Fbi covert Operations and Suppression of Ku Klux Klan Violence, 1964-1971

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Check response to D->B/I 9/1/70; Donald Thrasher and James G. Newland, Jr., "Most of Klan leaders in Indiana Were Paid by FBI as Informants,” Indianapolis Star, 11 November, 1979.

194 As of 1974, Chaney led about 450 Klan members in the central Indiana counties of Howard, Madison and Morgan. After the break with Shelton, he founded the Confederation of Independent Orders-Invisible Knights of the KKK. Birmingham to Director 8/26/70 (Indianapolis file); Director to Birmingham, Indianapolis, 9/1/70; Indianapolis to Director, 9/14/70, 12/11/70; Director to Indianapolis, 12/21/70; Reed, Night of the Klan, 109-110; Newton, KKK Encyclopedia, 105, 133, 287, 507.

195 Atlanta to Director, 7/16/70, 10/14/70 (#2), 4/15/71.

196 Charlotte to Director, 9/12/67, 10/4/67, 1/3/68, 9/30/68, 12/23/68; AP, “Greensboro Joins Suit Against Dorsett, Pals,” Raleigh News and Observer, 9 September 1967; Chafe, Civilities and Civil Rights, 226-229. See also, Belknap, Federal law and Southern Order, 334n13.

197 Chafe, Civilities and Civil Rights, 229, 283 (quote).

198 Church Committee, Final Report, Book III, 252. See also Sims, The Klan, 43-44, 122-124; Newton, KKK Encyclopedia, 80, 131, 168-169.

199 Charlotte to Director, 1/30/69.

200 FBI file on the National Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, the Informant Files of Edward Dawson, North Carolina SBI reports, and various police department reports on Klan, Nazi and Communist groups contained in the Greensboro Civil Rights Fund Records in the Southern History Collection, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Collection # 4360, especially folders 195-199, 941-954, 981, 988, 998, 1231, 1252-1253, 1256, 1259-1260, 1309.

201 One 1975 rally in Burnsville attracted 75 people. Dawson also infiltrated the U. S. Labor Party for the Bureau. Charlotte to Director, 10/27/75, NCKKKK (Bureau File 157-18601-50) in Folder 981, Director to Charlotte, 1/7/76, in Folder 991, Greensboro Civil Rights Fund; transxrips of telephone conversations between Edward Dawson and FBI Agent Len Bogerty, Folder 195, GBCRF; FBI Momorandum, SA Robert F. Boland to SAC, Charlotte, 4/17/75, CE 2362-PEI, in Folder 943, 952 Collection #4630, GBCRF Records, SHC. The FBI also worked closely with North Carolina law enforcement, to monitor a militant white power organization called the Rights of White People. Charlotte to Acting Director, 6/22/72. NATIONAL YOUTH ALLIANCE EM. (FBI File 157-12589), downloadable at http://www.fbi.gov

202 Charlotte to Director, 11/19/75, NCKKKK, in Folder 981, Charlotte to Director, 9/19/75, 9/21/75, NCKKKK Rally at Mars Hill, 9/20-21/75 in Folder 214, Charlotte to Director, 7/15/76 in Folder 942, and FBI Report, 1/19/73, in Folder 988, all in collection #4630, GBCRF Records, SHC.

203 Sally A. Bermanzohn, Through Survivor’s Eyes, From the Sixties to the Grensboro Massacre, (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2003), 18.; Charlotte to Director, 9/25/75, 10/6/75, CE 2362-REI, EM-Klan, in Folder 943, Columbia to Director and Charlotte, 1/13/76, Invisible Empire (IE), Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (KKKK), Realm of South Carolina, EM-Klan, in Folder 947, Charlotte to Director, 11/12/75, Folded 942, Collection #4630, GBCRF Records, SHC. For Dawson’s version of the Morganton confrontation, see “Third of November,” 10.

204 Ibid;

205 During Virgil Griffin's reign in the NCKKKK, Dawson attended meetings of Lyndon LaRouche's United States Labor Party, which was pesenting itself as an ultra-left sect at the time, and passed information to the Greensboro police. When the USLP announced that they would picket a Greensboro shopping center, Dawson organized a Klan counter-demonstration, and informed the authorities. Report, "The Third of November," (Durham, NC: Institute for Southern Studies, 1981), 8, 26, in Folder 981, Greensboro Civil Rights Fund; Greenkil, 44; AP, “FBI’s man in the Klan Identified,” Raleigh News and Observer, 11 December 1975, 1; Stephen Bechtel, “Klansman Revealed as Informant,” Times-News, 5 August 1980; J. M. Lavelle, David J. Garrow and Kathleen Fulton, "November 3, What the Grand Jury Ignored" North Carolina Independent, in "Nathans Papers," Special Collection, 6th: 17:A, 2nd, 14:C Perkins Library, Duke University; Chalotte to Director, 7/15/76, in Folder 942, Interview with Mr. Eddie Dawson, 9 February 1980, p4 in Folder 196, Collection #4630, GBCRF Records, SHC; Jack Betts, “FBI Worked To Divide N.C. Klans?” Greensboro Daily News, 6 December 1975. On Dorsett’s banishment, see also Folders 951-952, GBCRF. On the COIO, see Newton, KKK Encyclopedia, 133. Only 7 Klansmen, wearing paramilitary uniforms, attended one rally that year. Interview of Jim Price by Scott Ellsworth, 5/25/77, p8 in William Henry Chafe Oral History Collection, Printed Materials Series, Transcripts; Research Materials, Box 2, Manuscript Department, William R. Perkins Library, Duke University.

206 Director to Charlotte, 8/5/76, in Folder 991, Collection #4630, GBCRF Records, SHC.

207 Walter Pincus, “Attorney General Weighs Ban On ‘Preventive Action’ by FBI,” Washington Post, 28 February 1976, A2.

208 O’Reilly, Racial Matters, Chapter 6; Eliff, “Federal Civil Rights Enforcement,” 671-672; Drabble, “Negative and Unwise.”

209 Charlotte to Director 10/12/64.

210 Little Rock to Director, 1/4/66, 4/5/66, 7/11/66; Director to Little Rock 8/18/66. The House Un-American Activities Committee also found that Arkansas Klan groups were relatively quiescent. HUAC, The Present-Day Ku Klux Klan Movement, 33, 150.

211 In an failed attempt to create factionalism, agents sent a letter to Texarkana-based Grand Dragon [11/15] in January 1965, which implied that members of the other two Klaverns were misappropriating funds, and complained about the mental health of [6]. The AAK was not included in the FBI’s nationwide anti-Klan postcard or NCDT operations. SAC letter No. 63-4, 1/23/63, FBI San Francisco file 100-44462, “Bombings and Attempted Bombings,” Lazar archive; Little Rock to Director, 9/23/64, 10/13/64, 10/19/64, 12/18/64, 1/21/65, 3/31/65, 10/26/65; Director to Little Rock, 1/7/65, 4/8/65. HUAC did not subpoena any members of the AAK.

212 Savannah to Director, 10/14/64, 12/30/64, 5/26/65, 6/21/65; Director to Savannah, 1/27/65. See also Savannah to Director, 12/30/64, and the sections on the ASCK in the monthly reports of the Savannah subfile.

213 Richmond to Director 12/8/64.

214 FBI Report, “The Ku Klux Klan,” Section II, 1944-1958, (May 1958), downloadable from www.thememoryhole.org/fbi/kkk.htm, 73.

215 Akinyele Omowale Umoja, "The Natchez Model and Paramilitary Organization in the Mississippi Freedom Movement," Journal of Black Studies, 32:3, (January 2002), 271-294; idem, "1964: The Beginning of the End of Non-violence in the Mississippi Freedom Movement," Radical History Review, 85 (Winter 2003), 201-226; Lance Hill, The Deacons of Defense: Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004); Simon Wendt, "God, Gandhi and Guns: The African American Freedom Struggle in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 1964-1965," Journal of African American History, 89:1 (Winter 2004): 36-47.
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