people to help
him carry out the laws.
Appointment Power – What are 5 types of positions the president
appoints? Who must approve and how?
1) Ambassadors; 2) Cabinet members; 3) Agency heads (like
FBI and NASA); 4) Federal judges; and 5) Military officers.
All must be approved by a simple-majority vote in the Senate.
Removal Power – Who can he remove? Who can’t he? Why?
The president can remove all of the appointed officials listed
above except federal judges who, according to the Constitution,
have to be impeached and removed by Congress.
deal with and how.
Power of Recognition – What is it? Why is it important to new
The president alone has the power to decide which foreign
countries we officially recognize as being legitimate. Since
we are the pre-eminent superpower in the world, our
recognition can help a new country survive.
Example: Truman recognized Israel in 1948.
Treaty Power – What is a treaty? Who makes them? Who must
approve and how?
A treaty is a formal legal agreement between two or more
countries. The Constitution gives the president the power to
make them (which he usually does with help from his Secretary
of State). Treaties must be approved by a 2/3 vote in the Senate,
which in a two-party system can be very difficult to get.
Example: Woodrow Wilson and the Treaty of Versailles.
is in charge of
but the Congress
to check his
use of it.
Undeclared war-making – What is it? How often has it been done?
Undeclared war-making is the commitment by the president of
our armed forces to combat without a formal declaration of
war by Congress. This practice is neither expressly permitted
nor prohibited by the Constitution. It has been done several
hundred times in our history, and by virtually every president.
Examples: Korea, Vietnam, Iraq & Afghanistan.
War Powers Resolution (1973) -- What restrictions has Congress
placed on the president’s ability to make war?
1) Within 48 hours of sending troops into combat, the president
must notify Congress about what he’s done and why.
2) The combat commitment can last only 60 days unless
Congress specifically agrees to a longer fight.
3) Congress can end the combat commitment at any time.