Examine China throughout the pre-Imperialism Era what was China like?

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Name_________________________________________________ 03/25/14

Examine China throughout the pre-Imperialism Era – what was China like?

1500s onwards – early 1900s:

  • Extremely rich in terms of resources

  • Viewed “outsiders” as barbaric with very little to nothing to offer China.

  • As a result, China closed its DOORS (ports) to the rest of the world = Chinese isolationism.

  • Very conservative and guarded against outside influences.

* Distrusted the intensions of Europeans and their religion [Christianity] & spread of ideology.

  • Ruled by the Ming and then the Qing [CHING] Dynasties.

  • Since the Qing arrived from the north, modern-day Manchuria, the Manchu [Qing] were always seen as “foreigners” and not real Chinese.

  • The Manchu discriminated against Chinese citizens in various ways – as a result, most Chinese resented Qing rule.

Analyze ALL possible reasons surrounding European Imperialism &/or “New Imperialism” in China/Asia. Be sure to list and then analyze ALL of the internal and external causes.

Internal [domestic] Causes

External [alien/foreign] Causes

Taiping Rebellion

    • Caused terrible destruction

  • Christian and Muslim teachings motivated more revolts

  • It’s estimate that between 30-40 million people died during this period: 1850 – 1864.


  • Introduction of one of the three Cs = Christianity, which tended to undermine, and at times, lead to the usurpation [cease power or importance or infringement] of Chinese authority.

  • As time progress, under the Qing [Manchu] reign, Chinese authority worked hard to limit European entrance into the country, which they hope would limit ideological/religious/authority of outsiders.

Boxer Rebellion (1900)

  • Chinese people resented foreign influence and power

  • Order of the Patriotic Harmonious Fists

  • European imperialists, Americans, and Japanese put down the rebellion

  • China paid $333,000,000 in damages and had to permit military forces in Peking (Beijing) and Tientsin

  • Free trade ideas = forced China to Trade with Europeans, Americans, the Japanese:

    • Great Britain abolished British East India Company’s monopoly on trade with China

    • As a result, various British citizens wanted a large piece of the “pie” = China’s immense wealth – raw materials, bullion, spices, tea.

    • When you think of China, I ask that students imagine Walmart. Like Walmart, China has just about everything… In terms of resources, China was one of the most riches places in world, which was perfect for feeding the very hungry “Industrial Machine.”

The opium trade  Opium Wars

    • Chinese demand for cotton didn’t match British demand for tea

    • British India exported opium to China, which caused trade imbalance

    • Acquisition various parts of China, including Hong Kong

Fall of the Qing (Manchu) Dynasty

  • Empress Dowager Cixi (1835-1908)

    • De facto Chinese monarch (1861-1908)

    • “Make me unhappy for a day and I will make you unhappy for a lifetime.”

    • Conservative and anti-foreign

    • Blamed by many Chinese for foreign imperialist power in China

Open Door Policy

  • Proposed by U.S. Secretary of State John Hay (1899)

  • Fear that China would be carved up between imperialist powers

  • Left China’s independence and territory intact

  • All nations could trade equally in China

  • Endorsed internationally

    • But not always strictly followed

Republic of China: Weaknesses

What were the varying effects/impacts of European Imperialism on China/Asia? Be sure to list and then examine ALL of the positive and or negative outcomes, if possible.

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