Everything you wanted to know about Crime and Punishment, but were too afraid to ask

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Everything you wanted to know about Crime and Punishment, but were too afraid to ask...

This document is designed to give you an overview of the WJEC Crime and Punishment topic. It will contain information which you need to know in your exam. It is NOT everything you should know! You will need to use this knowledge as a basic idea and expand from there. Use it, read it, learn it.

The guide will be split into 2 main sections one will be on Crime and will relate to what you need to answer question 1 in the exam. The second section will be on Punishment and will relate to what you need to answer question 3 in the exam.

All sections will cover the period of 1530 – Present Day and be split in 3 categories. The Tudor Period / The Industrial Revolution / The Modern Day.

When it comes to the exam, we advise you answer Question 1, 3 and 6.

DC March 2012

SECTION 1 – Crime from 1530 – Present Day

Category 1 – Crime in the Tudor Period (1530-c.1750)

1. Err... Free Stuff Please?http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/tudpoverty.jpg

. Tudors being friendly to the Poor. True Story.
The Tudor period has a number of crimes that you need to know about. The first one was the crime of begging and vagrancy – this was simply people who were out of work asking for handouts and those who moved from town to town doing this. To the Tudors there were 2 types of poor people.

  • The Deserving Poor – People who could not work for a valid reason like they were too young or had suffered some kind of terrible accident. These were the good type of poor people.

  • The Undeserving Poor – People who could work but chose not to, or tried to con people out of money – like Baretop tricksters and Tom O’Bedlams. These were the bad type of people who the Tudors would wanted punished.

The key casues of begging and vagrancy were simple

Sheep!: Lots of farms turned into sheep farms – which need less workers, so people got fired!

Closure of the Monasteries: These used to give food and help to the poor. No Monastery – no food or support!

Move to the Cities: No jobs in the countryside? Move to the city right?! Only. Everyone did it. So there were too many people in the cities and there were no jobs there either!

Tudors were very harsh towards anyone they felt was not trying hard enough since their religious backgrounds made them think everyone should work hard for what they get and not slack off... an idea which might have some merit!

2. Soo.... what am I supposed to believe this week?roller-coaster.gif

. The Tudor Religion Ride. Keeping arms and head in the vehicle at all times wasn't always possible...
The second Tudor specific crime that you need to know about was one called Heresy. This was were a person did not believe in the same religion as the current King or Queen and was seen as a major crime in the Tudor Period for a number of reasons, the main one being that pretty much everyone was very religious.

The problem with this for most people was the fact the religion that they were meant to be kept changing during the Tudor Period as the following table shows...

King or Queen

What was the right religion?

Henry VIII

Started off as Catholic. Then switched to Protestant. Then moved back towards Catholic.

Edward VI

Very Protestant

Mary I

Very Catholic

Elizabeth I

Protestant. But if you want to be Catholic that was fine. Just do it in secret.

So. Whilst the Kings and Queens kept changing their minds the ordinary people were expected to do the same. Yet for many, this was not that easy. Since most people were very religious they did not like the idea of changing – since if they did they would betray their religion they thought they would goto hell!

The other main problem with the religion switching is that both sides thought it was their job to convert the other to the ‘right’ religion... so each side tried. A lot. Yet as we already seen... people would rather die than swtich religion so we mostly had both sides trying to batter each other over religion. Good times.

3. Infamy, Infamy! They’ve all got it in for me!http://www.toonpool.com/user/997/files/cat_king_throne_treason_1515225.jpg

Events of the Gunpowder Plot: A set of conspirators, supposedly lead by Guido (Guy Fawkes) came up with a cunning plan. They would rent a cellar underneath parliament, stuff it with gunpowder and blow up the King & Parliament and replace him with a Catholic. The night before the plot an anonymous letter to Baron Mounteagle revealed the plot and lead to the arrest of the plotters (some after a chase into the Midlands) and them being charged with treason,

. A fine example of Treason. Really.
The final Tudor specific crime that you need to know about is treason. Treason as a crime is quite simple – it is a severe crime against the monarch or the nation – which during the Tudor Period were pretty much seen as the same thing. Treason was probably just about the worst crime that anyone could commit during this time and had a range of factors:

  • Religion – People would want to go against the Monarch and the Nation if they were of a different religion and wanted change. This happened a number of times.

  • Poverty - Lack of food and money would cause rebllions against a ‘greedy’ king or queen. (see Henry VIII)

  • Ambition – Rich nobles sometimes thought they would make a better monarch and plotted to overthrow the current ruler and replace them.(See Mary Queen of Scots!)

The most famous example of treason in this period is of course the Gunpowder Plot. The sequence of events of the Gunpowder Plot are of course well known to us today thanks to Bonfire Night... but you will need to know a little bit more than “Remember, Remember the 5th of November...”

Causes of the Gunpowder Plot: The King - James I had been introducing a set of anti-Catholic laws in England. After largely being left alone under Elizabeth I – James and his Chief Minister Robert Cecil had started attacking the Catholics to try and win popularity....

Events of the Gunpowder Plot: A set of conspirators, supposedly lead by Guido (Guy) Fawkes came up with a cunning plan. They would rent a cellar underneath parliament, stuff it with gunpowder and blow up the King & Parliament and replace him with a Catholic. The night before the plot an anonymous letter to Baron Mounteagle revealed the plot and lead to the arrest of the plotters (some after a chase into the Midlands) and them being charged with treason,

Treason or Set up: Historians have argued over whether the Gunpowder Plot is a real fine example of treason or a set up. Whilst it is true there was much anger towards James I from Catholics and if the gunpowder had gone off he certainly would’ve been killed there are some issues with the plot

  1. The cellar that the Gunpowder was owned by a friend of Robert Cecil – the King’s chief advisor

  2. Gunpowder was kept secure in the Tower of London – which was run by... Robert Cecil.

  3. Information on the plot was passed on to Robert Cecil well before the Mounteagle letter. Yet nothing was done.

  4. Guy Fawkes confession to the plot came after mass torture.

If it was treason or not is hard for us to say... but you do need to know about the main events that are listed here!

So... these are our tudor crimes. For all of them they have pretty similar and common causes. Religion, Poverty and Ambition. Make sure you know them!

Category 2 – Crime in the Industiral Revolution (c.1750 -1900)

4. Err.... More Free Stuff please? http://www.burtonbradstock.org.uk/history/smuggling/smugglers.jpg

The first of our Industrial Revolution crimes is good old fashioned smuggling. This is the crime of bringing goods into the country illegally to try and avoid paying money on them and although it does still exist today – YOU should NOT talk about smuggling people or TVs in the exam!

. Smugglers. Smuggling. Funny, that.
The causes of Smuggling during the Industrial Revolution were quite simple

  1. Britain had a large Empire producing a lot of new goods like tea, coffee, sugar, cotton, silk, spices and tobacco.

  2. These all had to be brought back into Britain by sea. When they arrived the government charged them money to bring it into the country

  3. This made prices of the goods higher which makes people grumpy.

  4. Since Britain has a large coastline, people had the bright idea that if they don’t land at the main ports they don’t have to pay the tax.

  5. Smuggling happens!

Most ordinary people were actually in favour of smuggling... since it meant that the things they ended up buying were cheaper. Whilst the government were not in favour of smuggling, since it meant that they were losing money... which actually made most people like smuggling more!

Government attempts to control smuggling were thwarted for a number of reasons

  • Smugglers mainly operated at night and in remote locations. It was hard for the Excise Men to keep a track of them. Excise men being responsible for checking up on smuggling. Not exercise.

  • Many ordinary people would help smugglers out by leaving barns or houses open for them to hide the goods

  • On the off chance the smugglers were caught... they could simply bribe their way out of trouble since the excise men weren’t paid much!

Smuggling only stopped being a problem when the import taxes were lowered... this made normal goods the same price as smuggled goods and getting normal goods would not result in a mild case of death like being involved with smuggled goods so it quickly became a lot less common!

5. Stand and Deliver! Your Money or your wife life!

Our next exciting Industrial Revolution based crime is that of Highwaymen. These are the fine gentlemen such as Dick Turpin who rode around the highways of England to rob from the rich and... err... well, give to themselves.http://mrliddle.co.uk/s1/highwayman.jpg

. A highwayman. With a peg leg. And a mask. And bright red coat. Not exactly keeping a low profile....
Highwaymen were a huge problem in the 18th and 19th Century. The road network in Britain was starting to expand rapidly... by proper roads actually being built rather than there just being a dirt track for people to follow... and this lead to an increase in the amount of people travelling around the country by horse drawn coaches known as stagecoaches.

Obviously as people travelled around, so they became a target for criminals. Highwaymen were often cruel, vicious and violent. Some were even known to cut out their victims tounges so they couldn’t report them! The main reasons for the increase in highwayman were

  • Guns became easier and cheaper to get

  • Horses became cheaper to buy

  • There were lots of open land around towns in which highwaymen could operate and hide

  • The amount of coaches travelling around England increased massively.

Controlling the threat of highwaymen was a massive problem due to the lack of any actual police force operating in the country. It was onlt when towns started organising their own patrols, high rewards were offered for highwaymens capture and people got wise and stopped carrying all their cash with them (and so it became unprofitable to rob them) did the number of highwaymen start to die down.

6. I predict a Riot!http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/rebeccariots.gif/300px-rebeccariots.gif

. A Man rioting. Yes. He is dressed as a woman. Don't ask...
The final crime that in our whistle stop tour of the Industrial Revolution is, rather unhelpfully, not one crime at all. But it’s the cause of a number of crimes we want you to know about - Industrialisation. During the 18th and 19th Century Britain underwent a dramatic change with the rapid growth and development of towns and increasing levels of factories resulted in a number of different crimes and issues.
The first issue that you need to know about is how the growth of towns during the industrial revolution lead to a change in crime. These are the main points...

Cramped Conditions - More people in towns lead to narrow terraced housing being built. This made crime easier since houses were closer together - so robbing them and hiding is much easier.

More People in One Place - Simply put, more people moved to towns to find jobs. This lead to more crime because the more people there are the more crime there will be!

Growth of Towns in the Industrial Revolution

Jobs - Competition for jobs in towns could also lead to crime. In order to create job opportunities it wasn’t uncommon for unemployed people to arrange for those with a job to have an ‘accident!’

Dark Streets - The size of the new towns resulted in a lot of streets being unlit and therefore there was an increase in robberies and murders as the criminal could simply disappear into the night

So. As well as towns getting bigger and causing more crime, Industrialisation also help sparked a new wave of crime around the idea of Protests for the following reasons

  • Politics - During this period people wanted the opportunity to vote. Since only 5% of the country could vote this meant there were a lot of people who wanted the vote and couldn’t. Hence. Protests.

  • Philosophy - Again. During this time people started to have some interesting ideas about everyone being equal and should, you know, actually be treated like that. Which is what had not been happening for pretty much... ever? This also led to Protests.

  • Change - As we’ve mentioned a number of times this period was a time of great change. Some people don’t like change. At all. So.... yup, you guessed it... they protested about it!

So. All these Protests? You need to know about 3 in particular.

  1. Luddites - These were the group who were protesting about change. The developments in the Industrial Revolution had meant that factories could make more of things and a quicker rate than before. This meant that some people lost jobs and business that they used to have before. So. What’s the obvious thing to do here? Go into the factories and smash up all the machines and new technology. That’ll teach it a lesson!

  2. Swing Riots - These guys were protesting about change and a little bit about philosophy. They took place in the 1830s in the South of England, which was still mainly farming areas. But even here new machinery had made farming easier and so people would need fewer workers. Hence Protest and smash machines - same as the Luddites. Yet the swing riots were also about the fact that the people who still had a job were being exploited and paid less buy their bosses - and that wasn’t on either!

  3. Rebecca Riots - These took place between 1839 and 1843 and were again about change and equality. People in South Wales were being charged tolls to use roads to move their goods around and these tolls were beyond what they could afford. Since up until very recently they had not had to pay for the roads and many did not think they should have to pay to move around the land. Which they had been doing for free until someone put a fence on the road and charged them money... as to why it was called the Rebecca Riots? Well. The Rioters (men) dressed up as women (Rebecca). Who said the Welsh weren’t creative?

So. These are our Industrial Revolution crimes. They again have pretty common causes - poverty, new technology and lack of proper policing!
Category 3 - Crime in the Modern Day (1900 - Err.... now?)

7. I feel the need. The need for speed!http://www.topcarreviews.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/2011-aston-martin-db9.jpg

. A Car. If you really needed me to tell you that.... *gulp*...
So. As we enter the modern period we have a whole new range of crime for you to examine, yay! The first is quite simply motor crime. Which is just what is says on the tin... crimes related to (motor)cars. As the 20th Century has developed Cars have become much more prominent which has lead to a whole new raft of crimes...




Car Theft

Stealing a Car. Funnily Enough.

Poverty and Jealous. As Cars have developed there has been a clear difference in what makes a ‘good’ car and what makes a ‘bad car. People are quite willing to steal better cars - not only so they can have it, but also cars can be stripped for parts to make a lot of cash.

Drink Driving

Driving whilst under the influence of alcohol

As cars have become more popular things like drink driving have become much more common. The pressures of modern life mean many seek to escape through drink and then go onto drive. Not a bright idea.

Speeding & Parking Fines

Going faster than the allowed speed limit & not parking where you are allowed

Cars have required a whole new set of rules and regulations - about how fast it is safe to go at and where you can park. As people today feel that they are constantly in a rush, they are often willing to break the law for the sake of their own convenience!

8. Click Here to claim your $40 million win on the Nigerian Lottery...http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_3bwbwuwwqtu/tdso_eyfeki/aaaaaaaaaam/vavhr4l3vvu/s1600/dellcomputers.jpg

. A Computer. In case you've been living under a rock.
Another major contributor to crime in the 20th Century is the rise of the computer. Of course, you could argue that the computer has actually just made it easier to do old crimes, but just do them better.... but that’s not how WJEC see it, so that’s not how we see it! The new crimes that have been created by the computer are as follows.

  • Hacking - Easy enough to explain and understanding - breaking into someone else’s computer to take information that doesn’t belong to you, or to mess up what they have.

  • Computer Fraud - We get sent all kinds of spam e-mails telling us that we’ve won some lottery abroad or that or internet bank wants us to renter or login details... and these are all attempts to con us out of our money and hope that we don’t understand the technology and go along with it.

  • Viruses - Deliberate attempts to cause damage to others computers and programs

  • Identity Theft - By using a variety of the other crimes we can create another person’s identity online and use it to buy things or do things and not worry about the consequences

  • Cash - Using Identity theft, fraud, hacking and viruses also allow criminals to steal from bank accounts online.

So. Why are all these crimes caused by the computer? Simple really. It is an easy and quick way to commit these crimes. No longer does our criminal have to risk going outside and facing any danger to commit these crimes, when he can do them from the safety of his/her own house, in a comfy chair and with a cuppa in hand. As well as that - the internet allows a degree of protection from being discovered. So. Commit crime and home and stay safe - no wonder computer crime is on the increase!

9. You were only supposed to blow the bloody doors off...

. One of the 20th Centuries most violent Criminals. If he ever actually managed to do it...
Our last crime is the increasing trend of violent crime within the 20th Century. Whilst violent crime itself is not a new thing (Highwaymen cutting out tongues, anyone?) there has been a trend in the modern period for new types of violent and somewhat senseless crimes cause by a range of factors. So look below and learn! wile e coyote with detonator

IRA Bombings - Britain has experienced terrorism during the second half of the 20th Century as the IRA bombed mainland Britain to try and force Northern Ireland to join the Republic of Ireland. Many were killed and wounded and it has only recently stopped.

Terrorism - This has become one of the most famous crimes of the 20th/21st Century. Events like 9/11 and the London Bombings show the idea of terrorism - targeting innocent civilians in order to try and send a message to governments...

Gun and Knife Crime - As society has changed so has the culture of its people. Gun and knife crime is on the increase. Many people feel they need to be armed to protect themselves... and once they have a weapon they are more inclined to use it...

Drug Crime - There are 2 types of drug crime. The first is the smuggling and dealing of drugs as more and more people use drugs in society. The second is people committing crime in order to try and feed drug habits.

Football Hooliganism - Again during the later part of the 20th Century football became a major source of crime. Matches were less a source of entertainment and more a chance to get involved in a punch up and inflict pain on others. The inflicting pain is still true when watching Leicester Coventry City today.

Modern Day crime causes of crime are still related to poverty, but have also changed because of developments in technology and the pressure and pace of modern life.

Section 2 - Punishment from 1530 - Modern Day

Section 1 - Tudor Punishments (1530 - 1750)

1. This won’t hurt a bit.... promise!http://doversociety.homestead.com/in_the_pillory_from_an_old_print__tn.jpg

. Tudor Relaxation Technique. Sort of.
There is one basic aim to Tudor Punishment - Pain! Tudor punishments were designed to inflict pain upon the criminal (corporal punishment) and so act as a deterrent to other criminals thinking of committing the same crime. They would see the pain and humiliation that other criminals went through and would not want the same thing to happen to them and not commit the crime. A fine plan with only one teeny tiny drawback. It didn’t really work!
Examples of Corporal Punishment in the Tudor Period

  • The Stocks - Criminal is forced to sit down with their feet locked into a wooden board. This usually only lasts for a couple of days. But the criminal can expect to have rotten food thrown at them. This was used for minor crimes.

  • The Pillory - Similar to the stocks but the criminal stands up and their head and hands are locked into the wooden board (see above!). Occasionally the ear may be nailed to the pillory as an additional punishment. Also used for minor crimes.

  • Whipping - A punishment used in conjunction with the Pillory. The Criminal would also sometimes be whipped as well. This was used for second offences.

2. Burn Baby, Burn!http://www.talesofcuriosity.com/v/gunpowder/i/burningmonks.jpg

. Health and Safety. Tudor Style
In keeping with the whole pain, humiliation and deterrent idea the other main form of Tudor punishment was execution (capital punishment). For the Tudors there were 2 main crimes that needed public executions. Treason - which resulted in a mild case of beheading and Heresy - which resulted in a mild case of being burnt alive. For the Tudors it was important as we’ve said that punishment was done in public as an example and warning to others. Specific examples of Tudor style executions are as follows!




Marian Persecutions


When Mary I became Queen in 1553 she switched England back to being Catholic. In order to speed up the process Mary went after some of the key figures of the Protestant religion - having them arrested, tried and found guilty and then burnt. In all Mary had around 300 people burnt in 5 years - enough to earn her the nickname Bloody Mary!

Mary, Queen of Scots


Mary Queen of Scots was the cousin of Elizabeth I who after 3 marriages, 1 baby, a number of violent murders and a rebellion had fled to England to get Lizzies help. Liz’s response? Lock Mary away (gotta love family!) because Mary was a Catholic. From 1569 - 1587 Mary was locked away but still became the focal point of a number of Catholic plots to replace Elizabeth as Queen of England with Mary. After the last one - The Babington Plot (which may or may not have been a giant set up) Elizabeth had enough and signed Mary’s death warrant. She was executed for treason by being beheaded - since that was the classy way to do it according to the Tudors!

John Penry

Treason and/or Heresy (Basically. Anything they could get him with!)

Penry was Protestant preacher who was eventually killed thanks to his clashes with the Archbishop of Canterbury during the time of Elizabeth I. Although he started life as a Roman Catholic (bad) he quickly converted to being a Protestant (good) but to the point that he became an extreme Protestant - a Puritan (bad) and gave a number of speeches and wrote a number of texts complaining about the state of the Church, which made him a number of enemies. They eventually managed to pin a charge of bad mouthing the Queen on him which was enough to get Penry hanged for his troubles!

3. Welcome to the House of Fun!

. Prison. Hard to say if it's got better or worse...
The last and perhaps least well used form of Tudor Punishment were Prisons. There were 3 main type of Tudor Prison that were used; House of Correction, Bridewells and Debtor’s Prisons. They were all meant to be minor punishments and there was very little thought to actually reforming the prisoners as the attitude was very much about humiliating the criminal into behaving. http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/static/images/moll_beating_hemp.jpg

  • Houses of correction were places for the punishment and reform of the poor who were convicted of petty offences. In houses of correction prisoners undertook hard labour and were often whipped. The most common charges in the late 17th and 18th centuries were vagrancy, prostitution, petty theft and ‘loose, idle and disorderly conduct’. Sentencing to a house of correction did not require a formal trial. More than half of offenders were released within a week and two thirds within two weeks. Punishment in houses of correction was designed to be a short, sharp shock!

  • Bridewell’s were for the punishment of the ‘disorderly poor’ and housing of homeless children in the City of London. Bridewell was more advanced than any other 18th century prison and was a relatively healthy and clean place. Prisoners were inspected for disease and given medical care. The London poor seemed to view it more favourably than other prisons and during the Gordon Riots of 1780 when other prisons were burned to the ground, Bridewell escaped intact although its prisoners were re-leased!

  • Debtors’ Prisons was simply prison for those that owed money! Debt was common in England and Wales at this time. Most prisoners were small tradesmen and businessmen. Typically a debtor was accused by the person to who money was owed. The accused was held in a sponging house and if the money could not be raised within a few days the debtor was imprisoned until the debt was paid back.

So. The basic point of Tudor Punishment? Humiliate and Scare criminals into making sure that they behaved!
Section 2 - Industrial Revolution Punishments (1750-1900)

4. In a land far, far away...

. All expenses paid trip to Australia. Complete with chains!
During the Industrial Revolution attitudes towards punishment began to change. Partly because of ideas previously mentioned (you know, the equality stuff that caused riots?), people started to think that inflicting cruel, severe humiliating punishments might be a bad thing.... so they came up with Transportation instead! http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/11052.preview.jpg

Why do it?

People started to think punishments were too harsh. To the point the criminals were being let off. Sending criminals to the colonies made sense!

What is it?

It was sending criminals to parts of the British Empire like Australia, Gibraltar or Bermuda for 7 or 14 years or for life.


What was it like?

The voyage out was bad enough. Prisoners were kept in cramped conditions on hulks (Old disused warships) and the voyage could take anywhere between 8 months to a year. On their arrival prisoners were forced to do hard labour and were basically treated as slaves. When they were finished people were allowed to go home, but most chose to stay in Australia. Partly because they would have a better a life, but also they couldn’t afford to go back. It was also much better when gold was found in the 1850s!

Transportation as a punishment was finished by the end of the 19th Century... too many people saw it as a good thing rather than a punishment!

5. If you kids don’t behave.... no execution for you on Sunday!

. The Bloody Code. Nice and fair for all. Sort of.
Another major shift in attitudes to punishment in the Industrial Revolution came with the attitudes towards the Bloody Code. During the early part of the 18th Century in response to a number of new crimes (see section 1) the government decided to make example of the criminals. All these crimes were to be punished with execution. Soon, England had well over 200 crimes that you could be executed for. Including such vile offence as: stealing a sheep, graffiti on Westminster Bridge, digging up a tree and shooting a rabbit! This system of justice has been nicknamed The Bloody Code (No prizes for guessing why) and was meant to act as a warning to criminals, but it didn’t work and so change was needed! http://www.dur.ac.uk/4schools/crime/images/merryengland.jpg

  • Public Executions – These were a key part of the Bloody Code. People would be hung in public as a warning to others. Yet they didn’t work. Most people saw a Public Execution as a day out and a chance to have some fun. They were popular events! Criminals weren’t put off committing the crime since: a) they still had to be caught and b) It encouraged them to commit worse crimes! Since the punishment for theft and murder were the same... why not kill any potential witness?

  • Reform of the Criminal Code, 1823 – Sir Robert Peel the Home Secretary (guy in charge of crime and punishment) started to make changes in 1823. He slowly reduced the number of crimes that you could be executed for down to 4; murder, treason, piracy with violence and burning down a weapons store or dockyard. He also had the radical idea that crime should be prevented with a police force and not use public executions as a warning. Crazy, huh? Public Hanging was abolished in 1868 and the Bloody Code was finished.

6. How to waste time. 19th Century style.

. Happy Victorian Prisoners.
The final part of Peel’s major reforms came with changes to how Prisons would work. In the Tudor times, Prisons were very much an afterthought for punishment. Yet as the Industrial Revolution went on they became a key part of punishment thanks to the work of three people who helped cause a number of changes http://cache2.allpostersimages.com/p/lrg/53/5390/79vjg00z/posters/english-school-the-workshop-under-the-silent-system-at-millbank-prison.jpg




John Howard

Howard was responsible for Prisons in Bedfordshire and made a tour of them in the 1770s. He published a book in 1777 that highlight the major problems (Disease is high, prisoners are mistreated and prisoners learn more about crime from others) and gave a series of recommendations (Get prisoners to work and think about what they’ve done, clean up Prisons, look after the prisoners)

Howard’s work was taken quite seriously and his book was referenced in Parliament a number of times. In 1823 as part of Peel’s reforms a number of changes were made to Prisons that reflected Howard’s ideas – Prisons had to be secure and healthy, Prisoners are to be kept apart, doctors, teachers and churchmen are to visit the prisoners regularly and attempts should be made to reform the Prisoners.

Elizabeth Fry

Fry visited prisons and was shocked by the conditions she found. She spent her time getting prisoners to clean the cells and taught them how to knit socks. She also made sure that female prisoners could learn how to read and write

A lot of people did mock Fry for her efforts, but she also gained a lot of respect. She also made people realise that conditions in prisons were far too harsh and that it was possible to change the behaviour of prisoners for the better and maybe that was a better idea that letting ¼ of them die!

George O. Paul

Worked in Gloucester in the 1780s to design a new type of Prison. Paul was disgusted with conditions same as Howard and came up with a number of ideas. He designed his prison so that the Walls were 5.4m tall to make sure escapes was not possible. He also created ventilated cells and open spaces to allow fresh air in the prison to help keep prisoners healthy. Paul also created separate cells for men and women and those who were guilty of crime and those just awaiting trial. Finally he made sure that in his prison his staff was paid and the prisoners had access to education.

Gloucester Prison became the model that pretty much all other prisons built in the 19th Century were based on and his ideas were widely copied.

The final changes that were introduced to Prisons were about how the Prisoners were to be punished whilst they were there. People were now keen on the idea that Prisoners should be reformed and get them to learn about the error of their ways. The 2 main methods to do this were

  • The Silent System – Prisoners would be made to do a boring repetitive task in complete silence for most of the day. The task would have no actual end product but was meant to make the prisoner reflect upon his crime and be that bored that they would not want to risk coming back to Prison again. It was also meant to stop Prisoners from talking to each other and helping each other learn how to be better criminals

  • The Separate System- Prisoners would be kept in a cell with no human contact for weeks at a time, sometimes even months. At the end of it a Chaplin would come in to try and convince the Prisoner to live a better life after they’ve had the chance to think about what they did. This was perhaps less effective than the Silent System because the Separate System had the unfortunate side effect of driving quite a few prisoners insane and quite often killing themselves. It ended up being used as an extra punishment – solitary confinement.

So. Punishment in the Industrial Revolution showed a number of signs of change. We moved away from the idea that punishment should be a warning (though this did not go completely) and perhaps criminals should be reformed instead.

Section 3 – Punishment in the Modern Day (1900 – Err. Now?)

7. Wait? I can’t whack ‘em anymore?file:seddon being sentenced to death.jpg

. The only known photo of anyone being sentenced to death in England..
During the Modern Era our attitudes towards the punishment of criminals has changed somewhat dramatically. Although they have changed a lot when compared to the Tudor Period if you examine how quickly that change has happened... it is not that quick at all! (Hint. Use that in question 6! )

  • Capital Punishment – As we have gone through the 20th Century Capital Punishment has been used much less frequently as there has been a change in opinion towards it as a form of punishment. Many people now believe that killing people is wrong no matter what they have done and that every effort should be made to reform the criminal and rehabilitate them rather than just kill them. There was huge debate in the UK about the ending of the death penalty and the last executions took place in England in 1964 before the Death Penalty was abolished for murder in 1969 and completely in 1998.

  • Corporal Punishment – Same as with capital punishment, corporal punishment also dropped during the course of the 20th Century. As people began to believe in the ideas that people should be treated with respect and punishment should not be about retribution – punishing them for what they have done but rehabilitation - making them a useful and productive member of society again. To this end corporal punishment ended in the UK in 1948 – particularly after the events of WW2 had such an impact on the country and the ideas on how people should and should not be treated.

8. Here’s a crazy idea... how about we don’t let young criminals learn from the old ones?!http://news.bbc.co.uk/media/images/38344000/jpg/_38344625_borstal150.jpg

. PE at Borstal. Be grateful of your own lessons...
With the new emphasis on reform and rehabilitation of prisoners is has lead to a number of changes within Prisons and how they work over the 20th Century. These include Borstals, Young Offenders Institutes, Open Prisons and Modern Prisons.

Open Prisons – These have been introduced as a punishment for minor offences. The prisoners have very limited security and are allowed to walk around the grounds at will as they are trusted not to escape. It is meant to be a punishment that is proportional to minor crimes.

Modern Prisons – The Modern Prison system works on the idea of Categories. Different crimes have different levels of severity and so prisoners are assigned accordingly. A is for the worst and most serious crimes. B is for mid level crimes and C is for minor crimes. The idea being that minor criminals will no longer be corrupted by the worst criminals!

Young Offenders Institutes – These were introduced to England in 1988 to replace Borstals. They served the same purpose to separate younger and older criminals but rather than using the harsh routines and discipline of Borstals the focus is on education and rehabilitating the young people by giving them a skill they can use when they leave so they do not need to commit crime.

Borstals – These were introduced to England in 1902. The basic idea was to separate the younger criminals from the older ones so they wouldn’t learn from them. Whilst in Borstal they would have a very fixed lifestyle that was designed to install discipline. Life was tough and punishment could be brutal but it was meant to be educational rather than harsh. The Borstal system was abolished in 1982

So... the systems developed in the 19th Century have been expanded on and developed during the 20th.

9. Can’t beat ‘em? Tag ‘em!

. 20th Century Fashion Accessories. Like Ankle Tags. Good times.
With the abolition of corporal and capital punishments, a range of different punishments have been introduced in their place. The basic idea behind many of these is to give the criminal a second chance – again linking in with the idea of rehabilitation and allowing people a chance to make up for their wrong doing. All of the following punishments are only given for minor crimes and offences – like multiple traffic offences etc. http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/guardian/about/general/2012/3/24/1332600565226/electronic-tag-008.jpg




Electronic Tagging

The Criminal is fitted with an electronic tag that allows the Police to know where they are at all times.

The criminal is allowed some freedom with restrictions. It shows a degree of trust but makes sure they can’t do anything else wrong!

Suspended Sentences

The criminal is given a jail sentence – but it is suspended. Meaning they don’t have to do it unless they break the law again.

Gives the criminal a second chance and acts as a warning for their behaviour in the future. Bit like getting a C1!


Criminals are allowed out of their sentence early on the promise that they will behave and follow certain conditions. Usually a reward for good behaviour

Again it is the idea of giving people a second chance and actually rewarding those that have made the effort to change.

Community Service

Criminals are assigned to jobs that will provide a service to their local community. This can be working with those who are in need, cleaning up litter/graffiti or things like that.

The criminal is given the opportunity to pay back the community that they have done wrong to and basically earn forgiveness


Anti-Social Behaviour Orders were designed to stop people from doing minor things that disrupted others

Again, it acts as a warning system to people. Rather than punishment straight away they are given the chance to change the behaviour before it turns into a major problem

And that ends our look at Punishment in the Modern Day. Here there has been drastic change because Punishment now works solely on the idea of reforming the criminal and not causing them pain or humiliation!

And that’s it! This is the overview of what you need to know for Crime and Punishment. It may not be everything you need but as we said – it is something that should give you a good understanding of anything you might be asked questions on!
When it comes to the exam, don’t forget that we’re here to help you as much as possible and anything you’re stuck on... ask for help!
If not, good luck and hope this helps!

Bonus Section – Exam Advice!

I’m going to finish the guide with some quick advice on the questions in the paper. This was the advice given to me by people who run the course. So I’m hoping it’s good!

First of all.... Answer Questions 1, 3 and 6! These are the ones you will be best prepared to do!

For 1 & 3 Question by question advice is as follows;

  1. You need to give 2 points about the question that come from the source. This can be 1 from the source and 1 from the caption, it doesn’t matter. But make sure it is relevant! (E.g. No they wear hats! :D)

  2. The describe question needs 3 developed statements – this means you tell me 3 things about the topic supported by some evidence/detail/information. You do not need to explain WHY on this question at all!

  3. You will be given 2 sources. You will be told to use the sources and your own knowledge. DO IT! Set out your answer by saying “Source B tells me” and then explain what it shows, “Source C tells me” and then do the same and finally “My own knowledge tells me” and then the same. If you do not make it clear you’ve used both sources and own knowledge, you will not get 6/6

  4. Your answer must start with “Yes it is important because” Whatever the question is – it is going to be important. You then need to set out your answer so that you explain what it was that person did, or what that event did AND why that makes it important. You must come back to explain why it makes it Important! You should be writing that word a lot – since it’s what the whole question is about!

The essay question. Number 6. I would really strongly advise you to answer number 6. It will be about punishment from the Tudor Period to the Modern Day. It will give you the bullet points about; Transportation, Prison Reform, Corporal Punishment, and Public Execution – These will not change. You can prepare your answer going in. Make sure you do the following and you will get 5 or 6 out of 10

  • Describe the Punishments in the Tudor period and say why they were used

  • Describe the Punishments in the Industrial Revolution , why they were used and if they changed from the Tudor Period

  • Describe the Punishments in the Modern Day, why they were used and if they changed from the Industrial Revolution.

No matter what the question is – this is a GREAT starting point. For higher marks? Look at what the question is asking you. Is it about types of punishments or attitudes towards. Make sure you explain the RATE of change over time. Did things constantly change? If so it is a quick change. If thing stayed the same for a long time then changed rapidly? Slow change! Hope that helps and once again – Good Luck!

GCSE Crime and Punishment Fullhurst History Department fullhurst-logo.gif

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