Focus: Shortly after the Constitutional Convention adjourned, Robert Morris said to George Washington, “No Constitution is the same on Paper and in Life.” What did he mean be this statement? Student Objectives

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Key terms/ideas/ people/places:

Federalists Anti-Federalists Bill of Rights Amendments

By the end of class today, I will be able to answer the following:

Who wanted a Bill of Rights?

What did the Anti-Federalists fear?

How is the Constitution Amended?

How many total Amendments are there?
Federalist Papers, Number 10

“The inference to which we are brought is, that the causes of faction cannot be removed; and the relief is only to be sought in the means of controlling its effects….Extend the sphere, and you take in a greater variety of parties and interests; you make it less probable that a majority of the whole will have a common motive to invade the rights of other citizens; or if such a common motive exists, it will be more difficult for all who feel it to discover their own strength, and to act in unison with each other. Besides other impediments, it may be remarked, that where there is a consciousness of unjust or dishonourable purposes, communication is always checked by distrust, in proportion to the number whose concurrences is necessary.”

-PUBLIUS (James Madison)

Federalist Papers, Number 51

In order to lay a due foundation for that separate and distinct exercise of the different powers of government, which to a certain extent is admitted on all hands to be essential to the preservation of liberty, it is evident that each department should have a will of its own; and consequently should be so constituted that the members of each should have as little agency as possible in the appointment of the members of the others. Were this principle rigorously adhered to, it would require that all the appointments for the supreme executive, legislative, and judiciary magistracies should be drawn from the same fountain of authority, the people, through channels having no communication whatever with one another.
-PUBLIUS (James Madison)
To the Citizens of the State of New-York

“But if, on the other hand, this form of government contains principles that will lead to the subversion of liberty—if it lends to establish a despotism, or, what is worse, a tyrannic aristocracy; then, if you adopt it, this only remaining assylum for liberty will be shut up, and posterity will execrate your memory….This government is to possess absolute and uncontroulable power, legislative, executive, and judicial, with respect to every object to which it extend, for by the last clause of the section 8th, article 1st, it is declared ‘that the Congress shall have the power to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution, in the government of the United States; or in any department of office thereof.’”



Class 57— Ratifying the Constitution

December 21, 2015


  • Strong national government

  • Wanted the Constitution to be ratified

  • Federalist Papers

    • Essays supporting the Constitution

    • The authors of these papers are:

  • James Madison (29)

  • Alexander Hamilton (51)

  • John Jay (5)

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