Federalism The Balance Between Nation and States

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The Balance Between Nation and States

Complete the InQuizitive exercises for Chapter 3 as you work through this outline.

Why is it an error in the U.S. to talk about “the government”? Are lines of responsibility clear?

Forms of Republics

  • Confederation

  • Unitary system

  • Centralized authority

  • Some authority is delegated

  • Simultaneous and separate levels of government

  • Shared and reserved authority

History of American Federalism

State Dominated Federalism 1789-1862

  • States did most of the policymaking as under the Articles of Confederation

  • The Size and scope of the national government was quite small

  • McCulloch v. Maryland began the shift of power

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

  • The federal government established a national bank

  • The Supreme Court had to resolve two issues:

  • Is it within the power of Congress to charter a national bank?

  • Can a state government tax a legitimate national entity?

Dual Federalism 1862-1913

Cooperative Federalism 1913-1980

Why is “Cooperative Federalism” given its name? How cooperative is it? A short description lies on pages 94-98 in Governing Texas.

  • Interactions at all levels

What did the Sixteenth Amendment change about the Constitution, and why was it important in changing the balance of power between the states and the federal government?


  • The 16th Amendment (1913) and the “sharing” of funds

  • Solidified by the depression

  • LBJ’s Creative Federalism

How did Lyndon Johnson expand the federal government while in office (pages 96-98 in Governing Texas)?

New Federalism ~1980-2001

Is “New Federalism” appropriately named? What did its proponents seek (page 98 in Governing Texas)?

Federal Mandates and Grants

  • Unfunded mandates

Why would states object strongly to unfunded mandates (page 98 in Governing Texas)?

  • Categorical Grants

Are categorical or block (formula) grants more restrictive on the states? How so? You will find a comparison of these on page 96-98 in Governing Texas.

  • General Revenue Sharing

What is preemption (page 98-100 in Governing Texas)? What does it say about the power of Texas to self-govern?

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