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Poor Richard’s Almanack: Publication written by Benjamin Franklin in 1732 that gained an immense following with its home remedies and practical wisdom. It can be said that Poor Richard’s Almanack helped define the American culture by giving them traditions and wisdom’s all their own, separate from Britain.

Phillis Wheatly: African American poet who was brought to America by slave traders at the age of eight and was bought by the Wheatly family. In 1767, at the age of 8, Phillis found her first fame while escorting one of the Wheatly’s in England. One of her works is "To the University of Cambridge in New England."

Ann Bradstreet: The first woman to write poems in colonial America and receive acclaim for them. She was born in 1612 as the daughter of the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Her poems, which were published as The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung up in America, asserted that women had the right to gain knowledge.

SOUTHERN COLONIES: Region consisting mainly of the Carolinas and Georgia. The Southern Colonies were distinct from other colonies mostly on their dependence for slave labor and for farming. The main crop in the South was rice, leading to an absence of large cities in the south. But although most southern cities were tiny, Charleston became the fourth largest city in the colonies. The Southern Colonies were also the only colonies with a large population of blacks and an ethnically stratified society.

Culpeper’s Rebellion: Rebellion against the colonial government in Carolina in 1677. The rebellion was lead by John Culpeper and was directed against the government’s acceptance of English trade laws. The rebellion succeeded in disposing the governor and placing Culpeper in his position, but he was removed in 1679.

Georgia: Colony founded in 1733 by a charter granted to James Oglethorpe. The colony started with a settlement in Savanna created by Oglethorpe as a debtor’s colony. The high ideals of Oglethorpe, such as bans on slavery and rum, slowed growth as large settlement did not occur until after slavery was brought to Georgia.

James Oglethorpe: English soldier and founder of the colony of Georgia in 1733. Oglethorpe founded Georgia after a grant from King George II and settled with a small group on the Savanna River. Oglethorpe’s ideals in creating a debtors colony free of vice were a distinction from other colonies.

Tidewater vs. Piedmont: Two regions of contrasting economic opportunity. The Tidewater was along the coast, where most of the opportunity was in shipping and fishing. the Piedmont, on the other hand, was where farming took place. This contrast represented an East-West dichotomy to accompany the North-South one.

Maryland: Proprietary colony originally intended to be a refuge for English Catholics. Maryland was created in 1632 when Lord Baltimore (Cecilius Calvert) was given a land grant and created a manor based state with a headright system. However, Protestants formed a majority and the manors evolved into plantations.

sugar colonies: Colonies that produced sugar for England, like New Netherlands, New England, Virginia, Maryland, and the Caribbean. Sugar was produced because it could make people rich quickly because it was sold at very high prices. Sugar plantation owners liked to use black slaves because they were able to work harder and longer.

CHESAPEAKE SOCIETY: Society characterized by few neighbors and isolated families whose lives depended on tobacco. Chesapeake society also revolved around fertile soil near navigable water because tobacco needed such an environment to be grown profitably. Because of this, most farms were located along Chesapeake Bay. Chesapeake society also had a powerful merchant class who controlled both export and import commerce. Slow urbanization also characterized society around the Chesapeake.

Lord Baltimore: Founder of Maryland who, in 1632, received a charter from King Charles I for a tract of land to the northeast of the colony of Virginia. It comprised the present-day states of Maryland and Delaware. He wrote the charter for the colony but died before he got it.

Maryland Act of Toleration: Act that resulted when the Catholics began feeling threatened by the overwhelming Protestant population. The Maryland Act of Toleration was passed in 1649 so all types of Christians could have equal political rights. Along with this equality Lord Calvert allowed a representative assembly for the Catholics.

Maryland’s Protestant Association: Group of Protestants in Maryland during late 1600s who controlled the lower house but not the upper, which the Catholics ruled. Eventually, after the Act of Religious Toleration was passed, the Protestant majority barred Catholics from voting and threw out the governor and repealed the act.

Huguenots: French Protestants. The enlightened and religiously skeptical spirit of the 18th century, however, was opposed to religious persecution, and during this time the French Protestants gradually regained many of their rights. The Huguenots slowed the colonization process for the French, because of the religious wars with French Catholics.

Carolinas: Colonies created when Charles II rewarded eight of the noblemen who had helped him regain the throne from the Puritan rule in 1663 by giving them land. North Carolina originated as an extension of Virginia and South Carolina came from planters from Barbados, who founded Charleston in 1670.

John Locke, Fundamental Constitution: Intricate constitution written by Cooper and John Locke in 1670, meant to stabilize the government of Carolina by basing the social rank on one’s "landed wealth." It formed the three orders of nobility with the proprietors at the top, the caciques in the middle, and the landgraves at the bottom.

Charleston: City that became the fourth largest city in North America. It was a place where the upper class could pass their time so they could stay away from the heat of their plantations. Many whites were lured to Charleston in hopes of reducing the black majority. These job seekers usually ended up competing for jobs with the black slaves.

staple crops of the South: The major staple crop of the south was rice, which was picked by African-American planters who were imported by the Dutch in 1616. Other crops were tobacco, indigo, various grains, wood, and skins. All of these products were exported to Europe and the west Indies. Most of the colonists’ profit came from farming.

Middle Colonies: The middle colonies were Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey, all of which produced iron, grain, flour, wood, and tobacco which were exported to Britain, Europe and the West Indies. Pennsylvania was built on the basis of being a religious haven for Quakers. New York was built upon the rule of James Duke of York who sent out John Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret to be the first two proprietors of New Jersey.

Restoration Colonies: Colonies created following the Stuart restoration in 1660 when England again took interest in America. The colonies enabled England to control the East Coast, Carolina, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. These colonies had governments that made a social hierarchy geared toward a dominant wealthy class.

Primogeniture, entail: The practice of passing on land to a son, usually the eldest, when no will was left for the land. This practice became came over with the colonists and was introduced into common law, but it did not take long for the practice to die out in the colonies.

quitrents: Federal payments that the freeholders had to pay the people who were getting the land from proprietors. With the Restoration and the creation of Restoration Colonies, the dues were still enforced, with the money no longer going to the proprietors but instead to the king or queen as royal revenue.

SPG, Society for the Propagation of the Gospel: An organization founded in 1701 to serve the spiritual welfare of the colonists. After a visit to Maryland, Thomas Bray received a royal charter from King William for overseas missionary work. It was seen as a conspiracy, thus showing a fear of tyranny of the church and state.

Pennsylvania, William Penn: Pennsylvania was founded as a refuge for Quakers by William Penn in 1681. The Quakers believed that an "inner-light" allowed them to be on a personal level with God. Penn and his people did not experience a starving time which was very common for starting colonies. They started with a strong government.

Quakers: Religious movement founded in 1600 by a religious belief that divine revelation is immediate and individual and that all persons may perceive the word of God in their soul. They rejected a formal creed and regarded every participant as a potential vessel for the word of God. They were based in Pennsylvania.

George Fox: Preacher of the "inner-light" doctrine who spoke against formalized religion, mainly Presbyterianism, and advocated divine communion as he practiced it. He objected to political and religious authority, opposed war and slavery, and believed that all human actions must be directed by inner contemplation.

George Keith: Member of the Quaker church who told the Quakers that they needed a formal doctrine. His ideas were not accepted among the Quaker majority, so in 1692 he joined the Church of England. With his heresy conviction the Quaker population in Pennsylvania dropped, and the Anglican population and political power rose.

liberal land laws in PA: Laws that were set up by William Penn which were very liberal because that was his nature. The 1701 Frame of Government stated that the proprietors had no power to do mischief. Penn himself carefully oversaw land sales in the colonies to avoid improper disputes. This liberal planning ensured no starving time.

Holy Experiment: The main part of this theology that George Fox taught was that people had an inner light that could spiritually inspire their souls. He objected to political and religious authority, opposed war and slavery, and believed that all human actions should be directed by inner contemplation and a social conscience inspired by God.

1701 Frame of Government: The first set of laws set up in Pennsylvania which were written by William Penn. In his constitutional type document Penn preached "that the will of one man may not hinder the good of the whole company." The document was revised seven times and held a strong executive, and a limited lower legislative chamber.

New York: Dutch, 1664 English: Charles II gave his brother James title to all the Dutch lands in America in 1664. James became King in 1685 and appointed Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret as the first proprietors of New Jersey. For years to come there were conflicting claims to the territory and finally in 1702 it became a royal colony.

East/ West Jersey: They were colonies that resulted from the sale of the Jersey territory to Quakers. English settlers resisted the original proprietors’ authority, so in 1674 Berkeley sold his half to a union of Quakers. East Jersey then became dominated by Scottish Quakers whereas West Jersey became the home to many English Quakers.

patroon system: The system of feudal estates created by large New York landowners in the early 1700s. The estates were created in order to raise revenue by collecting tenant rents. Later, by about 1750, the patroon owners emerged as a class of landed elite, almost like the British landed aristocracy.

Peter Struyvesant: Dutch governor who was attacked by Charles II in 1664 so that the British could control North America. Struyvesant, whose army was already hurt from Indian attacks, peacefully surrendered and gave New Netherlands to Charles II, forming the New York and Jersey colonies with a large remaining Dutch population.

the middle colonies as a religious haven: William Penn founded Pennsylvania originally as a religious haven for Quakers who were not accepted elsewhere in 1681. Similarly, Maryland was founded by George Calvert in 1632 and served as a refuge for English Catholics. Rhode Island was founded by Roger Williams in 1644 for dissenting Puritans.

crops in the middle colonies: The middle colonies rich level lands produced lengthy growing seasons and gave good bumper crops. The middle colonies were major exporting colonies because of their accessible sea ports. Their exports were rice, iron, grain, flour, wood, and tobacco which were shipped to Europe and the West Indies.

New York City and Philadelphia as urban centers: Both cities were the two biggest exporting cities in America thus making them rapidly growing urban centers. High population and bad sanitation allowed many of the people to catch viruses and diseases. Recessions hit frequently and the job force was very unstable.

Leisler’s Rebellion: Anti-Stuart rebellion in which Captain Jacob Leisler took command over New York in hopes of protecting it from Andros and other supporters of James II. In 1691, Leisler denied the passing of English troops to important forts, leading to his arrest and death when his enemies gained control of the government.

Benjamin Franklin: A notable American printer, author, diplomat, philosopher, and scientist, his contributions epitomized the Enlightenment. In 1731 he founded what was probably the first public library in America. He first published Poor Richard’s Almanack in 1732 and played a crucial role in the American Revolution and community.

John Bartram: Botanist who was known as the father of American Botany. Bartram traveled extensively through the colonies, observing wildlife, writing, collecting plants, and making maps. He performed important experiments involving plant hybridization and in 1728 he founded the first botanical garden in America near Philadelphia.

FRONTIER: Area of land important in the development of a distinctly American culture and political life, as explained by Fredrick Turner’s Frontier Thesis. The frontier also offered limitless land, which democratized America by elimating the significance of voting property requirements. Finally, the frontier represented a raw environment that helped mold American civilization by giving it coarseness, strength, acuteness, pragmatism, and inventiveness.

North-South economic differences: The North was much more concerned with shipping, fishing, and industry whereas the South was based on an agricultural society. Also, the North had more towns, cities, and ports. In contrast, the South was characterized by cash crops, an aristocracy, and plantations.

Red, White, and Black

With the colonization of certain regions in America came conflicts with the Native Americans and the earliest traces of slavery in America. Originally using African-Americans only as indentured servants, the growers and farmers eventually began to rely on African-Americans and Native Americans as a free source of labor.

Iroquois Confederacy: The joining of six sects of the Iroquoian family and of the Eastern Woodlands area. By the 1700s, the tribes in the confederacy were the Onondaga, Cayuga, Oneida, Mohawk, Seneca, and Tuscarors. By combining they were a stronger force against the colonists.

Native American Relations in the first settlements: Relations characterized by resistance to the expansion of English settlement, submission into "praying towns," and devastation through war and disease. Many of the Massachusetts Indians sought protection from Winthrop by selling their land and surrendering their independence.

Pequot War: So-called war consisting of clumsy plundering by Massachusetts troops and raids by Pequots in 1637. The colonists eventually won the alliance of rival tribes and waged a ruthless campaign. The war tipped the balance of military power to the English, opening the way to New England’s settlement.

King Phillips War: War between the Native American tribes of New England and British colonists that took place from 1675-1676. The war was the result of tension caused by encroaching white settlers. The chief of the Wampanoags, King Philip lead the natives. The war ended Indian resistance in New England and left a hatred of whites.

Tuscaroras and Yamasees: Two opposing Indians tribes whose disunity lead both to destruction. The Tuscaroran people were defeated by the colonists with the help of the Yamasees in 1713, and the Yamasees were themselves defeated around 1715. Both tribes were scattered and soon disappeared.

praying towns: Towns set up by puritan missionaries for Indian converts to spread puritan Christianity, the first of which, Natick, was founded in 1651. As the Indian population in the east waned, assimilation as "Praying Indians" became the only option besides retreating farther west.

Beaver Wars: Wars that resulted from furious trading and hunting of Beaver pelts by the Dutch, the French, and the New Netherlands. The Overhunting of Beavers sent prices so high in 1742 that the Dutch armed the Iroquois and what resulted was bloody battles against Pro-French tribes.

SLAVERY BEGINS: Followed the exploration of the African coast and the establishment of a slave trade Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries. The slave trade then moved in to America as the development of a plantation system in Virginia offered a market for slavery and the first slaves arrived there in 1619. Slavery remained small among the colonies, however because it was not yet profitable for slavery under the conditions. As trade and agriculture grew and a plantation system grew so did slavery.

Barbados Code: Code adopted by Carolina in 1696 to control slaves at the will of their masters. It was often noted as an inhumane code but the society revolved around slaves, so laws like this were created in order to keep control in the society. White owners relied on force and fear to control the growing black majority in the Carolinas.

Maryland Slave Code, 1661: The first actual definition by the colonies of slavery as a "lifelong, inheritable, racial status." It was issued by Maryland in 1661 in order to set up a distinct place for the slaves in the society. Out of the Maryland Slave Code of 1661 came the establishing of other slave codes that set up strict legal codes.

Stono Rebellion: Slave uprising in South Carolina in 1739, in which twenty slaves robbed guns and ammunition from the Stono River Bridge along with killing civilians. Officials suppressed the rebellion and stopped any more chaos and damage. It was a significant encounter because it caused white apprehension and led to a new slave code.

Salutary Neglect

Britain’s absence in colonial America due to pressing issues in England left the colonies alone for the most part to govern themselves. During this time they flourished and developed a British origin, yet with a distinctly American flavor. It was because of this absence that the colonies became more self sufficient and eventually it led them to a feeling of individuality that they feared losing, thus bringing forth the Declaration of Independence after a series of events.

mercantilism: features, rationale, impact on Great Britain, impact on the different colonies: Economic policy prevailing in Europe during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries under which governmental control was exercised over industry and trade in accordance with the theory that national strength is increased by a majority of exports over imports. The colonies adopted mercantilism as business in which the mother country could benefit.

triangular trade: Trade that takes place between three places is called triangular trade. Colonial trade was not very triangular because the Navigation Acts forced American merchants to trade only with Britain. However, the Americans still managed to smuggle goods with the French Caribbean and India.

consignment systems: A system of drafting sailors into the British navy. The British could freely use the soldiers at their convenience by the rules of this draft. The draft caused many problems in the life of young American men. Many teenagers tried to avoid the draft by giving false information about themselves.

Molasses Act, 1733: Legislation by the British Parliament for taxing and imposing shipment restrictions on sugar and molasses imported into the profitable colonies from the West Indies. It was meant to create profitable trade as a protective tariff, but it was never meant to raise revenue.

Woolens Act, 1699; Hat Act, 1732: Iron Act, 1750: Act specifying certain enumerated goods—principally tobacco, rice, and indigo—that the colonists could export only to another English colony or to England. These were attempts to prevent manufacturing in the British colonies that might threaten the economy of England.

Currency Act, 1751: Act passed by British Parliament that affected the colonies by adjusting the currency. The point of this attack was to raise revenue for Great Britain. It was a clear example of how Salutary Neglect was coming to an end with the French and Indian War.

Currency Act, 1764: Another Act passed by the British Parliament that affected the colonies and was meant to raise revenue for Great Britain. It was very similar to the other previous Currency Act but this act was targeted towards the people and raising the taxes so that the Parliament could make more money.

Magna Carta, 1215: A charter granted by King John, that exactly established the relationship between the kings and barons and guaranteed ideas of free commerce, the right to a fair trial, and the right to a trial by your peers. Many of the base rights in the United States Constitution are included in it.

Petition of Right, 1628: Petition given to Charles I by parliament, asking him to stop sending soldiers to live in private citizens homes, stop taxing without its consent and stop declaring martial law in a time of peace. This occurred partially because Charles was trying to pay off his war debt.

Habeas Corpus Act: Act saying that a person can not be held in prison without being charged and tried. They put this into effect to help stop innocent people from being thrown into jail with no specific reason why. This idea was adopted into our Constitution in Article 1, Section 9. It can only be revoked in time of rebellion.

Navigation Act, 1651: Parliament passed this legislation in 1651 in order to protect English trade from foreign competition. It was only temporary and it stated that goods imported or exported by the colonies in Africa and Asia must be shipped out or imported only by English vessels and the crews must be 75% British. It also helped U.S. capitalism.

Navigation Act, 1660: This Parliamentary act renewed the 1651 act and specified certain innumerable articles which could be exported only to the English or to another English colony in 1660. Among these goods were tobacco, rice, and indigo. American shipbuilding thus prospered and there was a stable protected market for producers.

Navigation Act, 1663: This Parliamentary act disallowed colonial merchants from exporting products like sugar and tobacco anywhere except to England and from importing goods in ships not made and produced by the English. Along with the 1660 act, it was passed to help English commercial interests in 1663 but helped the U.S.

Navigation Act, 1696: This was the fifth and final Parliamentary Navigation Act. It allowed for methods of enforcing the acts, provided more penalties for evasion, and introduced use of vice-admiralty courts. It was passed in 1696 in an effort to strengthen its effect on colonists. It was felt much more harshly by the colonists and led to hostility

admiralty courts: These were courts that were created to bring sailors to trial for going against the navigation acts. They were often held away from the colonies, a fact that the colonies viewed as being unconstitutional. Also, the courts awarded judges money for every conviction, thus judges became more apt to find people guilty.

merchants/markets: People and places involved in the trading system of the colonies were merchants and the markets with which they traded. The Navigation Acts opened up British markets to American merchants, and the number of merchants increased during the 1750’s as well.

BOARD OF TRADE, (of the Privy Council): This board was part of the Privy Council which was one of the committees formed by the British Parliament In 1793 Britain’s Privy Council sent out orders that any foreign ships caught trading with the French Islands located in the Caribbean to be automatically captured and taken away. They deliberately waited to publish these instructions so that American ships would be seized, causing over 250 ships were captured.

Robert Walpole: Statesman who is considered Britain’s first prime minister. He entered the English Parliament in 1701 and became a well known speaker for the Whig Party. In 1708 he was named Secretary of War. In 1739 he declared war on Spain, which caused division in his party (Whigs) for support for him in elections.

the Enlightenment: A period in the 1700s when a new method of thought was employed. It was a time when great minds awoke and started thinking, affecting the colonies as well as Europe. Some beliefs brought to the forefront were the laws of nature, optimism, confidence in human reason, and deism. Its ideas lead to revolutionary ideas.

John Locke’s Ideas: John Locke was a philosopher that supported Colonial America. He criticized the "divine right" kings had and believed that the people should have a say and that the supreme power should be state power, but only if they were governed by "natural" law. His ideas can be seen in the Constitution.

John Peter Zenger Trial: Trial involving the founder of the New York Weekly Journal , who received money from influential town members. So when Zenger published articles by his contributors that criticized Colonial government he was arrested and put on trial. He was announced not guilty, his success paving the way for freedom of the press.

COLONIAL GOVERNMENT: Characterized by regular assemblies and appointed militia, law, and local administration. Often, these were dominated by the colonial elite despite liberal qualifications for male voters. Because of low voter participation and indifference toward politics, colonial government only truly flourished in the major seaports. The most significant development of colonial government was the rise of the assembly and the limiting of the power of governors.

Rise of the lower house: In Colonial America the lower house had increasingly equal if not more power than the upper house. The house had the power of the purse which led them to being the more dominant house. More common people could get into government than before and make a difference which helped build the foundations of America.

PROPRIETARY, CHARTER, ROYAL COLONIES: These are three ways one could come upon owning land in Colonial America. One such way was for a company to give out land so an area would become populated. Kings and Queens could also give away land as well as people having property passed on to them, therefore having an influence on decisions the new powers would make. All of these ideas helped shape America’s way of government life.

colonial agents: Representatives sent by Great Britain to the colonies during the 17th and 18th centuries. They would observe the colonies and then send the information back to England. The problem is by the time it got back to England the information that had once been true was now old and wrong.

Glorious Revolution: When Mary and William over run James II in England in 1688, British citizens saw this as a win in liberty for parliament would have more control than ever. Moderate uprising that came out of the Colonial America during this time ended with William and Mary taking apart the Dominion of New England.

Bill of Rights, 1689: Bill that said no Roman Catholics could hold a position of king or queen in England. It also made it illegal for a monarch to postpone laws, have a standing army, or levy taxes without the okay of the British Parliament. The colonies then interpreted the law and used it against the British (levy tax).

Great Awakening

A series of religious revivals swept through the colonies in the 1730s. Key players were Theodore Frelinghuysen, William and Gilbert Tenant, Jonathan Edwards, and George Whitefield. Through the awakening emerged the decline of Quakers, founding of colleges, an increase of Presbyterians, denomenationalism, and religious toleration.

Jonathan Edwards - Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, A Careful and Strict Enquiry into. . . That freedom of Will: Sermon about how one must have a personal faith and relationship with Jesus Christ to gain salvation instead of an afterlife in hell. The sermon also used the fury of the divine wrath to arouse religious fervor.

George Whitefield: English clergyman who was known for his ability to convince many people through his sermons. He involved himself in the Great Awakening in 1739 preaching his belief in gaining salvation. Coming from Connecticut, most of his speeches were based there. His presence helped raise the population by about 3000 people.

William Tennent: Presbyterian minister who played a chief role in the Great Awakening in Central New Jersey by calling prayer meetings known as the Refreshings around the 1730’s. Another one of his significant projects was the founding of his influential Log College which had teachers educated in all areas of study.

Gilbert Tennent: American Presbyterian minister, in 1740 delivered a harsh sermon, "The Dangers of Unconverted Ministry," in which he criticized conservative ministers who opposed the fervor of the Great Awakening. The result was a schism (1741) in the Presbyterian church between the "Old Lights" and the "New Lights," led by Tennent.

Old Lights, New lights: Two groups of ministries who frequently had heated debates on the issue of God during the Great Awakening. The Old Lights rejected the Great Awakening and the New Lights, who accepted it and sometimes suffered persecution because of their religious fervor.

Harvard University: University located in Cambridge, Mass. that was founded in 1636 on a grant from the Mass. Bay Colony. The school was originally organized to educate ministers because of the scarcity of clergy and lack of an educational institution in the new colony. The university eventually developed a more secular format

effects of the Great Awakening on religion in America: Long term effects of the Great Awakening were the decline of Quakers, Anglicans, and Congregationalists as the Presbyterians and Baptists increased. It also caused an emergence in black Protestantism, religious toleration, an emphasis on inner experience, and denominationalism.

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