BROOKS, PHILLIPS [1835‑1893] – American Episcopal preacher and hymn writer who became rector of the Holy Trinity Church Philadelphia in 1862. Early in 1877 he delivered his “Lectures on Preaching” before Yale Divinity School and three years later preached in Westminster Abbey in the presence of Queen Victoria. Brooks was an eloquent preacher who wrote the hymn "O little town of Bethlehem". He was consecrated bishop of Boston in 1891 and died some 15 months later.
EVANGELICAL FREE CHURCH OF AMERICA – The Midwest churches coalesced to form the Evangelical Free Church and the eastern churches to form the Eastern Association in 1891 for fellowship and mutual aid. These two Norwegian-Danish groups merged to form the Evangelical Free Church in 1909. The Swedish Evangelical Free Church merged with this group at Medicine Lake Minnesota in June 1950 to form the Evangelical Free Church of America.
GERASIMUS Patriarch of Jerusalem [1891-1897] see 1882 and 1897
HARPER, WILLIAM RAINEY [1856-1906] – Semitics scholar who was educated at Yale and became professor of Hebrew at the Baptist Union Theological Seminary in Illinois. Having returned to Yale to teach Semitics in 1886 he became head of the new University of Chicago in 1891. Over the next 14 years his enormous energies burnt out his life but not before he had created a great graduate University.
INTERNATIONAL CONGREGATIONAL COUNCIL – This was formed in London in 1891 for the purpose of obtaining greater co-operation among the Congregational churches around the world. It was the Congregational response to the emerging ecumenical movement of the latter part of the 19th century, and designed not only to bring greater unity among Congregationalists, but also to bring Congregationalism into greater co-operation with other Protestant churches in the task of evangelism. It proved however to be a suitable vehicle for the promotion of the Social Gospel and was increasingly used for that purpose by liberal theologians.
LONGSTAFF, WILLIAM DUNN [1822-1894] Hymn Writer. For many years, William Longstaff was treasurer of Bethesda Free Chapel in Sunderland, England. He was friends with Salvation Army founder William Booth and evangelists Dwight Moody and Ira Sankey. He wrote “Take time to be holy, speak oft with thy Lord” after hearing a sermon at New Brighton on “Be ye holy as I am holy,” 1 Peter 1:15. First published in Gospel Hymns and Sacred Songs and Solos, in 1891, it was greatly used in encouraging holiness among the Lord’s people. It is usually sung to the tune ‘Holiness’ by George C. Stebbins, written in 1890.
PIERSON, ARTHUR TAPPAN [1837-1911] was an American Presbyterian pastor, an early fundamentalist leader, and writer who preached over 13,000 sermons. He wrote over fifty books, and gave Bible lectures as part of a transatlantic preaching ministry that made him famous in Scotland and England. He was a consulting editor for the original "Scofield Reference Bible" (1909) for his friend, C. I. Scofield and was also a friend of D. L. Moody, George Müller (whose biography 'George Muller of Bristol' he wrote), Adoniram Judson Gordon, and C. H. Spurgeon, whom he succeeded in the pulpit of the Metropolitan Tabernacle, London, from 1891 to 1893. Throughout his career, Pierson filled several pulpit positions around the world as an urban pastor who cared passionately for the poor. Pierson was also a pioneer advocate of faith missions who was determined to see the world evangelized in his generation. Prior to 1870, there had been only about 2000 missionaries from the United States in full-time service, roughly ten percent of whom had engaged in work among Native Americans. A great movement of foreign missions began in the 1880s and accelerated into the twentieth century, in some measure due to the work of Pierson. He acted as the elder statesman of the student missionary movement and was the leading evangelical advocate of foreign missions in the late 1800s. From the viewpoint of hymns he is known for his hymn “With harps and viols there stand a great throng”
NEOPHYTUS VIII – Patriarch of Constantinople [1891-1894] succeeded Dionysius V [see 1887]. There is no additional information readily available.
PIERSON, ARTHUR TAPPAN [1837-1911] was an American Presbyterian pastor, an early fundamentalist leader, and writer who preached over 13,000 sermons. He wrote over fifty books, and gave Bible lectures as part of a transatlantic preaching ministry that made him famous in Scotland and England. He was a consulting editor for the original "Scofield Reference Bible" (1909) for his friend, C. I. Scofield and was also a friend of D. L. Moody, George Müller (whose biography 'George Muller of Bristol' he wrote), Adoniram Judson Gordon, and C. H. Spurgeon, whom he succeeded in the pulpit of the Metropolitan Tabernacle, London, from 1891 to 1893. Throughout his career, Pierson filled several pulpit positions around the world as an urban pastor who cared passionately for the poor. Pierson was also a pioneer advocate of faith missions who was determined to see the world evangelized in his generation. Prior to 1870, there had been only about 2000 missionaries from the United States in full-time service, roughly ten percent of whom had engaged in work among Native Americans. A great movement of foreign missions began in the 1880s and accelerated into the twentieth century, in some measure due to the work of Pierson. He acted as the elder statesman of the student missionary movement and was the leading evangelical advocate of foreign missions in the late 1800s. From the viewpoint of hymns he is known for his hymn “With harps and viols there stand a great throng” A leader in the Bible Conference Movement and Student Volunteer Movement [see 1886] he was also a consulting editor for the Scofield Bible, lecturer in the Moody Bible Institute from 1893, and was one of the few Americans to speak at Keswick. The Pierson Bible Institute of Seoul in South Korea was an outgrowth of his ministry.
RAMABAI, PANDITA [1858-1922] – Indian Christian Reformer who was the daughter of a Brahman who had a remote hilltop ashram. She lost both her parents during a pilgrimage to South India in 1874 and with her brother wandered on making a living by reciting the Hindu scriptures. After a short marriage she met Christians and discovered the Bible. She went to Poona organising women's societies for reform and pursuing her new interest in Christianity in which she was helped by father Nehemiah Gore, an Anglican who was a convert from her caste. The Wantage Sisters helped her to go to Britain for education in 1880 and she and her young daughter were baptised there. In 1886 she went to America studying kindergarten methods and getting support for a scheme to educate high-caste widows. Ramabai’s evangelical conversion in 1891 made her an ardent evangelist as well as a social worker and baptisms followed. Land purchased near Poona laid the ground for the rescue of hundreds of girls and women after the famines of 1896-97. She established the Mukti [“Salvation”] Mission which grew to a community of over 1300. During her last eighteen years Ramabai made a simplified Marathi translation of the Bible.
COMMUNITY OF THE RESURRECTION – Founded by six men at Pusey House Chapel after lengthy study of various orders. The distinctive feature of the rule was to be a communal life lived in simplicity. The community consists of lay as well as ordained brethren, undertakes mission work in South Africa and the West Indies, and has been active in ecumenical affairs while continuing to serve the church in missions and retreats.
FIGGIS, JOHN NEVILLE [1866-1919] – Anglican historian and son of a minister in the Countess of Huntingdon Connection in Brighton. Figgis in his youth reacted against his father's evangelical religion. He had a brilliant Cambridge career as a student and teacher of history, pioneering interpretation of the transition from mediaeval to modern periods. Figgis surprised his friends by deciding to be ordained to the Church of England's ministry in 1892 as he had not been noticeably religious. He was not very successful as a parish priest, but as vicar of Marnhall from 1902 to 1907 he had a “middle age conversion” from a humanitarian and moralist religion, to enter the Community of the Resurrection, and become a prophetic preacher of the Gospel and of the supernatural and disciplined redemption in Christ. He was more of an evangelist and apologist than a theologian. Figgis’ influence did not survive World War I and his death.
GRENFELL, SIR WILFRED THOMASON [1865-1940] – Medical missionary and author whose life of Christian service began in 1885 in response to a challenge presented by D.L. Moody at an East London tent meeting. After graduating in medicine he joined the Mission to Deep Sea Fishermen, became its superintendent in 1890, and cruised from the Bay of Biscay to Iceland ministering to the physical and spiritual needs of the fishermen. In 1892 he went to Labrador and devoted the rest of his life to the welfare of its inhabitants. Before he retired in 1935 Grenfell founded five hospitals, seven nursing stations, three orphanage boarding schools, co-operative stores, industrial centres, agricultural stations, and in 1912 the King George V Seaman’s Institute in St John's Newfoundland. He was knighted in 1927.
LIPSIUS, RICHARD ADELBERT [1830-1892] – German Protestant theologian who was educated at Leipzig and became professor of systematic theology at Jena where he wrote extensively on dogmatics and the history of the Christianity. He attempted to harmonise scientific principles and methods with those of religion. In this he was opposed by the Lutheran Church and accused of theological liberalism. He was co-founder of the Evangelical Alliance and the Evangelical Protestant Missionary Union.
MILLIGAN, WILLIAM [1821-1893] – Scottish New Testament scholar educated at St Andrews Edinburgh and Halle. After ministering in parishes he became professor of biblical criticism at Aberdeen in 1860, a post he held until his death. He was moderator of the general assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1882, a member of the company formed for the revision of the New Testament in English in 1870, and the first president of the newly founded Scottish Church Society in 1892. He was a liberal in theology.
MOBERLY, ROBERT CAMPBELL [1845-1903] – Anglican theologian. The son of a bishop, he was educated at Oxford and after service in a parish and two theological colleges he returned as professor of pastoral theology at Oxford from 1892 until his death. One of the Lux Mundi [see 1889] school of liberal Anglo-Catholics, he wrote strongly from that standpoint.
PEAKE, ARTHUR SAMUEL [1865-1929] – English scholar and writer who after graduating from Oxford became a lecturer there and achieved the rarity for a Nonconformist of a theological fellowship at Merton College. He left to take up the position of tutor at the Primitive Methodist College in Manchester in 1892 and held the tutorship for the rest of his life transforming the college and its reputation. In 1904 he became the first Rylands professor of biblical exegesis at Manchester University and the first dean of its theological faculty. Best-known of his writings was a one volume commentary on the Bible which he edited in 1919 and which introduced thousands of students and laymen to biblical criticism. Peake was of an ecumenical spirit and worked hard for the union of the British Methodist churches but died before its consummation.
SMITH, SIR GEORGE ADAM [1856-1942] – Old Testament scholar who was born in India where his father was the editor of the "Calcutta Review". He studied arts and theology at Edinburgh before pursuing further studies in German universities and in Cairo. He was minister of Queens Cross Free Church in Aberdeen for 10 years from 1882 before becoming professor of Old Testament at the Free Church College Glasgow [1892-1909] where he campaigned for proper labour conditions. His went on lecture tours of America and his 1901 lecture series at Yale threatened a heresy trail in Scotland. From 1909 to his retirement in 1935 he was principal of Aberdeen University.
SPYRIDON Patriarch of Antioch [1892-1898] see also 1885 and 1899
WELLHAUSEN, JULIUS [1844-1918] – German biblical critic who studied at Gottingen and after teaching there for two years went as professor of Old Testament to Greifswald in 1872 where orthodox Lutherans were alarmed at the doubts he cast on the inspiration of Scripture. Wellhausen resigned 10 years later and transferred to the teaching of oriental languages first at Halle and then as the professor at Marburg  and Gottingen again commencing in 1892. His “History of Israel” published in 1878 gave him a place in biblical studies comparable, it was said “to that of Darwin in biology”, and he also contributed significantly to the Islamic and New Testament studies.
WILDER, ROBERT PARMELEE [1863-1938] – Missionary to India and virtual founder of the Student Volunteer Movement [see 1886]. Born in India he was studying and promoting missions at Princeton College when D.L. Moody called for the summer Bible conference out of which the Student Volunteer Movement came. In 1892 on his way to India he founded the British Student Volunteer Missionary Union. In India he worked with students through the YMCA. After ill health forced him to leave India in 1902 he spent 14 years in Europe promoting the World Student Christian Federation. Wilder was also the executive secretary of the new Near East Christian Council, residing in Cairo.
BOUNDS, EDWARD MCENDREE [1835‑1913] – American Methodist minister who studied law and was admitted to the bar at 21. At the age of 24 he was called to preach in the Methodist Episcopal Church South. During the Civil War he was a captain in the Confederate army and captured. He was editor of the St Louis Christian Advocate and author of "Spiritual Life Books" which had a wide influence in many denominations.
CHAPMAN, JOHN WILBUR [1859-1918] – was a Presbyterian evangelist generally travelling with gospel singer Charles Alexander. Chapman grew up attending Quaker Day School and Methodist Sunday School. At age 17, he made a public declaration of his Christian faith and joined the Richmond Presbyterian Church. Having trained Chapman took on several pastorates before shifting to the evangelistic circuit. He began preaching with the legendary D. L. Moody in 1893, as well as leading many evangelistic events of his own. Among Chapman's disciples on the evangelistic circuit was Billy Sunday. In late 1895, Chapman was appointed Corresponding Secretary of the Presbyterian General Assembly's Committee on Evangelism, overseeing the activities of 51 evangelists in 470 cities. In 1905, John H. Converse, a wealthy Presbyterian philanthropist, offered to underwrite Chapman's expenses if he would re-enter the evangelistic field full time. Chapman accepted the offer and launched a campaign in 1908 in Philadelphia. In 1909, Chapman demanded that any field evangelist who doubted the inerrancy of Scripture be removed from ministry. In that year he undertook a world tour. In May 1918, Chapman was elected Moderator of the Presbyterian General Assembly, a position which inundated him with such a high level of stress causing him to develop a serious enough case of gall stones to need emergency surgery on December 23, 1918 and died two days later, on Christmas Day, aged 59. He is remembered for his hymn ‘’One day when heaven was filled with His praises”
GOUNOD, CHARLES FRANÇOIS [1818-1893] – French composer who is remembered today mainly for his popular opera “Faust”. He maintained throughout his career a great interest in sacred music. He spent several years in England, where he attained much popularity as a choral conductor and composer. His best-known oratorio was “Redemption” which is no longer performed, although parts of his St Cecilia Mass are still heard.
GRAY, GEORGE BUCHANAN [1865-1922] – English Old Testament scholar. Son of a Congregational minister he was educated at Exeter and London, becoming a schoolmaster. He was ordained as a Congregational minister in 1893 and from 1900 was professor of Hebrew and Old Testament exegesis at Mansfield College Oxford. An independent and original thinker, his preaching and teaching were permeated by the devotional spirit of the Old Testament.
MCGIFFERT, ARTHUR CUSHMAN [1861-1933] – American church historian and educator who graduated from the Union Theological Seminary and pursued studies in Paris, Rome, Berlin, and Marburg. Ordained as a Presbyterian he taught at Lane Theological Seminary before succeeding Philip Schaff [see 1870] as professor of church history at Union in 1893. He caused controversy with his book “A history of Christianity in the Apostolic Age” which caused him to withdraw from the Presbyterian Church and become a Congregationalist in 1899.
MACHRAY, ROBERT [1831-1904] – Anglican primate of Canada. Born in Scotland educated at Aberdeen and Cambridge and after three years of travel he returned to Sydney Sussex Cambridge as a dean. He also was appointed to a vicarage at Madingley in 1862. In 1865 he was consecrated the second bishop of Rupert's Land. He revived St John's Anglican College in Winnipeg in 1866 as a prelude to the establishment of the University of Manitoba in 1877 of which he was the first Chancellor. In 1893 he became primate of Canada and helped the church in Canada pass from missionary status dependent on England to self-sustaining independence.
NUTTALL, ENOS [1842 – 1916] – He was first archbishop of the West Indies. Born in England he went to Jamaica first in 1862 as a Methodist but in 1866 was ordained in the Anglican Church. He was involved in the complex negotiations surrounding disestablishment in 1870 and 10 years later elected bishop of Jamaica. He became archbishop in 1893. He regarded the British Empire as, on the whole, a good thing and advocated an institutional connection with Canterbury and recruited clergy first in England but in 1893 founded the first diocesan theological college in Jamaica. He pioneered the founding of a church nursing home in 1893. He was primarily concerned with individual rather than social problems.
RILEY, WILLIAM BELL [1861-1947] – Baptist minister and educator who was ordained to the Baptist ministry in Kentucky and was pastor of several Indiana churches including Calvary Baptist Church in Chicago from 1893. Riley founded and was president of Northwestern Bible Training School and was strongly opposed to theological liberalism and evolution.
SCUDDER, IDA SOPHIA [1870-1960] – Missionary doctor and founder of the Christian Medical College at Vellore in South India. She was born in India where her father Doctor John Scudder was in the North Arcot mission of the Dutch Reformed Church of America. She was at first determined not to be a missionary. She was only on a short-term commitment to India to be near her sick mother when in 1893 she received a call which was not the least remarkable feature of a remarkable life. Three different men came to her door asking her to come and attend to their respective wives in childbirth. They refused the services of any male doctor such as her father preferring rather that their wives die. She could do nothing and the wives all died. The experience sent her home to America to study medicine and commit her life to service for India and its women. She returned to India in 1900 and opened up a hospital at Vellore. Later she founded a nursing school and then in 1918 the medical college for women. Eventually in 1950 the college was affiliated with the Madras University medical course as one of the outstanding interdenominational Christian institutions of Asia.
SMITH, WALTER CHALMERS [1824-1908]. – Walter Smith, was a hymnist, poet and minister of the Free Church of Scotland and is chiefly remembered for his hymn “Immortal, Invisible, God Only Wise.” He was born in Aberdeen and was educated at Aberdeen and Edinburgh. He was ordained pastor of the Chadwell Street Scottish Church, Pentonville, Islington, London, on Christmas Day, 1850. He later served at a number of churches in Scotland. The Free Church of Scotland elected him its moderator during its Jubilee year in 1893. He was a distinguished preacher and a man of wide sympathies. He attained considerable reputation as a poet.
TUCKER, WILLIAM JEWETT [1839-1926] – Congregational minister and educator. He was educated at Andover Theological Seminary and became a pastor at churches in New Hampshire and New York City before teaching at Andover. Influenced by Horace Bushnell [see 1866], he asserted that only humane theology or “progressive orthodoxy” would improve society. He founded Andover House in 1881 and was tried with others for heresy but acquitted. From 1893 until his retirement in 1909 Tucker was president of Dartmouth College.
GAEBELEIN, ARNO CLEMENS [1861-1945] – Writer on prophecy. Born in Germany he went to America at eighteen and was later ordained in the Methodist Episcopal Church, holding pastorates including New York City where he began a remarkable ministry to the Jews. He founded and edited “Our Hope” magazine published 1894-1958 and a press by that name to provide literature for Jews, chiefly on their prophecy and biblical exposition. He wrote nearly 50 books and numerous pamphlets mainly on prophecy and lectured and preached widely and was active in the Bible Conference Movement.
MATTHEWS, SHAILER [1863-1941] – American theologian who graduated from Colby College and afterwards served on the faculty there from 1887 to 1894. He then joined the theological faculty at the University of Chicago teaching New Testament and then theology until 1933. He was leading voice of the Chicago School of Theology which was the champion of the modernist cause against American fundamentalism. He had a significant role in the formation of the Federal Council of Churches and the Northern Baptist Convention.
POLLOCK, ALGERNON JAMES [1864-1957] – Plymouth Brethren minister who was a banker until his late twenties when he was called to the ministry. The rest of his life he lived by faith without stipend and travelled the world as evangelist and teacher. A member of the Glanton Open Brethren his influence kept them from divisions. He studied Spiritualism and wrote articles, tracts, and books on devotion and prophecy as a Dispensationalist and for many years edited “The Gospel Messenger”.
WHITE, JOHN [1866-1933] – Wesleyan missionary who served in Southern Zimbabwe from 1894 to 1931 and was chairman of the district from 1903. White supervised a growing work south and north of the Zambesi. He was the founder of the Southern Rhodesia Missionary Conference and the translator of the Shona New Testament. He laid equal stress upon personal salvation and the social implication of the Gospel. Throughout his ministry he championed Shona interests, denouncing injustice, opposing discriminatory legislation, and earning much unpopularity among Europeans. His health broke down completely in 1931.
ZWEMER, SAMUEL MARINUS [1867-1952] – “Apostle to Islam”. He was the 13th of 15 children born to an American Dutch Reformed family. He became a Student Volunteer when Robert Wilder [see 1892] visited Hope College. With James Cantine he founded the Arabian Mission with Cantine going out to the Arabian Gulf in 1889 and Zwemer the following year. In 1894 the Reformed Church of America assumed responsibility for the mission. He worked across the Islamic world from Cairo to India and North-west China. In 1929 he began a teaching ministry first at Princeton then the Missionary Training Institute at Nyack after some time at Biblical Seminary in New York. He authored over fifty books.
ALEXANDER, CECIL FRANCES [1823‑1895] – Irish hymn writer and wife of the archbishop of Armagh. On a complaint from her godsons that they found the catechism difficult she started to write verses to assist them. In all she wrote almost 400 hymns many of them for her Sunday School class. They include “All things bright and beautiful”, “Once in royal David’s city”, “There is a green hill far away” and “Jesus calls us! O’er the tumult”.
ANTHIMUS VII – Patriarch of Constantinople [1895-1896] who succeeded Neophytus VIII [see 1891]. In 1895, he criticised the encyclical Praeclara Gratulationis Publicae of Pope Leo XIII [see 1878]. He died in Halki, Turkey. There is no additional information readily available.
BRIDGES, ROBERT [1844‑1930] – Poet who was educated at Eton and Oxford and practiced medicine until 1882 when he retired to devote himself to literature. His concern for church music led to him translating, writing, and publishing the Yattendon Hymnal in 1895 which included "Ah Holy Jesus, how hast thou offended" and “All my hope on God is founded”. He became Poet Laureate in 1913.
CASSELS, WILLIAM WHARTON [1858-1925] – Missionary, consecrated as the first bishop of Szechwan under the joint sponsorship of the Church Missionary Society and China Inland Mission. He was one of the four Cambridge undergraduates who formed the nucleus of the “Cambridge Seven” who went to China with the China Inland Mission in 1884. The other members of the group were Charles T Studd [see 1912], Dixon E Hoste, Stanley P Smith, Cecil and Arthur Polhill-Turner, and Montagu H P Beauchamp.
DUCHESNE, LOUIS MARIE OLIVIER [1843-1922] – French archaeologist and church historian. He read theology in Rome and was ordained a priest in 1867, lecturing in schools a further six years. He then served as a member of the French archaeological school of Rome [1874-1876] overseeing work in Epirus, Thessaly, Mt Athos, and Asia Minor. He returned to be the school's director in 1895, a post he held to his death. He resigned from holding the chair of church history in Paris because of opposition to his views on pre-Nicene doctrine and the founding of the French Church.
HORNER, RALPH [1853-1921] – Founder of the Holiness Movement Church in Canada. He was converted at a Methodist meeting in 1876 and began almost immediately preaching to his neighbours. After training at the Methodist seminary he embarked on an independent evangelical tent ministry. Because of mounting protests against the speaking in tongues which accompanied his preaching the Montréal Annual Conference deposed him from its ministry in 1895. He organised his followers into a Holiness Movement Church in 1895 and at a convention held the same year in Ottawa attended by evangelists from Ontario, the Western Provinces, and Quebec, he was elected bishop. He held this position until he withdrew from the Holiness Movement Church in 1916 over the interpretation of sanctification and set up another church. Both churches declined rapidly after his death.
JACKSON, SAMUEL MACAULAY [1851-1912] – American Presbyterian Church historian, educator and philanthropist. He was educated in the USA and in Germany. From 1895 to 1912 he taught church history at New York University but declined to take any salary. He devoted much of his later life to philanthropic causes.
RAMSAY, SIR WILLIAM MITCHELL [1851-1939] – Classical scholar and archaeologist who studied at Aberdeen and Oxford. During the 1880s and from 1900 to 1914 he was engaged in extensive exploration among the antiquities of Western Turkey. He was professor both at Oxford and Aberdeen, and also made important contributions to the study of the New Testament. Though he had earlier accepted the conclusions of radical German scholarship concerning the historicity of Acts, study led him to an increasingly high estimate of Paul, and Luke as a historian. His work on the New Testament served to fill in historical background for the life of Paul, establish the so-called South Galatia destination of the Epistle of Galatians, and commend the historical reliability of Luke’s writing to scholars.
STANFORD, SIR CHARLES VILLIERS [1852-1924] – British composer who was born in Ireland and studied in England and Germany. A whole generation of significant figures were at some time his pupils among them Ralph Vaughn Williams. He wrote much music of every kind, but it is his church music that has lived.
STUDENT CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT – This is the British section of the World Student Christian Federation [see below] which was founded by John Mott [see 1948] in 1895. Each national movement preserved its autonomy as a fellowship of students who desired to understand the Christian faith and live the Christian life. It was the product of several student movements in the latter part of the 19th century in which the Student Volunteer Missionary Union was of special importance. It began in Cambridge in 1892 through the inspiration of the Cambridge Seven. Many of the leaders of the modern ecumenical movement sprang from on its ranks, J.H. Oldham [see 1921], William Temple [see 1942], and N. Soderblom [see 1914]. In 1929 the Student Christian Movement Press Ltd was set up to supply students with literature at low cost.
WORLD STUDENT CHRISTIAN FEDERATION – Uniting the 40 autonomous Christian student groups, the federation was formed in Sweden in 1895. Student leaders from Scandinavia, Europe, Great Britain, the United States, and nations receiving missionaries met under the leadership of John R. Mott [see 1948] the secretary of the International Committee of the YMCA. For Mott and many others this was the culmination of a movement which had been drawing together such organisations for some years. The Student Volunteer Movement had adopted the motto “The evangelisation of the world in this generation”, and the Federation reflected this evangelistic thrust in its stated purpose, “to lead students to accept the Christian faith in God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, according to the Scriptures, and to live together as true disciples of Jesus Christ”.
BLASS, FRIEDRICH [1843‑1907] – German philologist and grammarian who taught at the universities of Kiel and Halle. He published a grammar of New Testament Greek which was a foundational for work in that area. He argued that the so called Western and non Western texts of Acts originated as different editions by Luke himself but this view has little support in the academic realm.
BOOTH, BALLINGTON [1857‑1940] – Born in Brighouse England, second son of William Booth. He founded the Volunteers of America in 1896 [see below]. This group had similar objectives as the Salvation Army but was more democratic. He was an outstanding orator, musician and leader. He was joint commander of the Salvation Army in Australia [1883‑1887] and four years later he and his wife took over the work in the United States where his evangelistic style was very popular. He became naturalised and had conflict with his father over Salvation Army discipline. He was ordered to step down which he did and left the Salvation Army forming the Volunteers of America group.
BRUCKNER, ANTON [1824‑1896] – Austrian composer and organist who in his earlier years was organist at Linz Austria where he was acclaimed for his playing. He wrote a considerable amount of church music including his famous "Te Deum" and "Moto Propio" and three great masses for soloists, chorus and orchestra.
DOWIE, JOHN ALEXANDER [1847-1907] – Faith healer and founder of the Christian Catholic Church. Born in Edinburgh and taken to Australia in 1860 by his parents, he was in business in Adelaide for seven years, then studied at Edinburgh University. Ordained as a Congregational minister in 1870 he served as pastor of churches in Alma and Sydney. In 1878 he resigned to become an evangelist and faith healer. He moved to Chicago in 1896 and founded the Christian Catholic Church, a theocracy headed by himself as ‘Elijah III, the Restorer’. By 1901 he moved his community to Illinois, and as first apostle after 1904, he ruled the theocratic community strictly and banned pork, alcohol, tobacco and drugs.
HARTZELL, JOSEPH CRANE [1842 – 1929]. – Hartzell was an American Missionary Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church who served in the United States and in Africa. He entered into ministry in 1866 and held various positions in the USA. When the retirement of Bishop William Taylor made necessary a successor, the 1896 General Conference elected Dr. Hartzell Missionary Bishop for Africa. For the next four years he travelled 70,000 miles performing the duties of his office including numerous conferences and advancement of missions throughout much of sub Saharan Africa. For his service in Africa Bishop Hartzell was made a Knight Commander of the Order for the Redemption of Africa by the Republic of Liberia. He retired in 1916. He died in 1929 as a result of injuries sustained during a robbery at his home in Blue Ash, Ohio. He was 87.
IRONSIDE, HENRY ALLEN [1876-1951] – Canadian Bible teacher and author who was never ordained but began preaching when 14 years old. After a time as a Salvation Army officer he joined the Plymouth Brethren in 1896. For over 50 years he travelled widely as a missionary, evangelist, and Bible teacher. After 1924 he held meetings under the auspices of Moody Bible Institute, was visiting professor at Dallas Theological Seminary [1925-1943], and pastor of Moody Memorial Church, Chigago [1930-1948]. He was the author of over 60 books.
MOFFATT, JAMES [1870-1944] – Bible translator born and educated in Glasgow and was ordained in the Free Church of Scotland in 1896. He became professor of Greek and New Testament exegesis at Mansfield College Oxford in 1911 and went on to the United Free Church college in 1915 to teach church history for 12 years and then went to New York and taught church history in the Union Theology Seminary. His fame rests on the single-handed translation of the entire Bible. The New Testament was published in 1913 and the Old in 1924 and is known as the Moffatt Bible. It was the first unofficial translation to acquire widespread readership and popularity.
PROBST, FERDINAND [1816-1899] – German liturgical scholar who was educated at Tubingen and ordained into the Roman Catholic Church in 1840. Probst became a parish priest and later professor of pastoral theology at Breslau in 1864 and finally dean of Breslau Cathedral in 1896. He was a prolific writer though few if any of his works have been translated English.
RIZAL, JOSE [1861-1896] – Filipino physician and political writer who studied in various European universities where he was influenced by Masonry and theological and political liberalism. His parents were turned off their land by Dominican friars. He wrote much propaganda against the tyrannical Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines and against the corruption of the friars. He was strongly critical of much traditional Roman dogma which he regarded as superstition. He was branded a revolutionary and first exiled and later shot by a Spanish firing squad. His death was used by revolutionary leaders to arouse Filipino fury. Various cults worship him as a “Second Christ” and even look for his return.
SHELDON, CHARLES MONROE [1857-1946] – Congregational minister and writer who studied at Andover Theological Seminary and was ordained into the Congregational Church in 1886. He is best known as the author of "In His Steps" published in 1896 which became a religious bestseller because it poignantly challenged Christians to base their behaviour on the answer to the question "What would Jesus do". Because Sheldon never copyrighted the work numerous publishers printed it. He was also editor-in-chief of "Christian Herald" from 1920 to 1925.
SPEER, ROBERT ELLIOTT [1867-1947] – Secretary of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, a post he held for 46 years. As one of the early Student Volunteers he travelled for a year for the movement. After becoming mission secretary he made six extended visits to the fields, four to Asia and two to Latin America. A prolific writer he authored 67 books mainly on missions. In 1927 he became the second layman to be elected moderator of the Presbyterian Church in the USA.
STUDENT VOLUNTEER MOVEMENT – The movement was dedicated to enlisting Christian college students for foreign missions. It originated in a summer Bible study conference in 1886 at Mount Hermon Massachusetts called by the YMCA and presided over by D.L. Moody. Students like Robert P. Wilder [see 1892] aroused concern for missions and before the conference ended 100 had signified their intent of becoming missionaries. The following school year Wilder and another toured other schools to stimulate more interest. In 1888 the movement was organised formally with John R. Mott [see 1948] one of the original hundred, as chairman, a position he held for 30 years. The movement was at its height in 1920 when nearly 7000 attended the meeting at Des Moines Iowa. During its lifetime the Student Volunteer Movement saw more than 20,000 of its members become foreign missionaries.
SUNDAY, WILLIAM (Billy) ASHLEY [1862-1935] – American evangelist who was a professional baseball player and worked between seasons as a fireman on the Chicago and North-western Railroad. He experienced evangelical conversion through the Pacific Garden Mission in 1886. He became assistant secretary of the Chicago YMCA and helped J. Wilbur Chapman [see 1882] in mass evangelism for two years. From 1896 he worked independently combining superb organisation with sensational preaching. His campaigns was held in many American cities and conducted in huge wooden tabernacles. Thousands of church members were recruited to assist in the running of campaigns and the churches were closed for the duration. Sunday developed a preaching style which combined crude humour with florid rhetoric. Nevertheless he called for a down-to-earth commitment to Christ and was strongly fundamentalist in theology and opposed evolution and advocated temperance.
TEMPLE, FREDERICK – Archbishop of Canterbury [1896-1902]. He was born in Santa Maura, one of the Ionian Islands, the son of Major Octavius Temple, who was subsequently appointed lieutenant-governor of Sierra Leone. On his retirement, Major Temple settled in Devon and contemplated a farming life for his son Frederick, giving him a practical training to that end. The boy was sent to Blundell's School, Tiverton and won a Blundell scholarship at Balliol College, Oxford, before he was seventeen. In 1842 he took a double first and was elected fellow of Balliol, and lecturer in mathematics and logic. Four years later he was ordained, and, with the aim of improving the education of the very poor, he accepted the headship of Kneller Hall, a college founded by the government for the training of masters of workhouses and penal schools. The experiment was not successful, and Temple himself advised its abandonment in 1855. He then accepted a job as a school inspector which he held until he went to teach at Rugby in 1858. In the meantime he had attracted the admiration of the Prince Albert, and in 1856 he was appointed chaplain-in-ordinary to Queen Victoria. The following year he was selected preacher at his university.
At Rugby, Temple strengthened the school's academic reputation in the classics, but also instituted scholarships in natural science, built a laboratory, and recognised the importance of these subjects. He reformed the sporting activities, in spite of all the traditions of the playing fields. His own tremendous powers of work and rough manner intimidated the pupils, but he soon became popular, and raised the school's reputation. His school sermons made a deep impression on the boys, teaching loyalty, faith and duty. In politics Temple was a follower of Gladstone, and he approved of the disestablishment of the Irish Church. He also wrote and spoke in favour of the Elementary Education Act (1870) of William Edward Forster, and was an active member of the Endowed Schools Commission. In 1869 Gladstone offered him the deanery of Durham, but he declined because he wanted to stay at Rugby. When later in the same year, however Henry Phillpotts, bishop of Exeter, died, the prime minister turned again to Temple, and he accepted the bishopric of the city he knew so well. The appointment caused a fresh controversy but his real kindness soon made itself felt, and, during the sixteen years of his tenure, he overcame the prejudices against him, so that when, on the death of Dr John Jackson in 1885, he was translated to London. Dr Temple's tenancy of the bishopric of London saw him working harder than ever. His normal working day at this time was one of fourteen or fifteen hours, though under the strain blindness was rapidly coming on. Many of his clergy and candidates for ordination thought him a rather terrifying person, enforcing almost impossible standards of diligence, accuracy and preaching efficiency, but his manifest devotion to his work and his zeal for the good of the people won him general confidence. In London he continued as a tireless temperance worker, and the working class instinctively recognised him as their friend. When, in view of his growing blindness, he offered to resign the bishopric, he was urged to reconsider his proposal, and on the sudden death of Archbishop Benson in 1896, though now seventy-six years of age, he accepted the see of Canterbury.
As archbishop he presided in 1897 over the decennial Lambeth Conference. In the same year Dr Temple and the archbishop of York issued a joint response to an encyclical of the pope which denied the validity of Anglican orders. In 1900 the archbishops again acted together, when an appeal was addressed to them by the united episcopate, to decide the questions of the use of incense in divine service and of the reservation of the elements. After hearing the arguments they decided against both the practices in question. He was zealous also in the cause of foreign missions, and in a sermon preached at the opening of the new century he urged that a supreme obligation rested upon Britain at this epoch in the world's history to seek to evangelise all nations. In 1900 he presided over the World Temperance Congress in London, and on one occasion preached in the interests of women's education. In 1902 he discharged the important duties of his office at the coronation of King Edward VII, but the strain at his advanced age told upon his health. During a speech which he delivered in the House of Lords on December 2, 1902 on the Education Bill of that year, he was taken ill, and, though he revived sufficiently to finish his speech, he never fully recovered, and died on December 23 1902. His second son, William Temple, became archbishop of Canterbury some years later. He succeeded Edward White Benson [see 1883] and was succeeded by Randall Thomas Davidson [see 1903].
VOLUNTEERS OF AMERICA – An evangelical social welfare organisation founded in 1896 in New York by Barrington Booth son of Salvation Army leader William Booth. It retained the quasi military character of the Salvation Army. The volunteers hold nondenominational Protestant services and Bible classes, distribute Christian literature, comfort the aged in hospitals, and serve prisoners through the Volunteer Prisoners League. By the 1970s they were dispensing social and material aid to over two million people annually and had a membership of 33,000
WARNECK, GUSTAV [1834-1910] – Founder of the science of the study of missions who was first a pastor and then an official of the Barmen [Rhine] Mission [1871-1877]. He initiated the practice of holding regular mission conferences in German churches and was the first professor of missiology in Germany at Halle [1896-1908]. In 1888 Warneck published a paper calling for the 10 year general missionary conferences supported by a continuing central committee which would co-ordinate Protestant missionary activity. This vision which was finally realised with the Edinburgh Conference of 1910 and the formation of the International Missionary Council in 1921.
BEDERWOLF, WILLIAM [1867‑1939] – American Presbyterian evangelist who was director of Winona Lake Bible School of Theology. He was ordained in 1897.
BRAHMS, JOHANNES [1833‑1897] – German composer born in Hamburg but later like Beethoven settled in Vienna where he was active as a composer and choral conductor. He was one of the first to seek to perform the cantatas of Bach [see1723] in an authentic manner. His German Requiem, perhaps the greatest choral work of the 19th century has its words taken from the German Bible and have no relation to the Roman Catholic Requiem Mass. Brahms died in 1897.
CHERRY, EDITH GILLING [1872 -1897] – English Poetess, Edith Gilling Cherry was stricken with polio in infancy, and for the rest of her brief life she walked with the aid of crutches. Most of her poems were written before she was 15 years old. She was a deeply spiritual young woman, ever conscious of her spiritual failings. Edith Cherry gave the glory to God for her rich and insightful poetry. When she lay dying, after suffering a stroke, she said, “It all seems so small, all I have tried to do, so small to Him.” Her mother answered, “There are your songs, dear, they will carry on your work.” But Edith quickly replied, “Ah, but they were not mine at all, they were just given to me all ready, and all I had to do was write them down.” Her beautiful hymn, “We Rest on Thee our Shield and our Defender”, was sung on January 8th, 1956, by the five missionaries about to make contact with the Auca Indians of Ecuador. Shortly afterward, they were all martyred. Elisabeth Elliot, wife of Jim Elliot, one of the five, drew the title for her book, Through Gates of Splendour, from a line of Edith Cherry’s hymn.
CONSTANTINE V – Patriarch of Constantinople [1897-1901] who succeeded Anthimus VII [see 1895]. His secular name was Constantinos Valiadis and he was born in Vessa, on the island of Chios. There is no additional information readily available.
CREIGHTON, MANDELL [1843-1901] – Bishop of London and historian. In 1884 he became Dixie professor of ecclesiastical history at Cambridge. He became bishop of London in 1897. His writing included his unfinished History of the Papacy.
DAMIANUS – Patriarch of Jerusalem [1897-1931] see 1891 and 1931. In 1918 Britain occupied Jerusalem.
DENNY, JAMES [1856-1917] – Scottish theologian who was educated at Glasgow University and was trained in theology at the Free Church College in that city. In 1886 he became minister of the East Church, Broughty Ferry. During his 11 years there he published commentaries on Thessalonians and Second Corinthians. In 1897 he took the chair of systematic theology at his former college transferring to the New Testament department in 1900. Denny was also a strong supporter of temperance and civic righteousness.
FOSTER, GEORGE BURMAN [1858-1918] – American Baptist scholar who taught at the McMaster University before becoming one of the early members of the Chicago School of Theology, where he was named professor of systematic theology in 1897, and of the philosophy of religion in 1905. For his views on the relationship between Christianity and such subjects as Darwinian evolution, comparative religion, and relativistic physics, he was excommunicated by fellow Baptists in the Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy of the early 20th century. He even wrestled with the “death of God” concept despite criticism from conservatives.
HAGUE, DYSON [1857-1935] – Clergyman, educator, and author, who was educated at the University of Toronto and ordained in 1883. In 1897 he became professor of apologetics and pastoral theology at Wycliffe College. He wrote a series of books.
MACKINTOSH, HUGH ROSS [1870-1936] – Scottish theologian who was educated at Edinburgh, Freiburg, Halle, and Marburg and ordained to the ministry of the Free Church of Scotland in 1897. Professor of systematic theology at New College in Edinburgh [1904-1936] he was regarded as a liberal evangelical. He was the author of a number of books.
OXYRHYNCHUS PAPYRI – In 1897 and thereafter numerous fragments of Greek papyri were discovered at Oxyrhynchus, one of the chief cities of ancient Egypt, by two archaeologists B.P. Grenfell and A.S. Hunt. The most important finds were three collections of the sayings of Jesus.
SMITH, JOHN TAYLOR [1860-1937] – Bishop and chaplain general who was converted at the age of 11. Smith was educated at St John's Hall Highbury and sailed in 1891 to Sierra Leone as canon missionary becoming bishop in 1897. An honorary chaplain to Queen Victoria he was appointed chaplain general in time for World War I. He was called "Everybody's Bishop" and was jovial, rotund, saintly, and a constant helper of the Children's Special Service Mission and the Keswick Convention. Early rising for prayer, reading, and physical exercise was his lifelong custom. He believed in and relied upon God's minute ordering of his life. He died aboard ship in the Mediterranean and was buried at sea.
WILKES, PAGET [1871-1934] – Missionary to Japan who was a son of an Anglican clergyman and educated Oxford. Wilkes sailed to serve in Japan under the Church Missionary Society in 1897. He felt unduly restricted by orthodox Anglicanism and founded the interdenominational Japan Evangelistic Band, pledged to aggressive evangelism and the distinctive holiness doctrines associated with the Keswick Convention movement. The whole of Wilkes active life was spent in Japan but his name became widely known through his books. When he did visit England he went to Oxford and Cambridge and strongly urged students to offer for missionary service.
ACTION FRANCAISE is the name of the political league and its journal founded in 1898 as a result of the Dreyfus affair and with the purpose of restoring the monarchy in France. It attracted many Roman Catholic students, but public condemnation in 1926 spelled the eventual end of the group.
BESANT ANNIE [1847‑1933] – British theosophist and educator who married Rev Frank Besant but this ended in divorce six years later. She moved successively from Anglican, atheist, spiritualist, through to theosophist. She founded a number of educational institutes in India such as the Central Hindu College of Benares in 1898 and the University of India in 1907. She returned to India in 1889 and spent most of the rest of her life there. She finally announced that she had adopted an Indian son as the Messiah and became the president of the Theosophical Society upon the death of its founder Madam Helena Blavatsky.
CLARKE, WILLIAM NEWTON [1841-1912] – American liberal Baptist whose combination of Christian theology and evolutionary thinking is best expressed in his major work “An Outline of Christian Theology” in 1898, the first theology of liberalism in America.
DOUKHOBORS – A group of so-called spiritual rationalist Christians which arose in Russia some time before the late 18th century when its members first appeared as the objects of persecution. The name "spirit wrestlers" originally intended by their enemies to suggest strife against the Holy Spirit, was taken by them to designate striving by means of the spirit. Christian doctrines were interpreted by them as manifested in the nature of man. The Trinity is ‘light, life, and peace’ with which each man may be linked by ‘memory, understanding, and will’. The story of Jesus symbolises a spiritual development which anyone can undergo. Doukhobors were fiercely persecuted from the start. Tolstoy and English Quakers publicised their plight and arranged immigration to Canada in 1898. They also conflicted with authority in Canada with rows over land ownership, and registration of births, deaths, and marriages. In protest extremist sections of the group resorted to parading naked and to arson and dynamiting. The majority however have come to compromise with the authorities buying their land in the prairies and in British Columbia. Many who remained in the Soviet union were liquidated by Stalin.
DWAYNE, JAMES MATA [1848-1916] – South African independent church leader born of heathen parents he entered the Wesleyan Methodist ministry in 1875 and seceded in 1895 to the Independent Ethiopian church. In 1896 he visited the United States to arrange a union with the African Methodist Episcopal Church and was consecrated vicar bishop in 1898. Because of the difficulties with the American Negro control in the church he was convinced that his orders were invalid and requested Anglican ordination for his clergy. In 1900 the Anglican bishops agreed to constitute the Order of Ethiopia within the Church of the Province. He was ordained deacon in 1900, a priest in 1911 and held office as provincial of the order with one break until his death.
GIDEONS INTERNATIONAL – An association of Christian business and professional men that grew out of a meeting between John Nicholson and Samuel Hill in Central Hotel Boscobel Wisconsin in 1898. Participating in the evening devotions they discovered they shared a common Christian faith. The next year, with W.J. Knights, they organised an association of Christian travelling men, called the Gideons. From this beginning the membership has grown to more than 42,000 in 90 countries by the mid-70s. The work is supported primarily by voluntary offerings received in local churches. By 1971 more than 11 million Bibles and 91 million new Testaments in some 32 languages had been distributed.
KITTEL, RUDOLF [1853-1929] – German Old Testament scholar who studied at Tubingen and where in 1881 his prize criticism of J. Wellhausen [see 1892] impressed C.F.A. Dillmann of Berlin whose Old Testament handbook he was later to edit and whose commentary on Isaiah he revised. He became professor of biblical theology at Leipzig in 1898 until his retirement in 1924. He was a prolific author.
NESTLE, EBERHARD [1851-1913] – German biblical scholar and textural critic. He held several professorships and did a considerable amount of work on the text of the Septuagint, but it is for his edition of the Greek New Testament that he is best known today. First published in 1898 by the Wurttemberg Bible Society it has gone through numerous editions and is the standard text used by the majority of theological students and teachers, especially in Germany.
RASHDALL, HASTINGS [1858-1924] – Anglican moral philosopher and theologian educated at Oxford where he later taught philosophy. An advanced liberal and moderate High Churchman Rashdall tried to revive the inspiration of the Cambridge Platonists [see 1640] in the Anglican Church of his time. He was vice president of the Modern Churchman’s Union from its foundation in 1898.
SCHLATTER, ADOLF VON [1852-1938] – Swiss New Testament scholar who studied theology at Basle and Tubingen. After a pastorate in Switzerland he became professor of the New Testament at a series of universities eventually in 1898 holding that position at Tubingen where he remained until his retirement in 1922. He was ecumenical in outlook and concerned to mediate between the liberals and Pietists. In his specific studies on the New Testament books he was one of the few to break with the trend of his times to continue support for the priority of Matthew.
BENDER, CARL [1869‑1935] – German born American Baptist missionary pioneer who emigrated to America at the age of 12. He was appointed to the Cameroons in West Africa under the Berlin based German Baptist Mission serving first at Doula. In Cameroon, which at that time was German colony, he founded a school, missionary rest station, and twenty four outstations in the Soppo district. The Benders were the only German missionaries allowed to remain in Cameroon during the First World War. When he left in 1919 the work was in indigenous hands. After pastoring in the United States he returned to Soppo where he supervised reconstruction until his death.
FROST, HENRY WESTERN [1858-1945] – Mission director. Frost as a young man joined his father in oil production. He was encouraged by his wife into an active Christian life and in the desire to evangelise and experience missionary outreach. He founded the North American branch of the China Inland Mission and served as its director for over 40 years. Presbyterian, pre-Millennial, and active in the Bible Conference Movement, Frost wrote numerous pamphlets and a dozen volumes on devotional, doctrinal and missionary subjects.
The LIEBENZELL MISSION is a cluster of like-minded Evangelical mission organizations in Austria, Canada, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States which was founded in 1899. With roots in German Pietism, their missionaries are involved in Bible translation, church planting, education, evangelism, pastoral ministry, media outreach, pastoral formation, medical care, and community development in 26 countries. There are about 220 missionaries. Liebenzell Germany is the largest of the organizations. They have a seminary, a brother and sisterhood, a fellowship of deaconesses, a large retreat centre, and a literature distribution ministry headquartered in Bad Liebenzell. Pacific Islands Bible College on Guam and in Micronesia was founded by and is still staffed by Liebenzell missionaries.
MELETIUS II Patriarch of Antioch [1899-1906] see also 1892 and 1906
JOHANSSON, GUSTAF [1844-1930] – Archbishop of Finland who after a career as a professor at the University of Helsinki and to two bishoprics became primate of Finland. His literary production was large and included a volume on dogmatics and publications of justification and on the Church of Finland. Chairman of the committee for a new translation of the Bible, he worked also towards a new church hymnal and catechism. As a conservative Johansson opposed the liberal movement especially the 1925 Stockholm conference chaired by Archbishop Nathan Soderblom of Sweden. According to Johansson the ecumenical trend was a great danger to the church because it opened the door to syncretism and co-operation with liberal theologians. He was a disciple of J.T. Beck [see 1836], whose Biblicism he tried to follow. He has had a significant effect on Christianity in Finland.
MOORE, GEORGE FOOT [1851-1931] – American Old Testament scholar educated at Yale and Tubingen in Germany. He became minister of a Presbyterian Church in Ohio in 1878 and then became professor of Hebrew literature and lectured in the history of religions at Andover Theological Seminary of which he became president in 1899. He then went to Harvard.
CAVEN, WILLIAM [1830-1904] – Canadian Presbyterian leader, then strongly ecumenical, president of the Pan Presbyterian Alliance [1900-1904], who was an architect of the future United Church of Canada. Union with the Church of Scotland forming the Presbyterian Church of Canada came about when he was moderator of the general assembly in 1875.
CHINA – By 1900 there were 500,000 Catholic and 75,000 Protestants. In 1900 with the Boxer Uprising 181 missionaries and 49,000 Chinese Christians were killed. The Uprising was put down and China now entered into a 25 year period of change for which Christianity had paved the way with the leaders including the first president Dr Sun Yat-sen being the product of Christian schools. The period before the First World War was one of unprecedented prosperity for missions with further expansion in education and health.
The Chinese Communist Party was founded in 1921 after the Chinese government had been shunned in favour of the Japanese after World War I. In 1927 there were 8,500 missionaries in China but this dropped to 3,000 due to the war and communists and finally all missionaries withdrew from the mainland in 1950-51. It is thought however that the Christian underground church today is very strong in numbers [back see 1866].
FEGAN, JAMES WILLIAM CONDELL [1852-1925] – English philanthropist. Converted at 17 as he read the epistle to the Romans he was involved in Ragged School work in London. At 21 he gave up a commercial career to rescue and care of children. His first home for boys was at Deptford. Boys were trained in farming and encouraged to go to Canada, and by 1980 some 3000 had emigrated. Mr. Fagan's Homes was established at Stoney Stratford in 1900 and Goudhurst in 1912. The mission still survives today with family homes for boys and girls in south east England.
GOODSPEED, EDGAR JOHNSON [1871-1962] – New Testament scholar. He taught biblical and patristic Greek at Chicago University from around 1900 to 1937. He pioneered in collating New Testament manuscripts and in the study of Greek papyri in America. He wrote over 60 books during his career. He was an original member of the committee that produced the Revised Standard Version of the New Testament in 1946.
LEPSIUS, JOHANNES [1858-1926] – Founder of the German Orient Mission. Son of a noted Egyptologist his acquaintance with the East began as a child. A Lutheran pastor, he was deeply moved by the Armenian massacres of 1894-1895 and in 1895 established a German relief organisation to Armenia which soon consisted of orphanages, medical clinics, and a carpet factory to provide employment. In 1900 Lepsius transformed this into the German Orient Mission and endeavoured to evangelise Muslims but with little success. It lost most of its property in World War I but eventually was taken over by the Berlin Mission in 1937.
PHOTIUS Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria [1900-1925] see 1870 and 1926
TORREY, CHARLES CUTLER [1863-1956] – American linguist who specialised in Old Testament Aramaic, Apocrypha, and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, as well as the Aramaic background of the New Testament and later Islam. He taught at Andover Seminary and was professor of Semitic languages at Yale University from 1900. His critical reconstructions of various Old Testament books and theories regarding alleged Aramaic originals of large portions of New Testament found little acceptance among scholars.
UNITED FREE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND – This body was formed in 1900 by the union of the majority of the Free Church of Scotland and the United Presbyterian Church. In 1929 the United Free Church united with the Church of Scotland to bring into being a church which had about 80% of the churchgoing population of Scotland.