Federalism The Balance Between Nation and States
Between Nation and States
Complete the InQuizitive exercises for Chapter 3 as you work through this outline.
Why is it an error in the U.S. to talk about “the government”? Are lines of responsibility clear?
Forms of Republics
Little or no direct authority over citizens
to the creating governments
Some authority is delegated
Simultaneous and separate levels of government
Shared and reserved authority
History of American Federalism
Evolution of the power balance
The non-linear trend
State Dominated Federalism 1789-1862
States did most of the policymaking as under the Articles of Confederation
The Size and scope of the national government was quite small
began the shift of power
McCulloch v. Maryland
The federal government established a national bank
The Supreme Court had to resolve two issues:
Is it within the power of Congress to charter a national bank?
Can a state government tax a legitimate national entity?
Dual Federalism 1862-1913
and distinct policy domains
The national government had little to say about many policy areas
Cooperative Federalism 1913-1980
Why is “Cooperative Federalism” given its name? How cooperative is it? A short description lies on pages 94-98 in
Interactions at all levels
What did the Sixteenth Amendment change about the Constitution, and why was it important in changing the balance of power between the states and the federal government?
The 16th Amendment (1913) and the “sharing”
Solidified by the depression
How did Lyndon Johnson expand the federal government while in office (pages 96-98 in
New Federalism ~1980-2001
Is “New Federalism” appropriately named? What did its proponents seek (page 98 in
Devolution of authority
by Presidents Nixon and Reagan
Federal Mandates and Grants
Why would states object strongly to unfunded mandates (page 98 in
Are categorical or block (formula) grants more restrictive on the states? How so? You will find a comparison of these on page 96-98 in
General Revenue Sharing
What is preemption (page 98-100 in
)? What does it say about the power of Texas to self-govern?
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