Focus: Does it even matter how Meriwether Lewis died? Explain. Student Objectives



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7th Grade Social Studies

Canada, Mexico & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction

Class 70—Death of Meriwether Lewis

January 18, 2016
Focus: Does it even matter how Meriwether Lewis died? Explain.

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Student Objectives:

1. I will analyze secondary and primary sources about the death of Meriwether Lewis

2. I will decide how Meriwether Lewis died.
Homework:

- Read and outline Chapter 8, Section 3 pgs. 278-280 stop @ Conflict in the West (Due 1/19)

- Read and outline Chapter 8, Section 3 pgs. 280-282 start @ Conflict in the West & stop @ Call for War (Due 1/21)

- Read and outline Chapter 8, Section 3 pgs. 282-283 start @ Call for War (Due 1/22)

- Read and outline Chapter 8, Section 4 pgs. 284-286 stop @ G.B. on the Offensive (Due 1/25)

- Read and outline Chapter 8, Section 4 pgs. 286-287 start @ G. B. on the Offensive (Due 1/26)

-Chapter 8 Test Friday 1/29
Handouts:

-Lewis Primary and Secondary Sources


I. Sources-Primary and secondary

II. Group Work


Key terms/ideas/ people/places:

Meriwether Lewis Priscilla Grinder Grinder’s Stand


By the end of class today, I will be able to answer the following:

Do you think it was murder or suicide?



What are some facts that support the suicide theory?

What are some facts that support the murder theory?

Meriwether Lewis' Mysterious Death


  • By Abigail Tucker

  • Smithsonian.com, October 09, 2009

Captain Meriwether Lewis—William Clark’s expedition partner on the Corps of Discovery’s historic trek to the Pacific, Thomas Jefferson’s confidante, governor of the Upper Louisiana Territory and all-around American hero—was only 35 when he died of gunshot wounds sustained along a perilous Tennessee trail called Natchez Trace. A broken column, symbol of a life cut short, marks his grave.

But exactly what transpired at a remote inn 200 years ago this Saturday? Most historians agree that he committed suicide; others are convinced he was murdered. Now Lewis’s descendants and some scholars are campaigning to exhume his body, which is buried on national parkland not far from Hohenwald, Tenn.

“This controversy has existed since his death,” says Tom McSwain, Lewis’s great-great-great-great nephew who helped start a Web site, “Solve the Mystery,” that lays out family members’ point of view. “When there’s so much uncertainty and doubt, we must have more evidence. History is about finding the truth,” he adds. The National Park Service is currently reviewing the exhumation request.

The intrigue surrounding the famous explorer’s untimely death has spawned a cottage industry of books and articles, with experts from a variety of fields, including forensics and mental health, weighing in. Scholars have reconstructed lunar cycles to prove that the innkeeper’s wife couldn’t have seen what she said she saw that moonless night. Black powder pistols have been test-fired, forgeries claimed and mitochondrial DNA extracted from living relatives. Yet even now, precious little is known about the events of October 10, 1809, after Lewis – armed with several pistols, a rifle and a tomahawk – stopped at a log cabin lodging house known as Grinder’s Stand.

He and Clark had finished their expedition three years earlier; Lewis, who was by then a governor of the large swath of land that constituted the Upper Louisiana Territory, was on his way to Washington, D.C. to settle financial matters. By some accounts, Lewis arrived at the inn with servants; by others, he arrived alone. That night, Mrs. Grinder, the innkeeper’s wife, heard several shots. She later said she saw a wounded Lewis crawling around, begging for water, but was too afraid to help him. He died, apparently of bullet wounds to the head and abdomen, shortly before sunrise the next day. One of his traveling companions, who arrived later, buried him nearby.

His friends assumed it was suicide. Before he left St. Louis, Lewis had given several associates the power to distribute his possessions in the event of his death; while traveling, he composed a will. Lewis had reportedly attempted to take his own life several times a few weeks earlier and was known to suffer from what Jefferson called “sensible depressions of mind.” Clark had also observed his companion’s melancholy states. “I fear the weight of his mind has overcome him,” he wrote after receiving word of Lewis’s fate.

At the time of his death Lewis’s depressive tendencies were compounded by other problems: he was having financial troubles and likely suffered from alcoholism and other illnesses, possibly syphilis or malaria, the latter of which was known to cause bouts of dementia.

Surprisingly, he may also have felt like something of a failure. Though the Corps of Discovery had traversed thousands of miles of wilderness with few casualties, Lewis and Clark did not find the Northwest Passage to the Pacific, the mission’s primary goal; the system of trading posts that they’d established began to fall apart before the explorers returned home. And now Lewis, the consummate adventurer, suddenly found himself stuck in a desk job.

“At the end of his life he was a horrible drunk, terribly depressed, who could never even finish his [expedition] journals,” says Paul Douglas Newman, a professor of history who teaches “Lewis and Clark and The Early American Republic” at the University of Pittsburgh. An American icon, Lewis was also a human being, and the expedition “was the pinnacle of Lewis’s life,” Newman says. “He came back and he just could not readjust. On the mission it was ‘how do we stay alive and collect information?’ Then suddenly you’re heroes. There’s a certain amount of stress to reentering the world. It was like coming back from the moon.”

Interestingly, John Guice, one of the most prominent critics of the suicide theory, uses a very different astronaut comparison. Lewis was indeed “like a man coming back from the moon,” Guice notes. But rather than feeling alienated, he would have been busy enjoying a level of Buzz Aldrin-like celebrity. “He had so much to live for,” says Guice, professor emeritus of history at The University of Southern Mississippi and the editor of By His Own Hand? The Mysterious Death of Meriwether Lewis. “This was the apex of a hero’s career. He was the governor of a huge territory. There were songs and poems written about him. This wasn’t just anybody who kicked the bucket.” Besides, how could an expert marksman botch his own suicide and be forced to shoot himself twice?

Guice believes that bandits roaming the notoriously dangerous Natchez Trace killed Lewis. Other murder theories range from the scandalous (the innkeeper discovered Lewis in flagrante with Mrs. Grinder) to the conspiratorial (a corrupt Army general named James Wilkinson hatched an assassination plot.)

Though Lewis’s mother is said to have believed he was murdered, that idea didn’t have much traction until the 1840s, when a commission of Tennesseans set out to honor Lewis by erecting a marker over his grave. While examining the remains, committee members wrote that “it was more probable that he died at the hands of an assassin.” Unfortunately, they failed to say why.

But the science of autopsies has come a long way since then, says James Starrs, a George Washington University Law School professor and forensics expert who is pressing for an exhumation. For one thing, with mitochondrial DNA samples he’s already taken from several of Lewis’ female descendants, scientists can confirm that the body really is Lewis’s (corpses were not uncommon on the Natchez Trace). If the skeleton is his, and intact, they can analyze gunpowder residue to see if he was shot at close range and examine fracture patterns in the skull. They could also potentially learn about his nutritional health, what drugs he was using and if he was suffering from syphilis. Historians would hold such details dear, Starrs says: “Nobody even knows how tall Meriwether Lewis was. We could do the DNA to find out the color of his hair.

Some scholars aren’t so sure that an exhumation will clarify matters.

“Maybe there is an answer beneath the monument to help us understand,” says James Holmberg, curator of Special Collections at the Filson Historical Society in Louisville, Ky., who has published work on Lewis’s life and death. “But I don’t know if it would change anybody’s mind one way or the other.”

The details of the case are so sketchy that “it’s like trying to grab a shadow,” Holmberg says. “You try to reach out but you can never get a hold of it.” Even minor features of the story fluctuate. In some versions, Seaman, Lewis’s loyal Newfoundland who guarded his master against bears on the long journey West, remained by his grave, refusing to eat or drink. In other accounts, the dog was never there at all.

However Lewis died, his death had a considerable effect on the young country. A year and a half after the shooting, ornithologist Alexander Wilson, a friend of Lewis’s, interviewed Mrs. Grinder, becoming one of the first among many people who have investigated the case. He gave the Grinders money to maintain Lewis’s grave and visited the site himself. There, reflecting on the adventure-loving young man who had mapped “the gloomy and savage wilderness which I was just entering alone,” Wilson broke down and wept.
Letter from James Neelly to Thomas Jefferson—October 18, 1809

Nashville, 18 October, 1809


Sir:

It is with extreme pain that I have to inform you of the death of His Excellency Meriwether Lewis, Governor of upper Louisiana who died on the morning of the 11th Instant and I am sorry to say by Suicide.



I arrived at the Chickasaw Bluffs [Fort Pickering on the Mississippi River] on or about the 18th of September, where I found the governor (who had reached there two days before me from St. Louis) in very bad health. It appears that his first intention was to go around by water to the City of Washington; but his thinking a war with England probable, & that his valuable papers might be in dainger of falling into the hands of the British, he was thereby induced to Change his route, and to come through the Chickasaw nation by land; I furnished him with a horse to pack his trunks &c. on, and a man to attend to them; have recovered his health in some digree at the Chickasaw Bluffs, we set out together. And on our arrival at the Chickasaw nation I discovered that he appeared at times deranged in mind. We rested there two days & came on. One days Journey after crossing Tennessee River & where we encamped we lost two of our horses. I remained behind to hunt them & the governor proceeded on, with a promise to wait for me at the first houses he came to that was inhabited by white people; he reached the house of a Mr. Grinder about sun set, the man of the house being from home, and no person there but a woman who discovering the governor to be deranged, gave him up the house & slept herself in one near it. His servant [John Pernier] and mine slept in the stable loft some instance from the other houses. The woman reports that about three o'Clock she heard two pistols fire off in the Governors Room: the servants being awakined by her, came in but too late to save him. He had shot himself in the head with one pistol & a little below the Breast with the other-when his servant came in he says; I have done the business my good Servant give me some water. He gave him water, he survived but a short time. I came up sometime after, and had him as decently Buried as I could in that place-if there is any thing wished by his friends to be done to his grave I will attend to their Instructions.
I have got in my possession his two trunks of papers (amongst which is said to be his travels to The pacific Ocean) and probably some Vouchers for expenditures of Public Money for a Bill which he said had been protested by the Secy. Of War; and of which act to his death, he repeatedly complained. I have also in my Care his Rifle, Silver watch, Brace of Pistols, dirk & tomahawk; one of the Governors horses was lost in the wilderness which I will endeavour to regain, the other I have sent on by his servant who expressed a desire to go to the governors Mothers & to Monticello [President Jefferson's home]: I have furnished him with fifteen Dollars to Defray his expences to Charlottsville; Some days previous to the Governors death he requested of me in case any accident happen to him, to send his trunks with the papers therein to the President, but I think very probable he meant to you. [Editor: Madison was now president.] I wish to be informed what arrangements may be considered best in sending on his trunks &c. I have the honor to be with Great respect Yr. Ob. Sert.
James Neelly
Priscilla Grinder’s 1839 Account—Recorded in the New York Dispatch—February 1, 1845
We find in the North Arkansas, a paper published at Batesville, Ark., a communication stating some singular and not generally known facts concerning the mysterious death of Capt. George M. Lewis, one of the two persons employed by the U. S. Government to conduct the celebrated Expedition of Lewis and Clark, in exploring the region West of the Rocky Mountains. The writer is at present a teacher in the Cherokee Nation, and says that he is personally acquainted with the circumstances which he relates. The expedition, consisting of seventy or eighty person, und the guidance of Lewis and Clark, was commenced in 1803 or 1804 and completed in about three years. The writer says the remains of Captain Lewis are “deposited in the southwest corner of Maury county, Tennessee, near Grinder‟s old stand, on the Natchez trace where Lawrence, Maury, and Hickman counties corner together.” He visited the grave in 1838, found it almost concealed by brambles, without a stone or monument of any kind, and several miles from any house. An old tavern stand, known as Grinder‟s, once stood near by, but was long since burned. The writer gave the following narrative of the incidents attending the death of Cap[t. Lewis, as he received them from Mrs. Grinder, the landlady of the house where he died in so savage a manner.
She said that Mr. Lewis was on his way to the city of Washington, accompanied by a Mr. Pyrna [sic] and a servant belonging to a Mr. Neely. One evening a little before sundown, Mr. Lewis called at her house and asked for lodgings. Mr. Grinder not being at home, she hesitated to take him in. Mr. Lewis informed her that two other men would be along presently, who also wished to spend the night at her house, and as they were all civil men, he did not think there would be an impropriety in her hiving them accommodations for the night. Mr. Lewis dismounted, fastened his horse, took a seat by the side of the house, and appeared quite sociable.
In a few minutes Mr. Pyrna [sic] and the servant rode up, and seeing Mr. Lewis they also dismounted and put up their horses. About dark two or three other men rode up and called for lodging. Mr. Lewis immediately drew a brace of pistols, stepped towards them and challenged them to fight a duel. They not liking this salutation, rode on to the next house, five miles. This alarmed Mrs. Grinder. Supper, however, was ready in a few minutes. Mr. Lewis ate but little. He would stop eating, and sit as if in a deep study, and several times exclaimed, „If they do prove anything on me they will have to do it by letter.‟ Supper being over, and Mrs. Grinder seeing that Lewis was mentally deranged, requested Mr. Pyrna [sic] to get his pistols from him. Mr. P. replied, „He has no ammunition, and if he does any mischief it will be to himself, and not to you or anybody else.‟ In a short time all retired to bed, the travelers in one room, as Mrs. G. thought, and she and her children in another.

Two or three hours before day Mrs. G. was alarmed by the report of a pistol, and quickly after two other reports, in the room where the travelers were. At the report of the third, she heard someone fall and exclaim, „O Lord! Congress, relieve me.‟ In a few minutes she heard some person at the door of the room where she lay. She inquired, „Who is there?‟ Mr. Lewis spoke and said, „Dear madam, be so good as to give me a little water.‟ Being afraid to open the door she did not give him any. Presently she heard him fall, and soon after, looking through a crack in the wall, she saw him scrambling across the road on his hands and knees.


After daylight Mr. Pyrna [sic] and the servant made their appearance, and it appeared they had not slept in the house, but in the stable. Mr. P. had on the clothes Mr. L. wore when they came to Mrs. Grinder‟s the evening before, and Mr. L‟s gold watch in his pocket. Mrs. G. asked him what he was doing with Mr. L‟s clothes on; Mr. P. replied, „He gave them to me.‟ Mr. P and the servant then searched for Mr. L., found him and brought him to the house, and though he had on a full suit of clothes, they were old and tattered, and not the same as he had on the evening before, and though Mr. P. had said that Lewis had no ammunition, Mrs. G. found several balls and a considerable quantity of powder scattered over the floor of the room occupied by Lewis; also a canister with several pounds in it.
When Mr. L. was brought to the house, [illegible] his shirt bosom and said to Mrs. G.: „Dear madam, look at my wounds.‟ She asked him what made him do so? He replied, „If I had not done it somebody else would.‟ He frequently asked for water, which was given to him. He was asked if he would have a doctor sent for, he said not. A messenger, however, went for one but did not get him. He attempted to cut his throat, but was prevented. Some of the neighbors were called in. He frequently cried out, „Oh how hard it is to die, I am so strong.‟ He, however, soon expired. Major Neely was sent for, and he and Mr. P. buried him and took possession of his effects. Mrs. G. heard that Pyrna [sic] went to see Mr. Lewis‟ mother, and that she accused him of murdering her son; and he finally cut his own throat, and thus put an end to his existence
I make no comment on the above; it is all wrapt [sic] up in mystery. I have heard that Capt. Clarke, the worthy colleague of their tour, was highly honored and handsomely rewarded by the government, while Lewis was neglected, and that this had an effect to produce alienation of mind. If this be true, are there not some living who are acquainted with the fact?

____________________________________

7th Grade Social Studies

Canada, Mexico & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction

Class 71—Death of Meriwether Lewis Continued

January 19, 2016


Focus: Get together with your group. Start getting prepared to present your reenactment.

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Student Objectives:

1. I will, with the help of my group, present my findings to the class about the death of Meriwether Lewis.

2. I will identify the key components of the honor system and dueling.
Homework:

- Read and outline Chapter 8, Section 3 pgs. 280-282 start @ Conflict in the West & stop @ Call for War (Due 1/21)

- Read and outline Chapter 8, Section 3 pgs. 282-283 start @ Call for War (Due 1/22)

- Read and outline Chapter 8, Section 4 pgs. 284-286 stop @ G.B. on the Offensive (Due 1/25)

- Read and outline Chapter 8, Section 4 pgs. 286-287 start @ G. B. on the Offensive (Due 1/26)

-Chapter 8 Test Friday 1/29


Handouts:

-Lewis Primary and Secondary Sources


I. Group Reenactments

II. Honor


Key terms/ideas/ people/places:

Meriwether Lewis Priscilla Grinder Grinder’s Stand Honor System


By the end of class today, I will be able to answer the following:

Did watching other groups present change your mind about what happened to Meriwether Lewis?

Is there anything more important than one’s honor? Explain.
"Rule 1.--The first offence requires the apology, although the retort may have been more offensive than the insult.--Example: A. tells B. he is impertinent, &C.; B. retorts, that he lies; yet A. must make the first apology, because he gave the first offence, and then, (after one fire,) B. may explain away the retort by subsequent apology.
"Rule 2.--But if the parties would rather fight on: then, after two shots each, (but in no case before,) B. may explain first, and A. apologize afterward.
"Rule 3.--If a doubt exist who gave the first offence, the decision rests with the seconds; if they won't decide or can't agree, the matter must proceed to two shots, or a hit, if the challenger requires it.
"Rule 4.--When the lie direct is the first offence, the aggressor must either beg pardon in express terms; exchange tow shots previous to apology; or three shots followed up by explanation; or fire on till a severe hit be received by one party or the other.
"Rule 5.--As a blow is strictly prohibited under any circumstances among gentlemen, no verbal apology can be received for such an insult; the alternatives therefore are: the offender handing a can to the injured party, to be used on his own back, at the same time begging pardon; firing on until one or both is disabled; or exchanging three shots, and then asking pardon without the proffer of the cane. "If swords are used, the parties engage till one is well-blooded, disabled or disarmed; or until, after receiving a wound, and blood being drawn, the aggressor begs pardon. "N.B. A disarm is considered the same as a disable; the disarmer may (strictly) break his adversary's sword; but if it be the challenger who is disarmed, it is considered ungenerous to do so. "In case the challenged be disarmed and refuses to ask pardon or atone, he must not be killed as formerly; but the challenger may lay his sword on the aggressor's shoulder, than break the

aggressor's sword, and say, 'I spare your life!' The challenged can never revive the quarrel, the

challenger may.
"Rule 6.--If A. give B. the lie, and B. retorts by a blow, (being the two greatest offences,) no reconciliation can take place till after two discharges each, or a severe hit; after which, B. may beg A.'s pardon for the blow, and then A. may explain simply for the lie; because a blow is never allowable, and the offence of the lie therefore merges in it. (See preceding rule.)

"N.B. Challenges for individual causes, may be reconciled on the ground, after one shot. An

explanation, or the slightest hit should be sufficient in such cases, because no personal offence

transpired.


"Rule 7.--But no apology can be received, in any case, after the parties have actually taken their ground, without exchange of fires.
"Rule 8.--In the above case, no challenger is obliged to divulge the cause of his challenge, (if private,) unless required by the challenged to do so before their meeting.
"Rule 9.--All imputations of cheating at play, races, &c, to be considered equivalent to a blow; but may be reconciled after one shot, on admitting their falsehood, and begging pardon publicly.
"Rule 10.--Any insult to a lady under a gentleman's care or protection, to be considered as, by one degree, a greater offence than if given to the gentleman personally, and to be regulated accordingly.
"Rule 11.--Offences originating or accruing from the support of a lady's reputation, to be considered as less unjustifiable than any other of the same class, and as admitting of lighter apologies by the aggressor; this to be determined by the circumstances of the case, but always favorably to the lady.
"Rule 12.--In simple unpremeditated rencontres with the small sword or couteau-de-chasse, the rule is, first draw, first sheathe; unless blood be drawn: then both sheathe, and proceed to investigation.
"Rule 13.--No dumb-shooting, or firing in the air, admissible in any case. The challenger ought not to have challenged without receiving offence; and the challenged ought, if he gave offence, to have made an apology before he came on the ground: therefore, children's play must be dishonorable on one side or the other, and is accordingly prohibited.

____________________________________

7th Grade Social Studies

Canada, Mexico, & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction

Class 72—Barbary Pirates and Embargo

January 20, 2016


Focus: Why would the United States pay tribute to the Barbary Pirates when neither France nor Britain did so? Why wouldn’t the United States stand up and attempt to get rid of the Pirates?

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Student Objectives:

1. I will identify foreign trade as a major benefit to the United States economy.

2. I will identify the Barbary States as nations that will interrupt United States trade.

3. I will determine if Jefferson’s Embargo Act of 1807 and the Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 were successful in keeping the U.S. out of war.


Homework:

- Read and outline Chapter 8, Section 3 pgs. 280-282 start @ Conflict in the West & stop @ Call for War (Due 1/21)

- Read and outline Chapter 8, Section 3 pgs. 282-283 start @ Call for War (Due 1/22)

- Read and outline Chapter 8, Section 4 pgs. 284-286 stop @ G.B. on the Offensive (Due 1/25)

- Read and outline Chapter 8, Section 4 pgs. 286-287 start @ G. B. on the Offensive (Due 1/26)

-Chapter 8 Test Friday 1/29


Handouts:

none
I. Barbary States

II. Stephen Decatur
Key terms/ideas/ people/places:

Barbary States/pirates Thomas Jefferson Stephen Decatur Philadelphia

Blockade Halls of Montezuma Tripoli Thomas Jefferson Embargo Act

Non-Intercourse Act France Britain


By the end of class today, I will be able to answer the following:

Who were the Barbary Pirates?

What ship did Stephen Decatur sink?

Where are the Barbary States? Halls of Montezuma?

Were the Embargo and Non-Intercourse Acts effective? Why or why not?

Notes

Class 72—Barbary Pirates and Embargo

January 20, 2016
Britain impressing (Being forced to serve in the military) Americans sailors
Barbary States: North Africa


  • Barbary Pirates-want tribute or bribe

  • Tripoli still attacking U.S. ships

    • Jefferson blockades Tripoli

    • USS Philadelphia runs aground-taken by pirates

    • Stephen Decatur sneaks on board and burns the Philadelphia so the pirates can’t use it

    • U.S. Marines are also sent in “to the shores of Tripoli”

Jefferson’s embargos:



  • Embargo Act

    • forbade Americans to import or export goods

    • “In effect, to put pressure on Britain and France, the United States went to war with itself and blockaded its own shipping.”

    • Smuggling an issue

  • Non-Intercourse Act

    • Can trade with all nations except France and Britain

    • “Between 1803 and 1807 Britain seized 528 ships and France seized another 389.”

____________________________________

7th Grade Social Studies

Canada, Mexico, & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction

Class 73—Burr vs. Hamilton & Tecumseh vs. William Henry Harrison

January 21, 2016

Focus: Read the following quote and then answer this question: What was Hamilton asking Monroe to do?

Mr. Hamilton requests an interview with Mr. Monroe at any hour tomorrow forenoon which may be convenient to him. Particular reasons will induce him to bring with him a friend to be present at which may pass. Mr. Monroe, if he pleases, may have another.”

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Student Objectives:

1. I will recognize the death of Alexander Hamilton as a serious blow to the Federalist Party.

2. I will recognize Tecumseh and the Prophet as legitimate adversaries for William Henry Harrison.
Homework:

- Read and outline Chapter 8, Section 3 pgs. 282-283 start @ Call for War (Due 1/22)

- Read and outline Chapter 8, Section 4 pgs. 284-286 stop @ G.B. on the Offensive (Due 1/25)

- Read and outline Chapter 8, Section 4 pgs. 286-287 start @ G. B. on the Offensive (Due 1/26)

-Chapter 8 Test Friday 1/29
Handouts:

none
I. Honor System

A. Burr vs. Hamilton

II. Tippecanoe



  1. Tecumseh & Prophet vs. William Henry Harrison


Key terms/ideas/ people/places:

Tecumseh Prophet Tippecanoe William Henry Harrison Aaron Burr

Alexander Hamilton Honor system Duel Weehawken, NJ

By the end of class today, I will be able to answer the following:

Where was the Prophet and Tecumseh defeated? By who?

What is the honor system?

Who shot Alexander Hamilton?

Notes

Class 73—Burr vs. Hamilton & Tecumseh vs. William Henry Harrison

January 21, 2016

Aaron Burr vs. Alexander Hamilton Duel:


  • July 11, 1804

  • Honor/honor system

  • Weehawken, NJ

  • Burr shoots Hamilton

  • Hamilton dies next day

  • Tremendous blow to the Federalist Party and Burr’s political career

  • “Honor mattered because character mattered. And character mattered because the fate of the American experiment with republican government still required virtuous leaders to survive.”- Both Burr and Hamilton saw themselves as virtuous leaders.



Tecumseh and the Prophet (Tenskwatawa):

  • ignore the white ways and return to the roots of the Native American past

  • United Native American resistance to encroaching white settlers

  • Tecumseh

    • Pan tribal unity

    • Militant resistance to whites


Battle of Tippecanoe:

  • William Henry Harrison (Harrison regards Tecumseh as a genius) claims a U.S. victory over the Native American alliance of Tecumseh and the Prophet

____________________________________

7th Grade Social Studies

Canada, Mexico, & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction

Class 74— War Hawks

January 22, 2016


Focus: Who were the leaders of the War Hawks? Why did they want war?

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -



Student Objectives:

1. I will identify the character and political philosophy of President James Madison.

2. I will define War Hawks.

3. I will identify the regions of the United States that sought war with Britain.

4. I will identify Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun as leaders of the War Hawks.
Homework:

- Read and outline Chapter 8, Section 4 pgs. 284-286 stop @ G.B. on the Offensive (Due 1/25)

- Read and outline Chapter 8, Section 4 pgs. 286-287 start @ G. B. on the Offensive (Due 1/26)

-Chapter 8 Test Friday 1/29


Handouts:

none
I. Non-Intercourse Act

A. Success or failure?

II. A second war with Britain



  1. Reasons



Key terms/ideas/ people/places:

Non-Intercourse Act Impressment James Madison Henry Clay

John C. Calhoun North South West Felix Grundy James Madison
By the end of class today, I will be able to answer the following:

What two regions of the nation wanted war?

Why did those regions want to go to war?

Who were the leaders of the War Hawks?

Notes

Class 74— War Hawks

January 22, 2016

Non-intercourse Act set to expire:



  • U.S. would like to resume trade with France or Britain

  • Resumes trade with France but not with Britain

  • Britain impresses U.S. sailors

War Hawks:



  • members of Congress from the South and West that wanted war with Britain

  • Reasons for war

    • Gain FL

    • Take Canada

    • Stop impressments

    • Demonstrate U.S. strength

    • Stop British aid to Native Americans on the frontier (remember Tippecanoe)

  • Leaders

    • Henry Clay-KY

    • John C. Calhoun-SC

  • Congress Vote on war

    • House and Senate members from South and West vote for war

    • House and Senate members from New England states vote against

    • War is declared

    • Sectional vote



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