Evolution Review Sheet [17. 5 points] Section 1 Charles Darwin and Other Scientists

- competition, the struggle for existence

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- competition, the struggle for existence

  • In the spoons game, what represented genetic variation?

    - the different cards with traits each person received (inherited)
    Section 4 Genes & Variation

      1. What 2 major gaps existed in Darwin’s theory of evolution?
        - Didn’t know how traits were passed on
        - No idea how variations appeared

      2. What scientist’s work was able to fill these gaps? Mendel

      3. variation is the differences among organisms in a population

      4. relative frequency is the number of times and allele appears in a population

      5. gene pool is all the different alleles that are in a population

      6. population is a group of the same species that can breed and produce fertile offspring

      7. In genetic terms, what is evolution? a change in allele frequencies over time

      8. What are two sources of variation? mutation, gene shuffling

      9. What is a mutation? any change in the DNA sequence

      10. What causes mutations? An error in replication, or outside influences such as radiation, or chemicals

      11. When does gene shuffling happen (2) times: crossing over, independent assortment, 50% DNA from each parent

      12. Does natural selection work on the genotype or phenotype? phenotype

    Section 5 Evolution as Genetic Change

      1. Where is the area of high fitness in directional selection? one end of the curve

      2. Where is the area of high fitness in stabilizing selection? the middle of the curve

      3. Where is the area of high fitness in disruptive selection? the extreme ends of the curve

      4. An average weight baby is the most likely to survive. This is stabilizing selection.

      5. Longer bird beaks gather food better. This is directional selection.

      6. Both small and large bird beaks are well adapted to survive. This is disruptive selection.

      7. What type of selection can result in 2 new subgroups? disruptive

      8. What type of selection favors the average individual? stabilizing

      9. What type of selection favors one extreme trait over the middle and other end? directional

      10. Label each graph disruptive, directional, or stabilizing selection. Then draw the curve for the new graph!

    directional stabilizing disruptive

      1. In what size of a population is genetic drift observed? small

      1. What is genetic drift? a random change in allele frequency

      1. What can cause genetic drift? bottleneck effect, founder effect

      1. Explain an example of genetic drift. - Small Amish population had a higher rate of dwarfism and 6 fingers because they only reproduce with a small population
        - Many cheetahs were killed so the remaining cheetahs have very little genetic variation among them

      1. Bottleneck effect is when a large part of a population is killed or cannot reproduce

      2. Give an example of the bottleneck effect. a natural disaster kills a large portion of the population

      3. What is the founder effect? a type of genetic drift in which a small portion of the population breaks off and forms a new population someplace else

      1. What is genetic equilibrium? allelic frequencies do not change

      1. What 5 things are required for genetic equilibrium to happen in a population?

        • random mating

        • no natural selection selection

        • very large population

        • no mutation

        • no movement into or out of the population

        • Section 6 Speciation

      1. What is speciation? _evolution of a new species

      1. What is reproductive isolation? formerly interbreeding organisms can no longer mate and produce fertile offspring

      2. What happens in geographic isolation? physical barrier separates a population

      1. What types of things can cause geographic isolation? lava, rivers, rocks

      2. What is behavioral isolation? organisms don’t mate because of different behaviors or mating patterns

      3. Give an example of behavioral isolation. eastern and western meadowlarks won’t mate because they have different songs to attract mates

      4. What is temporal isolation? species reproduce at different times

      5. Give an example of temporal isolation. orchid who live in same place but release pollen on different days
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