Explorers in the late 15

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Commonwealth v. Hunt: In the case of Commonwealth v. Hunt, the Massachusetts Supreme Court in 1842 ruled that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies in restraint of trade. Although this decision made strikes legal, it did not bring significant changes in the rights of laborers because many Massachusetts judges still considered unions illegal.

Robert Fulton, steamships: Fulton was an artist turned inventor. In 1807, he and his partner, Robert Livingston, introduced a steamship, the Clermont, on the Hudson River and obtained a monopoly on ferry service there until 1824. Steamships created an efficient means of transporting goods upstream, and this led to an increase in the building of canals.

clipper ships: Clipper ships were sailing ships built for great speed. The first true clipper ship, the Rainbow, was designed by John W. Griffiths, launched in 1845, but this was modeled after earlier ships developed on the Chesapeake Bay. During the Gold Rush, from 1849 to 1857, clipper ships were a popular means to travel to California quickly.

Samuel Slater: Slater was the supervisor of machinery in a textile factory in England. He left England illegally in 1790 to come to Rhode Island, where, in 1793, he founded the first permanent mill in America for spinning cotton into yarn. In doing this, Slater founded the cotton textile industry in America.

Boston Associates: The Boston Associates were a group of merchants in Boston who created Boston Manufacturing Company in 1813. Capitalizing on new technology, they built textile factories in the towns of Waltham and Lowell which produced finished products, challenging cottage industries. Also, they hired young, unmarried women, rather than entire families.

Lowell factory: The Lowell factory was a factory established in 1813 by the Boston Manufacturing Company on the Merrimack River in Massachusetts. It was a cotton textile mill that produced finished clothing, eliminating the need for cottage industries. Also, the Lowell factory hired mainly young girls, separating these girls from their families.

factory girls (Lowell factory): "Factory girls" were young, unmarried women, usually between 15 and 30 years old, working in textile factories such as the Lowell factory. Most of these girls left their families’ farms in order to gain independence or to help their families financially. In the factories, they found poor working conditions and strict discipline.

ten-hour movement: The ten-hour movement was the attempt by workers to obtain restrictions on the number of hours they worked per day. They wanted to limit the day to 10 hours, from the 12 or 14 hour days that were not uncommon. The movement was supported by Lowell Female Reform Association and other reform associations.

Elias Howe: Howe invented the sewing machine in 1845 and patented it in 1846. After a difficult battle defending his patent, he made a fortune on his invention. The sewing machine allowed clothing to be stitched in factories very quickly, contributing to the transition from handmade garments to inexpensive, mass-produced clothing.

Eli Whitney, interchangeable parts: Whitney was an inventor who introduced the concept of interchangeable parts in 1798. The tools and machines he invented allowed unskilled workers to build absolutely uniform parts for guns, so that the whole gun no longer had to be replaced if a single part malfunctioned or broke. This was the beginning of mass production.

Cyrus McCormick, mechanical reaper: McCormick was an inventor who improved upon previous designs for the mechanical reaper. He patented his reaper in 1834 and built a factory to mass produce it in 1847. This invention lessened the work of western farmers by mechanizing the process of harvesting wheat.

Samuel F.B. Morse, telegraph: Morse invented the telegraph in 1844. This invention was enthusiastically accepted by the American people; telegraph companies were formed and lines erected quickly. The telegraph allowed rapid communication across great distances, usually transmitting political and commercial messages.

Cyrus Field: Field was a financier who promoted the first transatlantic telegraph cable. In 1841, Field founded a company, Cyrus W. Field and Co. After four failed attempts, Field laid a cable between Irealand and Newfoundland in 1866. This cable was 2,000 miles long and laid from the Great Eastern, a ship. This allowed for rapid transatlantic communication.


The nationalistic movement was one which brought the nation together. The economy of the nation was a large force in the merging of the nation, and the government took considerable actions to piece it together.

Economic Independence after War of 1812: The War of 1812 was in part responsible for creating a great sense of national purpose and awareness. There was a large dependency on trade, evident to merchants when the Embargo of 1807 and the War of 1812 suspended trade to Europe. This was an economic blow that had repercussions.

Second Bank of the US: Andrew Jackson vetoed the recharter bill of the Second Bank of the United States on July 10, 1832, which was a blow against monopoly, aristocratic parasites, and foreign domination, as well as great victory for labor. Instead, Jackson created pet banks and destabilized the national currency and aid.

Tariff of 1816 (protective): This was a protective tariff that was principally intended to hold the production of textiles and goods. This tariff was made in order to defend the industries that were established during the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812, promoting new industries. A revision was made in 1824 to clear problems that aroused.

Bonus Bill Veto: In 1817, the development of America was creating a need for a well made transportation facilities to link the outlying agricultural regions with the trade eaters in the Eastern sea ports. This was Madison’s last act, which he vetoed the bill on constitutional ground.

Rush-Bagot Treaty: Rush-Bagot was an agreement between the US and Great Britain concerning the Canadian border in 1817. The decision was that there would be a disarmament of the US-Canadian frontier, and that there would be a precedent for the amicable settlement of peace between the US and Canada.

Convention of 1818: Signed at London, by Richard Rush, Great Britain’s Prime minister, and the French prime minister, Albert Gallatin. This treaty fixed the 49th parallel to divide the US and Canadian boundary, and also established fishing privileges for the United States off the coast of Labrador and Newfoundland.

Panic of 1819 : Occurred when the Second Bank of the United States tightened its loan policy, triggering a depression, that caused distress throughout the country, especially western farmers. Even more so, British exports unloaded textiles, causing a great depression for farmers.

Sectionalism and Slavery

In the early 1800s, slavery was becoming an increasingly sectional issue, meaning that it was increasingly dividing the nation along regional lines. Northerners were becoming more opposed to slavery, whether for moral or economic reasons, and Southerners were becoming more united in their defense of slavery as an institution.

sectionalism: Sectionalism is loyalty or support of a particular region or section of the nation, rather than the United States as a whole. Slavery was particularly sectional issue, dividing the country into North and South to the extent that it led to the Civil War; for the most part, southerners supported slavery and northerners opposed it.

"necessary evil": In the South, slavery was considered necessary in order to maintain the agricultural economy of the entire region. Before George Fitzhugh in 1854, southerners did not assert that slavery was a boon to society; they merely protested that it could not be eliminated without destroying the South.

Slave Power: The term Slave Power refers to the belief that pro-slavery southerners were united an attempt to spread slavery throughout the United States. Most Northerners were suspicious of the influence of southern slaveholders in Congress, especially because of the Fugitive Slave Act, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the repeal of the Missouri Compromise.

"KING COTTON": In the 1800s, cotton became the principal cash crop in the South. The British textile industry created a huge demand for cotton, and the invention of the cotton gin made it practical to grow cotton throughout the South. It was so profitable that the vast majority of southern farms and plantations grew cotton, and the "Cotton Kingdom" spread west into Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas. Essentially, the entire Southern economy became dependent on the success of cotton as a crop.

George Fitzhugh, Sociology for the South, or the Failure of Free Society: In 1854, Fitzhugh wrote Sociology for the South, defending slavery. He argued that slavery benefited the slave by providing him with food and shelter, and that free laborers in the North were not treated any better than slaves. This was the first description of slavery as a "positive the farmer groups good."

positive good: In the South, George Fizhugh established the philosophy that slavery was "positive good." It was believed that slavery benefited slaves by providing them with food, shelter, and often Christian religion. Also, Fitzhugh argued that free laborers in northern factories were not treated any better than slaves.

Hinton Helper, The Impending Crisis of the South: In 1857, Helper wrote The Impending Crisis of the South in an attempt to persuade non-slaveholders that slavery harmed the Southern economy, using the poor whites of the pine-barrens as an illustration of how the institution of slavery degrades non-slaveowning southerners.

mountain whites in the South, pine barrens: The poorest class of whites in the Lower South tended to cluster in the mountains and pine-barrens, where they survived by grazing hogs and cattle on land that the usually didn’t own. They were considered lazy and shiftless, and were often cited by northerners as proof that slavery degraded non-slaveholding whites.

West Florida, 1810: Annexed when southern expansionists went into the Spanish Dominion, captured the fort at Baton Rouge, and proclaimed on September 26, the independent State of republic of West Florida. It was adopted as a resolution on January 15, 1811 and authorized as an extenuation of US rule over East Florida.

Purchase of Florida: Spain surrendered Florida to the United States in 1819 by the Adams-Onis Treaty, with a sum of five million dollars. This however began a rebellion by the Indians, starting the Seminole War (1835-42), and becoming another reason for Indian hatred of the white man.

Adams-Onis Treaty: It was the treaty in 1819 that purchased eastern Florida to establish the boundary between Mexico and the Louisiana territory. It provided for the cession of Florida to the United States in return for American settlement of claims of her citzens against Spain.

Quadruple Alliance: Formed in 1815, the Quadruple Alliance consisted of England, Russia, Austria, and Prussia, and it regulated European politics after the fall of Napoleon. The Holy Alliance was an organization of European states that advanced the principles of the Christian faith.

George Canning: The British foreign minister, he supported nationalist movements throughout Latin America and dissuaded foreign intervention in American affairs. He proposed that the US and Britain issue a joint statement opposing European interference in South America and guaranteed that neither would annex Spain’s old empire.

MONROE DOCTRINE: origins, provisions, impact: President Monroe’s message to Congress on Dec. 2, 1823, it consisted of 3 principles: U.S. policy was to abstain from European wars unless U.S. interests were involved, European powers could not colonize the American continents and shouldn’t attempt to colonize newly independent Spanish American republics. Ridiculed in Europe, it was used to justify U.S. expansion by presidents John Tyler and James Polk. In 1904, the Roosevelt Corollary was introduced.

Era of good feelings: This phrase exemplifies both of Monroe’s presidencies, from 1816-1824. The War of 1812 eliminated some divisive issues, and Republicans embraced the Federalist’s issues. Monroe made an effort to avoid political controversies, but soon sectionalism divided the nation.

Chief Justice John Marshall: decisions: Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) The question was whether New Hampshire could change a private corporation, Dartmouth College into a state university. It was unconstitutional to change it. After a state charters a college or business, it can no longer alter the charter nor regulate the beneficiary.

Tallmadge Amendment: The Tallmadge Amendment (1819) restricted further importation of slaves into Missouri and freed slave descendants born after Missouri’s admission as a state, at age 25. It passed in the House but not the Senate due to sectionalism.

MISSOURI COMPROMISE: Congress admitted Maine as a free state in 1820 so that Missouri would become a slave state and prohibited slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase territory north of 36 30, the southern boundary of Missouri. Henry Clay proposed the second Missouri Compromise in 1821, which forbade discrimination against citizens from other states in Missouri but did not resolve whether free blacks were citizens. Congress had a right to prohibit slavery in some territories.

Clay’s American System: In his tariff speech to Congress on March 30- 31, 1824, Clay proposed a protective tariff in support of home manufactures, internal improvements such as federal aid to local road and canal projects, a strong national bank, and distribution of the profits of federal land sales to the states.

Daniel Webster: Supporting the tariff of 1828, he was a protector of northern industrial interests. In the debate over the renewal of the charter of the US Bank, Webster advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System.

federal land policy: The federal land law passed in 1796 established a minimum purchase of 640 acres at a minimum price of $2 an acre and a year for full payment. In the federal land law passed in 1804, the minimum purchase was decreased to 160 acres. In 1820, the minimum purchase was reduced to 80 acres. In 1820, it was reduced to $1.25.

John Quincy Adams as Secretary of State: Fla: With Monroe’s support, Adams forced Spain to cede Florida and make an agreeable settlement of the Louisiana boundary, in the Transcontinental (Adams-Onis) Treaty, drafted in 1819. Spain consented to a southern border of the US that ran from the Miss. River to the Rocky Mountains.

ELECTION OF 1824: popular vote, electoral vote, House vote: Jackson, Adams, Crawford, Clay: All five candidates, including Calhoun were Republicans, showing that the Republican party was splintering, due to rival sectional components. Calhoun withdrew and ran for the vice presidency. Jackson won more popular and electoral votes than the other candidates but didn’t manage to gain the majority needed Because Clay supported Adams, Adams became president.

"corrupt bargain": After Adams won the presidency, he appointed Clay as secretary of state. Jackson’s supporters called the action a "corrupt bargain" because they thought that Jackson was cheated of the presidency. Although there is no evidence to link Clay’s support to his appointment of the secretary of state, the allegation was widely believed.

Panama Conference: President Adams angered southerners by proposing to send American delegates to a conference of newly independent Latin American nations in Panama in 1826. Southerners worried that U.S. participation would insinuate recognition of Haiti, which gained independence through a slave revolution.

Tariff of Abominations: Named by southerners, this bill favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp, wool, fur, flax, and liquor in 1828. New England manufacturing interests were favored because it raised the tariff on imported textiles. In the South, these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods.

VICE-PRESIDENT CALHOUN: South Carolina Exposition and Protest, nullification: He anonymously wrote the widely read South Carolina Exposition and Protest, in which he made his argument that the tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional. Adversely affected states had the right to nullify, or override, the law, within their borders. He acknowledged that he wrote the SC Exposition and Protest in 1831. In 1832, he convinced the South Carolina legislature to nullify the federal tariff acts of 1828 and 1832.

internal improvements: President Adams proposed a program of federal support for internal improvements in Dec. 1825; strict Jeffersonians claimed it to be unconstitutional. The South had few plans to build canals and roads. Jackson, with a political base in the South, felt that federal support meant a possibly corrupt giveaway program for the North.

Jacksonian Democracy

Jackson personified the desireable and undesireable qualities of Westerners. He stood for the right of the common people to have a greater voice in government. Distinct changes in laws, practices, and popular attitudes gave rise to Jacksonian Democracy and were in turn accelerated by the new equilitarian spirit.

Jacksonian Revolution of 1828: Jackson won more than twice the electoral vote of John Quincy Adams. However the popular vote was much closer. Adams had strong support in New England while Jackson swept the South and Southwest. In the middle states and the Northwest, the popular vote was close.

age of the common man: All white males had access to the polls. Jackson was portrayed by the opposition as a common man, an illiterate backwoodsman, during the election of 1828. He was depicted as being uncorrupt, natural, and plain. His supporters described his simple and true morals and fierce and resolute will.

spoils system: Jackson defended the principle of "rotation in office," the removal of officeholders of the rival party on democratic grounds. He wanted to give as many individuals as possible a chance to work for the government and to prevent the development of an elite bureaucracy.

National Republicans: They became the Whig party during Jackson’s second term. John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay guided this party in the 1830s. They were the Jeffersonian Republicans, along with numerous former Federalists who believed that the national government should advocate economic development.

Trail of Tears: A pro-removal chief signed the Treaty of New Echota in 1835 which ceded all Cherokee land to the United States for $5.6 million. Most Cherokees condemned the treaty. Between 1835 and 1838, 16,000 Cherokees migrated west to the Mississippi along the Trail of Tears. 2,000 to 4,000 Cherokees died.

kitchen cabinets: During his first term, Jackson repeatedly relied on an informal group of partisan supporters for advice while ignoring his appointed cabinet officers. Supposedly, they met in the White House kitchen. Martin Van Buren and John H. Eaton belonged to this group, but were also members of the official cabinet.

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