Fireball in the night



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Causes of Civil War Notes
Missouri Compromise (page 122)
Thomas Jefferson referred to it as a “fireball in the night”


  • 1817 Missouri applies for statehood with 2,000-3,000 slaves

  • Second state carved out of the LA Purchase (LA first)

Up until 1819 = equally admitting slave and free state


House of Reps = argued for restriction of slavery in Missouri but Senate (South) no way


  • February 1820 Maine wants to be a free state so the balance can be kept

Amendment passed = no slavery in rest of LA Purchase North of the Southern border of Missouri (latitude 36 degrees, longitude 30 degrees)


Keeps balance at 12 slave and 12 Free states in the Senate
Henry Clay helped to get this passed in the House (known as the Great Compromiser from Kentucky)
Nullification Theory (pages 124-126)
Raised over the Tariff of 1828 (abominations) that was hiked even further in 1832
Jackson’s VP John C. Calhoun from South Carolina champions this…
Constitution was created by 13 sovereign states so therefore since the states gave the Constitution power then states have the right to determine if acts of Congress were constitutional
*If a state did not think an act was constitutional then it could declare the act (in this case the tariff) null and void within its borders ie the states did not have to listen to the federal government
Jackson responds with the Force Bill that says the President has the authority to use the US armed forces to collect the tariff. (can use military power to enforce federal laws)
End- compromise tariff is worked out with the help of Henry Clay

Kansas-Nebraska Act (page 160)
Divides the territory with Nebraska to the North and Kansas to the South, Repealed the Missouri Compromise by saying the issue of slavery was to be decided by popular sovereignty in each territory
Bleeding Kansas- due to KN Act est. popular sovereignty, pro and anti slave forces fight for the government of Kansas, pro-slave forces get slave owners from Missouri to vote in elections so they can win the vote, because of the fraud the anti slave forces set up their own government and fighting breaks out (1855)
Microcosm of what will happen with the entire country 6 years later when Civil War breaks out
Compromise of 1850 (page 157-158)

Henry Clay works out the deal with the help of Daniel Webster and Stephen Douglas

Said:

-California would be a free state



-Included a more effective, stricter Fugitive Slave Law

-Popular Sovereignty would decide slavery issue in New Mexico and Utah territories (people there can decide, no congress)


Election of 1860 (164)

Lincoln is the Republican Party’s nominee- against the spread of slavery but promises not to take it away


Secession

Means formal withdrawal of a state from the Union

South Carolina first on Dec. 20, 1860 then MISS, FL, AL, GA, LA, and TX

Those states meet in Feb of 1861 and officially form the Confederate States of America or the Confederacy; Jefferson Davis is elected the president (former Senator from MISS)




Economic Divide between the North and the South
South
Cultural: favored tradition

Geographic: mostly a rural region of large plantations that grew rice, sugar, tobacco and cotton/ small yeoman farms

Economic: Based on agriculture and cash crops
Cotton Gin invented in 1793 by Eli Whitney
Cost of a slave field hand = 1790 was $300-500

1860 was $1,500


Amount of slaves in the south = 1790 was 500,000

1850 was 3 million


By 1860 = 4 million slaves in the South, 25% of white Southerners belonged to families owning slaves

1860- Cotton made up of 57% of all exports from U.S. (4.8 million bales produced)

- 75% of world’s supply is coming from the South

- Cotton went to Great Britain and the North

South depended on North for capital, marketing facilities, and manufactured goods

Economy of the North
Culture: “Go ahead spirit,” many immigrants

Geography: lots of rivers and harbor that will help with industrialization; urban and industrialized

Economy: took raw material from the South and made manufactured goods

North booms from 1840-1860



Why? New farming technologies and the expanding transportation system
Examples: Cyrus McCormick’s reaper, John Deere’s steel plow, steam over water
Wave of immigrants from 1840-1860 = 4.2 million immigrants arrive


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