Fbi covert Operations and Suppression of Ku Klux Klan Violence, 1964-1971

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Description of Newton’s Polemic.

216 While cases presented to federal grand juries under civil rights statutes increased to 40 during fiscal yar 1964-1965, only six convictions were obtained. U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Law Enforcement: A Report on Equal Protection in the South, (Wash. DC: GPO, 1965), 12-13, 118. According to the Civil rights Commission, twenty-six black and white civil rights workers were murdered between the sit-in demonstrations in 1960 and Spring 1965. Hearings before the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, on H.R. 14765, 89th Cong., 2nd Sess., 1966, 1406.

217 Elliff, “Federal Civil Rights Enforcement,” 672; Herbert H. Haines, Black Radicals and the Civil Rights Mainstream, 1954-1970, (University of Tennessee Press, 1988), 155; Manning Marable, Race, Reform and Rebellion, The Second Reconstruction in Black America, 1945-1982, 2nd Revised ed., (Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 1991), Chapter 5; O'Reilly Racial Matters, pp. 64-69, 115-119, 122-123, 176-177; Carson, In Struggle, 94, 108-109, 123-129, 157-162, 185-186; David Lewis, King, A Critical Biography (New York: Praeger, 1970), 171-209, 375-381; Martin Luther King, Why We Can't Wait (New York: Signet, 1964; Stanley B. Greenberg, Race and State in Capitalist Development (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980), 235-242; Aldon D. Morris, The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organizing for Change (New York: Free Press, 1984), 229-274; Omi and Winant, Racial Formation, 90-95, 99, 101.

218 David J. Garrow, The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr.: from “Solo” to Memphis, (New York: W. W. Norton, 1981), Chapter 5-6; O’Reilly, Racial Matters, Chapters 8-10; Churchill and Vanderwall, Agents of Repression; James Kirkpatrick Davis, Assault on the Left: The FBI and the Sixties Antiwar Movement, (Westport: Praeger, 1997).

219 . In 1972, after COINTELPRO had ended, a San Diego California FBI agent covered –up a similar reign of terror led by his own informant in a paramilitary-anticommunist group. Drabble, “Negative and Unwise.”

220 Michael and Judy Ann Newton, Racial and Religious Violence In America: A Chronology, (New York: Garland, 1991), 582; “Vigilantes Still Ride in Houston,” Texas Observer, 29 August 1969, 10; Voices From the Underground, 171-172, 178-180; Casey Edward Greene, “Apostles of Hate: The Ku Klux Klan in and Near Houston, Texas, 1920-1982, MA Thesis, (University of Houston, Clear Lake: 1995), 59, 63-69; Nicholas von Hoffman, “By Any Other Word,” Washington Post, 2 November 1970, B1; Jim Barlow, “Houston Dissenters Are Made Targets for Bombs and Guns,” Washington Post, 16 November 1970, A2.

221 Greene, “Apostles of Hate,” 73.
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