—
collapse of Soviet Union—
end of Cold War—
post-Cold War questions—
Bill Clinton, 1993—
no easy benchmark for intervention—
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)—
World Trade Organization (WTO)—
George W. Bush, 2001—
September 11, 2001—
war on terrorism—
Osama bin Laden—
war in Afghanistan—
Strategic Offensive Arms Reduction Treaty—
impact of 9/11/01 attacks on U.S. foreign policy—
weapons of mass destruction (WMDs)—
changing Bush administration justifications for invading Iraq—
dismal assessments of situation in Iraq—
disagreements and controversies over how to combat terrorism—
preeminence of president in foreign and military policy—
presidential use of authority to order U.S. forces to battle without
seeking approval from others—
exclusive sources of information for president—
president’s foreign and military power not absolute—
The Departments of State and Defense
Department of State—
Department of Defense—
National Security Agency (NSA)—
Joint Chiefs of Staff—
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)—
Director of Central Intelligence—
Director of National Intelligence—
CIA during Cold War—
CIA post-September 11—
National Security Council (NSC)—
members of the NSC—
special assistant to president for national security affairs—
The United States Intelligence Community (Figure 19.2)—
Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
Department of Homeland Security—
massive government reorganization under Department of
Transportation Security Agency (TSA)—
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)—
Customs and Border Protection—
Coast Guard, Secret Service, immigration services and
criticisms of Homeland Security—
Congress has power to develop and implement policy—
oversight powers of Congress—
deference to president from World War II to late 1960s—
changes since Vietnam—
more vigorous oversight—
oversight by Senate Foreign Relations Committee in 2005 and
Senate power to approve or reject treaties—
Senate has rejected treaties how many times?—
Senate advise and consent power on presidential appointments,
1997 William Weld nomination—
John R. Bolton, 2005—
sole power to appropriate funds—
U.S. Defense Spending, 1940-2010 (Figure 19.3)—
Congress, Reagan and funding for Contras—
Congress, Clinton and funding for Kosovo—
War Powers Act of 1973
1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution—
support for Vietnam War—
elements of War Powers Act—
Nixon veto, Congress overrides—
fundamental weakness of War Power Act—
Eisenhower’s farewell address of 1961—
five ways military-industrial complex acquires power:
Representative Randy “Duke” Cunningham (R-Ca)—The News Media
the press in Vietnam and Watergate—
the press in Gulf War—
military uses news media for its own ends—
media broke story of Abu Ghraib—
Defense Department paid contractors planting favorable stories—
influencing public opinion—
militarism/nonmilitarism and isolationism/internationalism—
rise in presidential popularity in foreign/military crisis—
The Most Important Problem: Domestic or Foreign (Figure 19.4)—
Bush and “Mission Accomplished”
Bush and Hurricane Katrina—
citizens exercise of electoral control over presidential power—
1952, Eisenhower and Korea—
1968, Nixon and “secret plan to end the war” in Vietnam—
protests and Vietnam—
opposition to the draft—
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)—
activists influence on NGOs—
Twenty-First Century Challenges
Identifying Policies to Pursue in the National Interest
what policies to pursue?—
pre- and post-9/11—
Iran and uranium—
Israel and Palestine—
decision to intervene—
Critics of Bush Doctrine say—
Transnational Threats to Peace
terrorists as nonstate actors—
Drug and Environmental Problems
Three tactics used by the United States against illegal drugs—
1987 Montreal Protocol—
UN Rio Earth Summit—
1997 Kyoto Conference on Global Climate Change—
Choosing Between Unilateralism and Multilateralism
how should U.S. interact with the world—
problem for policy makers—
in the twenty-first century—
lessons learned in Iraq—
Multilateralism and Unilateralism in American Foreign Policy—
1) What early president warned in his farewell address to the nation against
entanglement in foreign alliances?
a. George Washington
b. Thomas Jefferson
c. James Monroe
d. Theodore Roosevelt
2) Under the leadership of this president, the United States sent a naval squadron to
Panama to help it win independence from Colombia, intervened in the Caribbean
and Latin America numerous times, and expanded on the Monroe Doctrine to
include U.S. intervention as an international police power. Name the president.
a. James Monroe
b. Theodore Roosevelt
c. Franklin Roosevelt
d. George W. Bush
3) The “war to end all wars” was the
a. War of 1812.
b. Spanish-American War
c. first world war.
d. second world war.
4) A Republican-controlled Congress in 1930 dramatically raised tariffs as a
response to European economic reconstruction with the passage of the
a. Roosevelt Corollary.
b. Treaty of Versailles.
c. Taft-Hartley Act.
d. Smoot-Hawley Act.
5) An isolationist Congress, seeking to keep the United States from becoming
involved in foreign conflict in the 1930s passed a number of
a. Interventionist Acts.
b. collective security agreements.
c. resolutions condemning Democratic President Franklin Roosevelt.
d. Neutrality Acts.
6) A few days after a U.S. declaration of war against Japan on December 8, 1941,
the United States, which countries declared war against the United States?
a. Germany and the Soviet Union.
b. Germany and China.
c. Germany and Italy.
d. Germany, Italy, and France.
7) The birth of the nuclear age occurred with
a. the development of the atomic bomb by the Soviet Union.
b. the American dropping of atomic bombs on Berlin and Hiroshima.
c. the American dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
d. the American development of the hydrogen bomb.
Turkey, was called the
a. Roosevelt Doctrine.
b. Truman Doctrine.
c. Churchill Doctrine.
d. Marshall Plan.
9) The first peacetime military alliance joined by the United States was
c. the League of Nations.
d. the Organization of American States.
10) During the late 1960s and 1970s, the relaxation of tensions between the Soviet
Union and the United States was called
a. a thaw.
b. a respite.
11) The policy that the United States would provide arms and military equipment to
countries but not do the fighting for them was called the Doctrine.
12) The dramatic relaxation of tensions between the United States and the Soviet
Union and the decision to not subdue rebellions in Eastern Europe in 1989 came
under the leadership of
a. Nikita Khrushchev.
b. Mikhail Gorbachev.
c. Boris Yeltsen.
d. Vladimir Putin.
13) One of the greatest foreign policy advantages the president has over Congress is
a. the power to declare war.
b. greater access to and control over information.
c. treaty power.
d. All of the above.
14) The president has the power to make treaties
b. with the consent of the House.
c. with the consent of the Senate.
d. with the consent of both houses of Congress.
15) A U.S. government-to-foreign government accord binding only the current
a. executive order.
d. executive agreement.
1) Manifest Destiny was a declaration by the United States that European powers
should not involve themselves in our sphere of influence in the Western
2) The European Recovery Program, better known as the Marshall Plan, provided a
massive transfer of aid to Western Europe after WWII in order to rebuild the basis
for strong economies.
3) The doctrine of mutual assured destruction (MAD) deterred the United States and
the Soviet Union from attacking one another with nuclear weapons during the
4) The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 brought the world closer to nuclear war than at
5) Jimmy Carter dramatically decreased military funding and enhanced relations
with the Soviet Union as a result of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
6) The president is preeminent in foreign and military policy making.
7) Congress rarely plays a significant role in foreign policy.
8) John F. Kennedy warned against a military-industrial complex in his 1961
9) Public action can lead to a change in foreign policy.
10) Solid evidence of the presence of weapons of mass destruction was discovered
prior to the U.S. invasion of Iraq.
ESSAY AND SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
1) What were the views of the Framers on foreign affairs?
2) What is an executive agreement, and why is it important?
3) What is isolationism? When and why did the U.S. adopt this policy?
4) Discuss the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, and NATO.
5) What is MAD?
6) Discuss the early history of U.S. military and foreign policy from the early days
of the country through World War I.
7) Explain how the U.S. became a world leader in WWII and the role it played in the
Cold War. What was the Cold War, and why is it so significant historically and in
our present development of foreign and military policy?
8) Discuss the role of the executive branch in foreign policy making.
9) Discuss executive-legislative conflict in the realm of foreign and defense policies.
What other actors also vie for influence in these decisions, and how effective
10) Discuss President George W. Bush’s initial rationale for the U.S. invasion of Iraq
in 2003? What errors were made or falsehoods told to lead the U.S. into invading
Iraq? What purpose has the war there served?