What two eras have we covered so far with this unit? Exploration and Colonization
What is the significance of the year 1607? Founding of Jamestown
What is the significance of the year 1620? Arrival of the Pilgrims and the signing of the Mayflower Compact
What were the 3 main countries that explored and colonized North America? England, Spain, France
What were each of these 3 countries reasons for exploration and colonization? European leaders wanted to expand their economic and political power. French were mainly fur trappers and traders. Spanish were looking for gold, creating missions (god), and claiming land (glory). English wanted to expand their economic power (mercantilism) and escape religious persecution.
For each colonial region, what was the main reason for colonization?
NE – religious freedom for Pilgrims and Puritans; land and trade
Middle – land and trade; religious freedom for Quakers; Conquest of Dutch colony to connect Northern and Southern Colonies
Southern – search from precious metals; land and trade; religious freedom for Catholics, place for debtors; buffer between Spanish America and the English colonies
What were the reasons for the growth of representative government in the 13 colonies? Familiarity with the Parliamentary system, long distance from British system, isolation of the communities
What was the importance of the House of Burgesses? How did it contribute to representative government in the Colonies? The HOB was the first representative assembly in the colonies. Representatives were elected by the people.
What was the importance of the Mayflower Compact? How did it contribute to representative government in the Colonies? The MC established a form of self-government based on a social contract.
What was importance of the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut? How did it contribute to representative government in the Colonies? The FOC was a written constitution and is considered the first in the colonies. It established limited self-government in the colonies.
Explain the role of Thomas Hooker in the development of self-government in colonial America. Hooker founded Connecticut. Connecticut adopted the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, the first written constitution in America.
Explain the role of William Penn in the development of self-government in colonial America. Penn granted European settlers the right to elect representatives to the legislative assembly.
Explain the role of John Locke in the development of self-government in colonial America. John Locke, an English Enlightenment philosopher, believed that people had natural rights of life, liberty and protection of property. He also believed the government can be changed by the people if the government is not protecting the people’s rights. He also discussed legislative and executive branches of a government.
Explain the role of Charles de Montesquieu in the development of self-government in colonial America. Charles de Montesquieu, a French Enlightenment thinker, expanded on Locke’s beliefs. He added the judiciary to Locke’s executive and legislature. He also wrote of the separation of powers.
Explain the role of William Blackstone the development of self-government in colonial America. William Blackstone, an English scholar who believed strongly in religious tolerance; supported the idea of self-defense (later became the 2nd Amendment); wrote about “natural rights” which included life and liberty
Describe how religion contributed to the growth of representative government in the Colonies. Religious groups were the first to establish self-governing communities.
How were the colonies different economically and why? The primary cause of economic differences among the colonies was geography. Southern – agriculture, depended on cash crops, Middle – mix of industry and agriculture, NE – forestry, lumber, fishing, shipbuilding, trade.
Explain the reason/s for the transatlantic slave trade. It began when plantations in the West Indies needed labor. African tribes exchanged captive Africans with European slave traders, who transported them to the Americas under inhumane conditions.
Explain the reason for the spread of slavery. The economy was agrarian, and slaves kept the plantation system profitable.
What were some of the immigrant groups that came to the colonies and where did they mostly settle? (colony or region) Maryland – Catholics; Pennsylvania – Quakers; Massachusetts – Puritans, Pilgrims; New York – Dutch.
Explain the Great Awakening. Great Awakening was a religious movement during the colonial times proclaiming salvation for all. Many new churches were formed. It encouraged equality and the right to question authority.