Filozofická fakulta Katedra anglistiky a amerikanistiky Bakalářská diplomová práce 2011 Mgr. Veronika Nedvědová



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Masarykova univerzita
Mgr. Veronika Nedvědová 2011



Filozofická fakulta
Katedra anglistiky a amerikanistiky

Bakalářská diplomová práce

2011 Mgr. Veronika Nedvědová


Hřbet



Masaryk University

Faculty of Arts
Department of English
and American Studies

English Language and Literature

Mgr. Veronika Nedvědová



Wellingtonian England and Englishness

Bachelor’s Diploma Thesis


Supervisor: PhDr. Lidia Kyzlinková, CSc., M.Litt.
2011

I declare that I have worked on this thesis independently,
using only the primary and secondary sources listed in the bibliography.

……………………………………………..

Author’s signature

Acknowledgement (optional page)

I would like to thank…
Table of contents

1. Introduction........................................................................................................ 3

2. The Name of Wellington.................................................................................... 4

3. Wellington, the Commander And Politician…….............................................. 6

4. Wellingtonian Era............................................................................................. 11

4.1. Life in the Cities............................................................................................... 11

4.2. Entertainment................................................................................................... 13

4.3. Law And Punishment....................................................................................... 14

4.4. The New Face of England................................................................................ 15

4.5. The Royal Family............................................................................................. 18

5. Welingtonian Ideal As a Military Hero And Politician.................................... 18

5.1. Wellington And Englishness............................................................................ 21

5.2. English Stereotypes.......................................................................................... 22

5.3. Defining the English Nation............................................................................. 23

6. Mythmaking, Nationalism And Revolution..................................................... 25

7. Wellington And Napoleon................................................................................ 27

8. Narratives: Hughes and Thackeray.................................................................. 30

8.1. Thomas Hughes................................................................................................ 30

8.2. William M. Thackeray...................................................................................... 32

8.3. Attributes of Englishness.................................................................................. 34

9. The Funeral....................................................................................................... 35

9.1. The Funeral Ceremony..................................................................................... 36

9.2. The Funeral As a Demonstration of the National Solidarity............................ 38

10. Conclusion........................................................................................................ 39

11. Bibliography..................................................................................................... 42

11.1. The Internet Sources........................................................................................ 42

11.2. Published Texts................................................................................................ 43

12. Resumé………………………………………………………………………. 45

12.1. In Czech……………………………………………………………………… 45

12.2 In English………………………………………………………………...…... 45



The jungle is the school for a general.

W. M. Thackeray





  1. Introduction

This is a thesis on the time of the First Duke of Wellington and his importance for the English nation. He played a significant role in the image of the English heroes. Heroes must have existed and if not, they were invented or reconstructed (Pears 232). The picture presented to the public was a simplified and selected life of a significant man, as was the case of Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington. When reading the indefinite number of biographies and essays about his life, one realizes that he held a common first military, then civil office of the King’s, later the Queen’s servant. Although he was hated as Prime Minister, his incredibly complex and interesting character and genuine sense of military leadership and capability of instilling discipline in his subordinates were essential for the birth of a powerful legend. On the day of his funeral, even those who liked him the least lined the streets to St Paul’s Cathedral and adorned him. Why was this so? What was the principal cause for this admiration? Why did the English people change their feelings? The answers to these questions are the main objective of my work. I want to present the Wellingtonian era and Wellington’s legacy.

I divide the work into eight chapters. In the chapter after my introduction I attempt to determine two terms. It is the name Wellington and the term Wellingtonian Age. For my work, it is necessary to define what these words really mean so as not to be confused with other connotations, and it is also important which period is exactly embraced. Then I briefly introduce the Duke himself, his life and career. After that I try to connect the Wellingtonian era with the situation and life in England as it was in the time when the Duke exerted influence on the military and public life. I demonstrate what England and its society were like. I also introduce the royal family because the Duke was always and foremost the loyal servant of the King and Queen. In the next chapter I examine Englishness and English stereotypes as essential elements of feeling English. I show how Wellington’s ideal behaviour mirrored in the image of the English nation. In the fourth chapter I put Wellington in contrast with Napoleon, his European adversary. I demonstrate how these two enemies are imbedded in the European awareness. This fact is manifested on their similarities and differences. This chapter is followed by narratives which depict two Wellingtonian issues. The first is manliness in the concept of Thomas Hughes. The second illustrates Wellington as a military hero in Thackeray’s Vanity Fair. In the last chapter I explore Wellington’s death, his funeral and its significance not only for London. In connection with this event I want to stress two important events in English history that are closely connected to Wellington and which influenced the whole conception of Wellingtonian world. In the conclusion, there is a short summary of what I wanted to state.






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