File: ch01, Chapter 1: Projects in Contemporary Organizations



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File: ch01, Chapter 1: Projects in Contemporary Organizations

Multiple Choice


1. The authors identify three forces that combine to mandate the use of teams to solve problems. Identify the force that the authors named.

a) The explosion in the growth of certified project managers

b) The worldwide acceptance of the Project Management Institute

c) The interaction of supply and demand

d) The evolution of worldwide competitive markets for the production and consumption of goods and services


Ans: d

Response: see p. 1

Level: easy

2. Identify the example that would not usually be considered a project.

a) Building a house

b) Developing a computer software application program

c) Hosting a wedding reception

d) Manufacturing automobiles


Ans: d

Response: While it is true that automobiles have an element of customization, process management techniques are used to mass-produce the vehicles. Refer to the section titled “Three Project Objectives.”

Level: intermediate

3. According to the authors, the prime objectives of project management are

a) Performance, cost, time

b) Quality, scope, schedule

c) Customer satisfaction, budget, schedule

d) Cost, quality, customer satisfaction


Ans: a

Response: Refer to Figure 1 -- 1.

Level: easy

4. According to the authors, this organization has played a significant role in the development of techniques for project management.

a) Lucent Technologies

b) IBM


c) ANSI

d) The military


Ans: d

Response: Refer to section 1.1.

Level: easy

5. The military uses the term __________ to refer to an exceptionally large, long-range objective that is broken down into a set of projects.

a) Task

b) Program



c) Subproject

d) Campaign


Ans: b

Response: Refer to section 1.1.

Level: easy

6. The most critical attribute of a project is that it must be important in the eyes of ________

a) The project team

b) The stakeholders

c) Senior management

d) The project manager


Ans: b

Response: Refer to section 1.1

Level: easy

7. The six attributes that characterize a project are:

a) Purpose, repetition, interdependencies, consistency, uncertainty, conflict

b) Lifecycle, schedule, cost, uncertainty, independence, uniqueness

c) Performance, resources, uniqueness, conflict, interdependencies, importance

d) Purpose, lifecycle, conflict, certainty, independence, performance


Ans: c

Response: Refer to section 1.1.

Level: easy

8. The authors identify four parties-at-interest or stakeholders in any project. These stakeholders are

a) Client, functional manager, sponsor, user

b) Client, sponsor, public, investors

c) Client, functional manager, decision makers, interveners

d) Client, parent organization, project team, public


Ans: d

Response: Refer to the section titled “Conflict.”

Level: easy

9. The pattern of progress observed during the project lifecycle is often explained by _________.

a) The changing levels of resources used during successive stages of the project lifecycle

b) A bounded marginal rate of return

c) Slow-rapid-slow progress

d) The principle that work expands to fill the allotted time


Ans: a

Response: Refer to section 1.3. This question requires the student to explain the pattern of progress rather than describe the pattern of progress.

Level: intermediate

10. The authors mention characteristics of a quasi-project. Which of the following are not attributes of a quasi-project

a) No specific task is defined

b) The project team is selected

c) The performance parameters are not defined

d) The scope, budget and timeline are defined


Ans: d

Response: Refer to section 1.1 “Conflict”

Level: easy

11. The conventional project lifecycle can be described as a pattern of cumulative progress that is ____________.

a) A bounded marginal increasing rate of return

b) An unbounded marginal increasing rate of return

c) Slow-rapid-slow progress

d) An inverted S curve


Ans: c

Response: Refer to Figure 1 -- 3.

Level: easy

12. Earned value is based on the concept that the percentage of project completion is closely correlated with __________.

a) The project baseline

b) The use of resources

c) Cost or the use of resources

d) Final assembly of the output


Ans: c

Response: refer to Figure 1.3 and section 1.3.

Level: advanced

13. In a conventional project lifecycle, as work progresses uncertainty about the expected outcome should _________.

a) Fluctuate

b) Decrease

c) Increase or decrease

d) Remain the same


Ans: b

Response: Refer to Figure 1.7. Dispersion about the expected outcome will decrease as the results of the project become known.

Level: easy

14. The desired outcomes or results of a project are called ____________.

a) Subgroups

b) Work packages

c) Subprojects

d) Deliverables


Ans: d

Response: Refer to the glossary.

Level: easy

15. In a sub-element of a task, the ________ will be accomplished in order to achieve the objectives of the task.

a) subproject

b) program

c) work package

d) level of effort


Ans: c

Response: Refer to the glossary.

Level: easy

16. The boundaries of a lifecycle are determined by its _______ and its ________.

a) Current date and final date

b) Start date and stop date

c) Initiation phase and implementation phase

d) Implementation phase and termination phase


Ans: b

Response: The start date is equivalent to birth and the stop date is equivalent to death.

Level: easy

17. The project to construct a highway is unique because ________.

a) The characteristics of terrain will change

b) The consistency of asphalt will vary

c) Different laborers will be used to build various segments of the highway

d) Subcontractors will be used to perform some of the work


Ans: a

Response: Uniqueness is defined by the work result.

Level: advanced

18. In a research study Shenhar, Levy and Dvir have concluded that project success has four dimensions. Which of the following is not one of these four

a) Opening new opportunities for the future

b) project effectiveness

c) impact on customer

d) business impact on organization


Ans: b

Response: Refer to Three project Objectives

Level: easy

Short Answer


19. ________ occurs when the expectations of the client increase as the project progresses.


Ans: scope creep

Response: Refer to the section titled “Three Project Objectives.”

Level: easy

20. The ANSI standard for project management is documented in the publication known as ________.


Ans: The PMBOK Guidelines

Response: PMBOK is an acronym for the Project Management Body of Knowledge. ANSI is the acronym for the American National Standards Institute.

Level: easy

21. This organization has the responsibility for maintaining and publishing The PMBOK Guidelines.


Ans: Project Management Institute, also known as PMI

Response: Refer to the section titled “The Project Manager.”

Level: easy

22. A ________ is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.


Ans: project

Response: Refer to section 1.1. This is the PMI definition of a project.

Level: easy

23. Individuals or groups with a special interest in a project are called ________.


Ans: Parties-at-interest or stakeholders

Response: Refer to the glossary.

Level: easy

24. The chance that outcomes will not turn out as planned is called ________.


Ans: Risk

Response: Refer to the glossary.

Level: easy

25. Having incomplete information about a situation or outcome is known as ________.


Ans: Uncertainty

Response: Refer to the glossary.

Level: easy

26. Relations between organizational functions where one function or task is dependent on others is known as ________.


Ans: Interdependence

Response: Refer to the glossary.

Level: easy

27. According to the hierarchical nomenclature described in the text, projects can be decomposed into ________.


Ans: tasks

Response: Refer to the glossary.

Level: intermediate

28. With respect to project goals, early in the project lifecycle the project team should be focused on ________.


Ans: how to achieve the required performance

Response: Refer to Figure 1.3 and section 1.3.

Level: advanced

29. The shape of cumulative progress in a conventional project lifecycle is best described using a graph called the ________.


Ans: S-curve or relative cumulative frequency distribution

Response: Refer to section 1.3.

Level: advanced

30. The ________ project is generally credited with beginning the era of modern project management.


Ans: Manhattan

Response: Refer to the section titled “Recent Changes in Managing Organizations.”

Level: intermediate

31. An important implication of the project lifecycle concept is that a project will resist __________ of its existence.


Ans: termination

Response: Refer to section 1.3.

Level: intermediate

32. Conflicting expectations among stakeholders related to performance, cost, and time will require the project manager to make appropriate ____________ in order to balance competing demands related to these objectives.


Ans: trade-offs

Response: Refer to the section titled “Conflict.”

Level: easy

33. The ________ of the project team is a crucial, but unstated, element of ancillary trade offs that the project manager must consider.


Ans: health

Response Refer to Three Project Objectives

Level: easy

Essay

34. Discuss the factors that have contributed to the growth of the Project Management Institute.
Ans: The complexity of problems faced by the project manager and the rapid growth in the number project-oriented organizations has contributed to the professionalization of project management. The growth in membership reflects the growth in the use of projects as well as the importance of PMI in the development of project management as a profession. The mission of PMI is to foster the growth of project management and to build professionalism in the field. PMI is responsible for codifying the areas of learning required for competent project management. In this capacity, PMI maintains the PMBOK Guidelines, which serve as the ANSI standard in North America for project management. The PMI maintains certification standards such as the designation for PMP, which is the acronym for Project Management Professional.

Response: Refer to the section titled” The Project Manager.”

Level: easy

35. Explain why it is important for the project team to understand the purpose of a project.


Ans: Given the complexity of modern projects and the need for an interdisciplinary approach to problem solving, the uncertainties of executing projects make it impractical to give specific instructions regarding every aspect of project execution. Therefore, team members will need to fill gaps in information by making decisions that support project objectives. If team members understand the purpose of the project, there is an increased probability that those decisions will support project success.

Response: This question requires the student to build a concept from the information presented in chapter 1.

Level: advanced

36. Explain the conflict that often exists between the client and the parent organization.


Ans: As the project is executed, clients will often request that changes be made in the project’s outputs. On the other hand, the parent organization is seeking to make a profit by performing the work required to produce those outputs. If the changes are made, the level of profitability may be reduced. This creates a natural antagonism between the client and the parent organization.

Response: Refer to the section titled ”Conflict.”

Level: intermediate

37. Name four benefits of project management.


Ans: The project form of organization allows the project manager to be responsive to (1) the client and the environment, (2) identify and correct problems at an early date (3) make timely decisions about trade-offs between conflicting project goals, and (4) ensure that managers of the separate tasks that comprise the project do not optimize the performance of their individual tasks at the expense of the total project.

Response: Refer to section 1.2.



Level: easy


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