Federalists Ascendant: John Adams



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Federalists Ascendant: John Adams


  1. Development of Political Parties

    1. Washington “above” politics, but a ____________________

    2. Federalist Party emerges

      1. Leaders =>

      2. Characteristics

        1. Pro . . .

        2. Pro . . .

        3. Pro . . .

        4. “Looser” interpretation . . .

    3. Democratic-Republicans (D-Rs)

      1. Leaders =>

      2. Characteristics

        1. Pro . . .

        2. Pro . . .

        3. Pro . . .

        4. Pro . . .

        5. Strict interpretation . . .

  2. Election of 1796

    1. First Post-Washington Election

      1. John Adams (F) – _______ EV

      2. Thomas Jefferson (DR) – _______ EV

      3. Thomas Pinckney (F) – ________ EV

      4. Aaron Burr (DR) – ______ EV

    2. President, VP from different parties

      1. Constitution election rules

        1. President to be person with . . .

        2. VP to be person with . . .

        3. NO CONCEPT OF ________________ (idea of Pres, VP running together)

      2. Founders did not anticipate . . .

      3. Became big problem in Adams’ Administration

  3. John Adams (1735-1826)

    1. Born in Massachusetts

    2. Raised a “__________________________”

    3. Became a lawyer

    4. Second cousins to . . .

    5. Joined Patriot cause =>

    6. During Revolutionary war, served in . . .

      1. “Committee of 5” =>

      2. Looked to for advice by states on . . .

  4. John Adams, Diplomat

    1. 1777: Sent to ___________________ as diplomat

    2. 1779-80: Returned to Europe to . . .

    3. Continued to serve as ambassador to ________________ (1780-82) and __________________ (1785-88)

  5. John Adams, Vice President

    1. Came in second in election of 1788 AND 1792 (significance?) =>




    1. Washington rarely . . .

    2. Adams main job as VP =>

    3. Very low opinion of Vice Presidency =>

  1. John Adams, President

    1. Continued ______________________ of George Washington

    2. Adams wanted to . . .

    3. Problem: Jay’s Treaty angered . . .

    4. Adams sent diplomats to . . .

    5. XYZ Affair

      1. French agents demands

        1. ______________ bribe

        2. ______________ “loan” to help French fight wars

        3. ___________________ from Adams for Jay’s Treaty

      2. Americans . . .

    6. US Reaction to XYZ Affair

      1. Jefferson, D-Rs demanded to see reports from diplomats =>




      1. Adams released charges to public =>

      2. Public outcry: “Millions for defense . . .” =>

    1. “Quasi-War”

      1. No declaration, but . . .

      2. American negotiators offered French . . .

      3. 1800: Adams renegotiated treaty

        1. US dropped claim for . . .

        2. France released US . . .

        3. Weakened American public affection . . .

  1. Domestic Affairs

    1. Alien-Sedition Acts (1798)

      1. _______________ _____________________ Act

        1. Authorized the President to ________________ any resident considered “dangerous to the peace and safety of the US”

        2. Aimed at . . .

      2. _______________ _____________________ Act

        1. Authorized the President to _________________ and deport resident aliens if their home countries were at war with the US

        2. Still in effect

      3. ________________________ Act

        1. Extended the duration of residence required for aliens to become

citizens to ...

        1. Expired 1801

      1. ________________ Act

        1. Made it a crime to publish “false, scandalous and malicious writing”

against ...

        1. Very controversial

    1. Reaction to Sedition Act

      1. Jefferson, D-Rs =>

        1. First Amendment =>

        2. Tenth Amendment =>

        3. No judicial review yet . . .

      2. KY, VA Resolutions

        1. TJ, James Madison introduced these resolutions …

        2. Called on states . . .

        3. Compact Theory

          1. US made up of . . .

          2. States give . . .

          3. But states do not give away their ___________

          4. If state’s sovereignty is violated, then state had right to . . .




    1. Alien-Sedition Acts in Action

      1. No aliens deported, but . . .

      2. 25 people arrested under Sedition Act =>

      3. 11 tried, 10 convicted

      4. Led to . . .

        1. Federalists tossed out of office

        2. After his election, President Jefferson . . .

  1. 1800 Election

    1. One of the nastiest elections ever =>

    2. Jefferson v. Adams

    3. Campaign destroyed . . .

    4. Jefferson, Burr (both D-Rs) tie =>

      1. 35 ballots . . .

      2. On 36th ballot =>

    5. 1800 Election Aftermath: 12th Amendment

      1. President, VP run as __________________

      2. Each elector casts 2 votes =>

      3. Deadlock goes to House =>

    6. Federalists lose control of …

    7. Adams makes “Midnight appointments” to judiciary =>





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