Direct Democracy, this style of government allowed for every male member of society to write and debate law (This was the first democracy known to mankind)
Center for learning and arts, many knew scientists and philosophers such as Archimedes, Aristotle, and Socrates challenged and explored new frontiers which led to new ways of thinking.
Formed and led the Delian League, which was an alliance of Greek city states against Persia. This was a sign of cooperation between the Greek city states to fate a huge enemy.
Women held little rights, they were held to little or no right by the males; this meant no education or respect by society.
Began to lose prominence by the end of 5th century BC, because it was defeated by Sparta and Persia in Peloponnesian War. This war shined a light on the weak military of Greece and ultimately led to their downfall.
Pericles: leader from 461 B.C.E-429 B.C.E, one of greatest Athenian leaders. Pericles was a statesman and orator and led Athens into a golden age and a great window in the main golden age of Greece.
Main God was Athena. Athena was the goddess of wisdom so naturally; the Greeks looked up to her as there were great minds present in Greek society.
Boys and girls trained physically from age five onwards, they were held on rigorous schedules and diets mainly geared for military combat.
Women seen as useful only to have babies, but because of absence of men, were much more equal to men than other civilizations. They were allowed to mange and negotiate real estate, something in absent in some other city states.
any other city state at the time
All males enlisted in army, this was a huge part of the Spartan society as the military was the defining force as Sparta as a whole.
Unparalleled military force, the win in the Peloponnesian War over the great city-state Greece, cemented their position as a military power.
Athens main rival, the Spartans lacked the intellectual prowess than Athenians had but made up for with their military forces.
Allied with Persia during Peloponnesian War to defeat Athens, once foes then allies this alliance was vital for Sparta to win the Peloponnesian war and proves that Sparta was able to coincide peacefully and form alliances with other societies.
“Just because you do not take an interest in politics doesn't mean politics won't take an interest in you” - Pericles
This quote from Pericles proves the emphasis politics had on the Greek government and the influence certain governments had.
“I am not an Athenian or a Greek, but a citizen of the world.” – Diogenes
This quote by Diogenes proves how Greece as a whole is viewed. This philosopher views his contributions in a worldly respect, rather than a Greek accomplishment.
“Having knowledge but lacking the power to express it clearly is no better than never having any ideas at all”
This quote proves how important knowledge was to Pericles. He led Athens into a golden age and this proves how much ideas about math and science meant to him.
“For to err in opinion, though it be not the part of wise men, is at least human.”- Plutarch
This quote by Plutarch displays the morals of the direct democracy of Athens. By stating the merits of the opinions of wise men, Plutarch is putting the direct democracy of Athens on a world stage.
Athens fell due to Peloponnesian War; this conflict was a huge part of the fall of Athens. Over time the empire of Athens slowly descended into a pit of demise as it did not focus their military force enough.
The military power known as Sparta fell apart as they were conquered by Alexander the Great and ended up losing their power. Once they lost their military prowess they lost everything, so they changed quite a bit.
Many countries today model their governments on the government that the city state of Athens displayed. The direct democracy displayed in Athens government is a modern form of the representative government seen today in our society. Many ideas and laws used in Greek society are very evident today.
· Trade, Commerce
· Role of merchants
The city states of Greece traded with many other civilizations due to their location in the Balkan Peninsula. Because of the large bodies of water surrounding Greece, they were able to gain new ideas from other civilizations on how to carry out tasks.
Ancient Greece held great importance on importing goods. Due to the hilly terrain of Greece, importing new materials was a big deal to the Greeks.
They held great importance on trading and importing goods because of the lack of fertility of the land. The mountainous terrain of Greece made it hard for the people of Greece to have a booming agricultural economy so merchants thrived with their import style of marketing.
There economy was mostly based on maritime, craftsmanship, and commerce.
They developed a currency system, and traded gold, silver, iron, and copper with other civilizations.
They developed new forms of pottery.
“Time is the king of all men, he is their parent and their grave, and gives them what he will and not what they crave.” -Anonymous Philosopher
The time referred to her refers to the time it takes for the trade and other economic activities to be carried out.
Over time each of the Greek city-states gained new economic trade partners and began to trade with many other societies. Athens was a main example of this model, as they traded with others. After many other years, Alexander the great established his dominance, over time as he took over many Greek city-states.
· Beliefs, Teaching
· Holy Books
· Influence on Society*
Polytheistic, the Greeks believed in many Greek gods such as Zeus, Hades, and Apollo. These gods would transfer into Roman culture and prove the influence they had on other cultures.
Many myths explaining the Origin of Gods and Humans. Aesop’s' fables and many other myths were created and told around Greece as to answer the main questions that man posed.
Spread religion through its colonies. Even though there was a wide geographic isolation amongst the Greek city-states mythology spread widely amongst themselves.
Highly Influenced Rome, who adapted Greek religion. Many gods like Athena transferred to Minerva were transferred into Rome.
No Holy Books practiced animal sacrifice to Gods. There were many famous philosophy books such as Politics by Plato but there was no concrete holy book that defined the belief of Greeks.
Gave Gods human qualities, this allowed for the Gods to seem more accessible to the general public of Greece. Giving them human traits allowed the people of Greece to empathize with the trials and tribulations that the Gods went through.
"In the beginning there was only chaos. Then out of the void appeared Erebus, the unknowable place where death dwells, and Night. All else was empty, silent, endless, darkness." quote from Creation of the World
This quote from a Greek myth, the creation of the world proves how influential Greek mythology is to the individual and how it affected the civilization as a whole.
Rome adopted many Greek gods such as the main Athenian goddess Athena being transferred to Minerva, and Zeus transferred to Jupiter. This exchange of ideas between these two civilizations that existed during different time periods is a perfect example of cultural diffusion among different time periods.
· Gender Relations
· Social Classes
· Inequalities—coercive labor
· Life Styles
Women grew up separately from men, social restraint. This inequality of treatment between men and women can be seen through Greek history as most of the prominent figures are men.
Women married as early as 15 and were forced to perform the jobs of "housewife" from that time on.
Greek culture had hierarchy similar to many other civilizations
Upper class, or Metics
Slaves treated like member of family, could buy freedom
There were many lifestyles evident in Greek culture due to potential for job specialization. Greeks could be philosophers, argue law, be merchants, but most farmers belonged to the lower class.
Rarely, some women were able to fall through the cracks and write plays and be educated but this was uncommon.
"A sense is what has the power of receiving into itself the sensible forms of things without the matter, in the way in which a piece of wax takes on the impress of a signet-ring without the iron or gold." -Aristotle
This quote spoken by Aristotle perfectly exemplifies the social hierarchy of Greece and their structure as a civilization.
Over time the social inequalities between men and women stayed the same as it transferred to many other cultures. The inequality of treatment between men and women got a little better as time went on, but the social hierarchy of Greece mostly remained the same between city states.
Math & Science
Math & Science
of literature, by introducing new styles of writing
Socratic Method of philosophy introduced by Socrates. Also many theories and other philosophies were brought out by his students Plato and Aristotle.
Other mathematicians such as Pythagoras, creating the Pythagorean Theorem and Erostrachrus, creating the first Heliocentric orbit proved how Greece were years ahead of their time.
Socrates questioned values, forcing people to think. This was a change from the normal Greek style which forced people to believe whatever the higher ups told them to believe. Socrates believed in questioning everything and anything that came to mind, which angered some, but revolutionized Greek society.
Men were taught law and debate and create new rules but women were mostly denied education.
Wrote down much of myths and oral traditions
Homer a celebrated writer, credited with the Iliad and the Odyssey'. These works gave evidence for the city-state of Troy and was a pivotal work in the history of man.
"All men's souls are immortal, but the souls of the righteous are immortal and divine." -Socrates
This quote is spoken by Socrates, one the most influential philosophers of Ancient Greece, his Socratic method questioned the entire way everyday citizens lived their lives.
“A good decision is based on knowledge and not on numbers.”
This quote by Plato shows the impact philosophy had on the lives of the general public. The decisions made many people were influenced by these philosophers and this is seen in this quote
“A tyrant must put on the appearance of uncommon devotion to religion. Subjects are less apprehensive of illegal treatment from a ruler whom they consider god-fearing and pious. On the other hand, they do less easily move against him, believing that he has the gods on his side.” – Aristotle
This quote about religion proves what philosophers thought about religion and its merits. Most great minds thought that they should run society and this quote displays that perfectly.
The Roman and Islamic civilizations used many of the ideas presented in Greece. Many medical books and other philosophies set the basis for many other discoveries and new breakthroughs. The new ways that other civilizations performed such as Galen and the scientific method were made possible by the advances during the classical age of Greece.
NEAR: GEOGRAPHY (continued)
Located in Balkan Peninsula bordered by Mediterranean