Evangelical bible college of western australia a church age chronology

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1881-1890 AD


ARNOT, FREDERICK STANLEY [1858‑1914] – Scottish Brethren missionary who was acquainted with the family of David Livingstone [see 1841] and wanted to follow his example. He set out for Africa in 1881 making his way from Durham to the Zambezi. He suffered a lot from malaria and dysentery. He was the foremost architect of Brethren missionary work in Central Africa establishing a number of missionary stations including those in Zambia, Benguela, and Katanga.
BIBLE VERSIONS – Revised section listed in order [for King James section see 1611 for twentieth century see 1952]
1881. English Revised Version of the New Testament is published, immediately followed by the innovative Greek New Testament of Westcott and Hort.

1883. Dean Burgon leads strong conservative attack on the English Revised Version and against all critical Greek texts. The new version is eventually refused by the British churches.

1885. English Revised Version of the Old Testament.

1890. J.N. Darby's English Old Testament.

1895. Elizabeth Stanton's Woman's Bible repudiates Biblical teaching on woman's place.

1898. Eberhard Nestle's Greek New Testament.

1901. American Standard Version.

1903. First edition of Weymouth's New Testament (modern English version).

1904. Twentieth Century New Testament (modern English version).

1909. First edition of Scofield Reference Bible.

1913. Von Soden's Greek New Testament.

Moffat New Testament (popular paraphrase).

1917. Improved edition of Scofield Reference Bible.

1928. Moffat Bible published with Old Testament.

1935. Moffat Bible revised.

1946. Revised Standard version of the New Testament published with great fanfare.

1947. Dead Sea Scrolls (dated c. 150 B.C. to A.D. 75) discovered in Qumran.
CHRISTIAN AND MISSIONARY ALLIANCE – Founded by A R SIMPSON [1844-1919] in 1881, the name of the group was given to them in 1887. Predominantly in North America the C&MA has groups in some 40 countries on six continents. The movement have over 5,000 indigenous ministers and around 1,000 missionaries serving outside their home countries.
CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOUR SOCIETY was the first widespread non denominational youth organisation in American churches and was set up by Pastor Francis CLARK [1851-1927] in January 1881. Though many denominations subsequently set up their own youth organisations, in 1960 CE could claim 3 million members. The organisation encourages young people to confess Christ and to serve Him in fellowship with other young people in the Church. Francis Clark became its first President in 1887 and served it for the remainder of his life making five world trips for this youth work.
FRANSON, FREDRIK [1852-1908] – Evangelist and founder of the Evangelical Alliance Mission. Born in Sweden he migrated to America in 1869 and was influenced by Moody to become an evangelist to Swedish immigrants. He was ordained in 1881 and engaged in successful evangelism in Scandinavia and Germany until 1890 when he led in the founding of the Scandinavian Alliance Mission which has been known as the Evangelical Alliance Mission since 1949. He was its general director from 1896 until his death. He stressed Christ's second coming in his evangelistic messages.
HORT, FRENTON JOHN ANTHONY [1828-1892] – New Testament critic and biblical scholar. With B. F. Westcott [see 1851] he edited an edition of the Greek New Testament in 1881 which formed the basis of the English Revised Version and which set the pattern for nearly all future editions of the Greek text. The 57 page introduction by Hort set out the basic elements of the science of textual criticism which remain, in all essentials, valid to the present. With his friends Westcott and J.B. Lightfoot [see 1879] he planned to write a complete commentary on the New Testament. He was responsible for the synoptic gospels, Acts, the general epistles and the Apocalypse. Due to a tendency towards perfectionism he published little. He is generally regarded as the greatest of these three Cambridge scholars.
PLUMTRE, EDWARD HAYES [1821-1891] – Theological writer, classical scholar and poet educated at Oxford and subsequently held the chair of pastoral theology at King’s College London. In later years he held pastoral offices in Kent and in 1881 became the dean of Wells. He enjoyed a high reputation for classical learning and helped in the translation of the Revised Version of the Bible and contributed commentaries to various series.
UCHIMURA, KANZO [1861-1930] – He was the founder of the Japanese non-church movement. He was won to Christianity by the zealous evangelism of students of Dr W.S. Clark [see 1876]. Under Uchimura’s leadership the “Sapporo Band” became the first independent Japanese church in 1881. He is best known as founder and exponent of nondenominational Japanese Christianity and his greatest legacy was a 22 volume Bible commentary, the fruit of his love, the study of the Bible.
WASHINGTON, BOOKER TALIAFERRO [1856-1915] – Negro educator who was the son of a slave mother and white father. Washington was educated at Hampton Institute where he came to believe that only training produces income and virtue for his fellow Negroes. He was called in 1881 to organise Tuskegee Institute in Alabama as a school for Negroes. He grew more convinced that manual training unlike high school education, would prevent Negroes from learning but would provide jobs which would not be offensive to whites. At the Atlanta Exposition of 1895 he further pleased whites by declaring that Negroes were interested in hard work, not social advancement. Whatever the merits of his ideas he was the leading spokesman for the Negroes of his day.


ANDERSON, SIR ROBERT [1841‑1918] – Irish lay theologian and Bible teacher whose works centred on apologetics and bible prophecy. A dispensationalist, he taught the difference for the Church between the Pauline Epistles and the Gospels. Chief of New Scotland Yard [1888‑1901] Anderson wrote many books including "The Coming Prince" in 1882 and "The Bible and Modern Criticism" in 1902.
BLANCHARD, CHARLES ALBERT [1848‑1925] – President of Wheaton College [1882‑1925]. He graduated from the college which he was to supervise in the time when his father Jonathon was president .When called to succeed him Charles already had ten years of association with it. He maintained the conservative evangelical character of the institution while he was also pastoring the Moody Memorial Church in Chicago.
CARLILE, WILSON [1847-1942] – Founder of the Church Army. A businessman who was almost ruined in 1873 which focused him on the meaning of his conversion. He became a great evangelist presenting the gospel skilfully especially in open air and after-church venues. He trained lay preachers which led in this year to the foundation of the Church Army.
COOK, DAVID CALEB [1850-1927] – American Sunday School leader who entered business as a sewing machine salesman and developed a prosperous mail order business. Involvement with several Sunday Schools led him to give up secular work and dedicate himself to the publication of Sunday School material. He opened the existing publishing house in Elgin in 1882.
GLADDEN, WASHINGTON [1836-1918] – Liberal theologian and exponent of the Social Gospel. He served churches in New York and Massachusetts [1860-1888]. His main pastorate was at the First Congregational, Columbus Ohio from 1882-1914. He applied Christ’s teaching to social problems, upheld the right of unions, and favoured profit-sharing and industrial arbitration.
HANNINGTON, JAMES [1847-1885] – Anglican missionary to East Africa. Born in Sussex he was educated at Brighton and then entered business and the army. He trained at Oxford for the Anglican ministry and was ordained in 1874. In 1882 he offered to the Church Mission Society and was appointed to Uganda. He reached Lake Victoria on his way out, but was forced to return to England suffering from malaria and dysentery. He was consecrated the first bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa in 1884 and in 1885 reached Mombasa. After superintending the work at Freretown near Mombasa he set off on foot for Uganda but was arrested and later killed on the orders of Mwanga the Kabaka of the Baganda.
INTERNATIONAL BIBLE READING ASSOCIATION – A movement to encourage personal bible study. It was founded in 1882 by the National Sunday School Union under the inspiration of Charles Waters, a bank manager and a member of C.H. Spurgeon's congregation at the Metropolitan Tabernacle. Waters became the first secretary. It first used a scheme of Bible Reading related to International Sunday School Lessons. In three years the membership rose to 100,000 and by 1900 it had reached 750,000. The movement spread to Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the United States of America, and many other countries. Expansion overseas has continued both in association with missionary societies and independently such as in Nigeria in 1971.
MYERS, FREDERIC WILLIAM HENRY [1843-1901] – English writer and psychical researcher educated at Cambridge where he taught classics until he became a school inspector in 1872. In 1882 he became the co-founder of the Society of Psychical Research and made the first deep studies of the relations between hallucination, hypnotism, and mediumship. As a result of his great desire to put religion on an empirical basis Meyers drifted slowly away from his early faith in Christ.
NICODEMUS Patriarch of Jerusalem [1882-1890] see 1875 and 1891
OWENS, PRISCILLA JANE [1829-1907] – She was an American song writer and teacher, born in Baltimore, Maryland, she was of Welsh and Scottish descent. Her hymn “Will your anchor hold in the storms of life” is the official hymn of The Boys’ Brigade. For more than fifty years she was active in Sunday School work in her home town at the Union Square Methodist Episcopal Church, and most of her hymns and songs were written for Sunday School children. Another well known hymn is “We have heard the joyful sound; Jesus saves”
PIGOTT, JEAN SOPHIA [1845-1882] – Little is known today of Irish poetess and hymn writer Jean Sophia Pigott. We know her brother Thomas was a missionary in China, and that he was killed in the Boxer Rebellion in 1901. Jean Pigott wrote a number of hymns, but only one is still in common use, the beautiful “Jesus, I Am Resting, Resting”. She died October 12, 1882 at Leixlip, Lucan, County Kildare, Ireland at the early age of 37
PRUITT, CICERO WASHINGTON (1857–1946) – He was among the first Southern Baptist missionaries to Northern China. He was ordained as a Southern Baptist minister at the age of 14 and began his evangelical work by preaching to Native Americans in Georgia. Later he attended the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Kentucky. He appears to have followed the ideals of Hudson Taylor's China Inland Mission, dressing like the Chinese, learning the language and following Chinese customs. In 1882, he travelled to China as a missionary and was stationed in Huangxian in North China, where he met his first wife, Ida Tiffany; she died two years later. Later he married Anna Seward Pruitt and they opened a school for boys that subsequently merged with the Carter School for Girls and Bush Theological Seminary, and became the North China Baptist College. They along with William and Effie Sears and Laura Barton were the only missionaries that remained loyal to Lottie Moon during a doctrinal dispute with Tarleton Perry Crawford that led to dividing the Southern Baptist North China Mission. Crawford believed missionaries should be self-supporting, but received criticism for spending excessive amounts of time in subsequent business ventures. Crawford brought along most of the North China Southern Baptist missionaries in starting his own mission named Gospel Mission. Pruitt considered his greatest achievement to be the translation of his influential teacher John Broadus' Commentary on Gospel of Matthew from English into Chinese.
SCOTT, CLARA [1841-1897]. – Clara Scott was born in Illinois and attended, in 1856, the first Music Institute held in Chicago, by C. M. Cady. She went on to teach music at the Ladies Seminary, Lyons, Iowa (1859). She married Henry Clay Scott in 1861. In 1882, she published the “Royal Anthem Book”, the first volume of anthems published by a woman. Scott met and was greatly encouraged by Horatio Palmer, who helped publish many of her songs. Her most famous hymn was “Open my eyes that I may see” She issued three collections of hymns before her untimely death when she was thrown from a buggy by a runaway horse.


BEACH, HARLAN PAGE [1854‑1933] – Congregational missionary who graduated from Yale in 1878 and was sent by the American Board of Foreign Missions to Tung Chou China in 1883. Here he developed a form of shorthand for the Mandarin language. He had to return home due to his wife’s ill health in 1890 but was continually interested in missions. His most important works was the production of the "World Missionary Atlas" in 1925.
BENSON, EDWARD WHITE – Archbishop of Canterbury [1883-1896]. He was born in Highgate, Birmingham, the son of a Birmingham chemical manufacturer. He was educated at King Edward's School, Birmingham and Trinity College, Cambridge. Benson began his career as a schoolmaster at Rugby School in 1852, and was ordained deacon in 1852 and priest in 1857. In 1859 Benson was chosen by Prince Albert as the headmaster of Wellington College, Berkshire, which had been built as the nation's memorial to the Duke of Wellington. He was largely responsible for establishing Wellington as a great English public school, closely modelled on Rugby School, rather than the military academy originally planned. Benson is best remembered for devising the Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols, an order first used in Truro Cathedral on Christmas Eve 1880, a service format that is now used every Christmas around the world. Benson and his wife had six children. None of the children married, and some of them appeared to suffer from mental illnesses, probably bipolar disorder. Benson died from cardiovascular disease in 1896. He succeeded Archibald Campbell Tate [see 1868] and was succeeded by Frederick Temple [see 1896].
BONAR, HORATIUS [1808‑1889] – Pastor, Author and Hymn Writer. He was born and educated in Edinburgh coming from a long line of ministers who had served a total of 364 years in the Church of Scotland. One of eleven children, his brothers John, James and Andrew Alexander were also ministers of the Free Church of Scotland. He married Jane Catherine Lundie in 1843 and five of their young children died in succession. Towards the end of their lives, one of their surviving daughters was left a widow with five small children and she returned to live with her parents. In 1853 Bonar earned the Doctor of Divinity degree at the University of Aberdeen. He entered the Ministry of the Church of Scotland at first being put in charge of mission work at St. John's parish in Leith and settled at Kelso. He joined the Free Church at the time of the Disruption of 1843, and in 1867 was moved to Edinburgh to take over the Chalmers Memorial Church. In 1883 he was elected Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. He was a prolific author including in 1884 "The Life and Works of the Rev. G. T. Dodds", who had been married to Bonar's daughter and who had died in 1882 while serving as a missionary in France. His hymns include: “Fill thou my life, O Lord, my God”, “I heard the Voice of Jesus say” and “Thy way, not mine, O Lord”

BRYENNIOS, PHILOTHEOS [1833‑1914] – Greek Orthodox theologian who was born to poor parents and educated at Halki in Constantinople and in Germany. In 1861 he became a professor at Halki. He was an Orthodox representative at the Bonn Conference of 1874. He is famous for the publishing of the "Didache of the Twelve Apostles" in 1883 from a manuscript from 1056 which was housed in the residence for the visiting patriarch of Jerusalem in Constantinople.

BUDDE, KARLE [1850‑1933] – German Protestant Bible scholar who continued to criticise the O.T. following procedures laid down by his friend Wellhausen.
DRIVER, SAMUEL ROLLES [1846-1914] – Old Testament scholar who was educated at Winchester and Oxford. Driver was connected with the University of Oxford all his working life succeeding E. B. Pusey in the chair of Hebrew [1883-1914]. He was influenced by the critical approach to the Old Testament of German scholars and did much to publicise their views in his teaching and writing.
KAFTAN, JULIUS WILHELM MARTIN [1848-1926] – German Protestant theologian educated at Berlin and later taught at the University of Berlin from 1883. He stressed personal religious experience and the historical revelation of Christ. The Atonement was interpreted in mystical and ethical categories, rejecting any idea of satisfaction or need for God's reconciliation with man (rather than the reverse).
LAGRANGE, MARIE JOSEPH [1855-1938] – French Roman Catholic scholar who studied in Paris and Vienna. He was ordained in 1883 and lectured in history and philosophy at Salamanca and Toulouse. He was appointed to the biblical commission in 1902 by Leo XIII and came as close to Higher Criticism as Catholic orthodoxy would permit.
SHEKLETON MARY [1827-1883] – Mary Shekleton was for many years an invalid, during which time she wrote several hymns, which were printed in broadsheet form. Several of these are given in "Chosen, Chastened, Crowned - Memorials of Mary Shekleton” late Secretary of the Invalids' Prayer Union, by her sister 1884" She is remembered for her hymn “It passeth knowledge that dear love of Thine" published in the year of her death, 1883.
SMITH, WILLIAM [1854-1914] – Founder of the BOYS BRIGADE in Thurso Scotland. This was the pioneer of uniformed voluntary organisations for boys and girls. A church centred organisation with the purpose of helping boys achieve a true Christian faith, promoting habits of obedience, reverence, discipline, and self respect. It currently has 5000 companies and over 250,000 members worldwide.
WHITTLE, DANIEL WEBSTER [1840-1901]. Daniel Whittle was an American poet, hymn writer, evangelist, and Bible teacher who was influenced by Dwight L. Moody. He entered full time evangelism and worked with P. P. Bliss and James McGranahan. He wrote the words for about two hundred hymns, including, "I Know Whom I Have Believed" in 1883. Whittle reached the rank of major in the American Civil War and for the rest of his life was known as "Major" Whittle. He was converted in a prisoner of war camp while recovering from his war wounds in the hospital while he was praying with a young dying soldier.


CARMAN, ALBERT [1833-1917] – Superintendent of the United Methodists of Canada. Originally a school teacher he eventually became the bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He was an excellent administrator and held the position of superintendent until 1914. He is said to have stood for the “integrity and veracity of the Book”.
DRUMMOND, HENRY [1851-1897] – Scottish writer and evangelist. Educated at Edinburgh University, he was persuaded by D.L. Moody to suspend his theological course and to work with him in evangelistic campaigns during Moody's first visit to Britain 1873-1875. From 1877 he taught natural science at the Free Church College Glasgow and in 1883 published the bestseller "Natural Law in the Spiritual World". In 1884 he was ordained and became professor of theology in the college. During the last 14 years of his life he was involved in controversy about the relationship of science and religion, and about the authority of the Bible. He might have been a great scientist had not evangelism been the main focus of his life. He died after two years of crippling illness.
FAUNCE, WILLIAM HERBERT PERRY [1859-1930] – Baptist minister and educator. After training he entered the Baptist ministry in 1884. He worked for 15 years as a pastor, before being appointed president of Brown University where he served until his retirement in 1929. Active in many social causes, he was at various times president of the World Peace Foundation, the National Education Association, and of the Religious Education Association. A liberaliser, he moderated between modernists and fundamentalists and opened Brown University to non-Baptist leadership.
GORDON, GEORGE ANGIER [1853-1929] – Scottish Congregational minister and writer. A preacher of great power during a long and influential pastorate at the Old South Church in Boston from 1884 to 1927. Through numerous books and lectures in all the leading American universities, he was a leader in introducing liberalism into the Congregational denomination. He called Calvinism “the ultimate blasphemy of thought” and held that moral progress was the key to history.
GRENFELL, GEORGE [1849-1906] – Baptist missionary who after a short apprenticeship in the Cameroon's from 1875-78 led a pioneer party to the Congo. By inclination an explorer, Grenfell travelled 25,000 kilometres on the Congo and its tributaries from 1884 to 1886 winning recognition from the Royal Geographical Society. For over 20 years he supervised Baptist Missionary Society work and continued exploring in two steam boats he himself assembled. His base after 1889 was Boloba where he engaged in conventional missionary work. While considering European rule preferable to intertribal conflict and Arab slave-raiding he later condemned official atrocities and was treated with marked disfavour. This prevented him from completing a chain of stations linking up with the Church Missionary Society in East Africa.
HASTINGS, JAMES [1852-1922] – Scottish minister and editor who was educated at Aberdeen and became a pastor at the United Free Church from 1884-1911 before retiring to engage in editorial work. In 1889 he founded the monthly Expository Times which he edited until his death. Hastings was a magnificent preacher, a man whose message was always unmistakably evangelical, spoken without the aid of notes and with the eloquent simplicity which is frequently associated with a wide range of knowledge.
HOLLAND, HENRY SCOTT [1847-1918] – Anglican preacher and theologian who was educated at Oxford and was the canon of St Paul's from 1884 to 1910 before returning to Oxford as a regius professor of divinity. A witty and prominent member of the “Lux Mundi” [see 1889] group he combined High Churchmanship with a vague liberal theology. An advanced member of the Christian Social Union of which he was sometime vice-president, he popularised the view of Christ as “the solution of all human problems”. His religious and political optimism was shattered by the experiences of World War I.
JACKSON, SHELDON [1834-1909] – USA, Presbyterian missionary to the West and Alaska. Having served the Presbyterian Churches in Minnesota he was put in charge of the church's Western missions and pioneered the use of prefabricated church buildings. He supervised the Alaskan Presbyterians missions from 1884-1907. He set up a public school system in Alaska for the government and in 1890 introduced reindeer into mainland Alaska to help the natives. He was elected moderator of his denomination in 1897.
JOACHIM IV – Patriarch of Constantinople [1884-1887] succeeded Joachim III [see 1878]. There is no additional information readily available.
KOREA [see also 1950] – Christianity was planted in Korea by Koreans not by foreigners. Prior missionary contacts were only peripheral the first Catholic de Cespedes arrived in 1593 as chaplain to the invading Japanese troops. Not until Lee Sung-hun in 1784 returned baptised from a visit to the ex-Jesuit mission in Peking did Catholicism begin to spread among Koreans. In the next 100 years despite great persecutions the Catholic Church though was still a hidden movement grew to some 17,5000 members. The first Protestant Karl Gutzlaff [see 1823] arrived in 1832 exploring the coast. The year after the arrival in 1884 of the first resident Protestant missionary, Suh Sang-yun, a Korean convert of Scots missionaries in Manchuria, brought Korean Scripture portions into forbidden Korea and secretly gathered together the country's first group of worshipping Protestants. The missionaries followed, first a Presbyterians physician Dr Horace Allen and in 1885 two clergyman, the Presbyterian H.G. Underwood [see 1885] and Methodist H.G. Appenzeller. The pioneer in opening North Korea was S.A. Moffat. And it was in the north that church growth was the greatest and by 1910 Protestants had outstripped Catholics. The Korean Presbyterian Church was organised as an independent body in 1907 with the Korean Methodist Church following in 1930. Japanese annexation in 1910 brought harassment of the Church culminating in open persecution when Christians in the 1930s refused government demands to participate in Shinto ceremonies.
TAYLOR, WILLIAM [1821-1902] – American Methodist evangelist and missionary who did not receive much early education but in due course entered the Methodist ministry and was assigned to the tented city of San Francisco. His open-air meetings drew thousands of listeners and brought many conversions. Taylor organised the first Methodist Church in his city. From 1856 to 1861 Taylor travelled through North America and thereafter to England, Australia, the West Indies, South America, the Middle East, and South Africa. Elected missionary bishop of Africa in 1884 he systemised the work particularly in the Congo and Liberia advocating self-supporting missions where possible. His zeal and methods sometimes alarmed his home board but his results were often impressive.


BARNBY, SIR JOSEPH [1838‑1896] – English conductor and composer of more than 200 hymn tunes including "When morning gilds the skies". He did much to introduce the works of Bach and Dvorak to England.
BUTLER, JOSEPHINE [1828‑1907] – Social reformer, concerned initially with educational facilities for women she later supported refuges for the destitute and the removal of sexual exploitation of women. She was able to effect the raising of the age of consent to 16 in 1885 and repeal the Contagious Diseases Act which had virtually recognised prostitution in seaports and garrison towns. She formed the Ladies National Association for Appeal in 1869 which was a means to appeal to Parliament.
CHEYNE, THOMAS KELLY [1841-1915] – Old Testament Oxford scholar who participated in the preparation of the Revised Version of the Bible. He spent time in Germany and was a pioneer in England of the critical approach to the Old Testament. He was co editor of Encyclopaedia Biblica 1899-1903.
DOSTOEVSKY, FYODOR [1821-1881] – Russian writer born in Moscow, son of a doctor, who was educated as an engineer but early turned to writing. He became involved with an anti-government socialist group for which he was arrested and sentenced to death but at the public execution he was given a last-minute reprieve. He was forced to spend 10 years in Siberia in prison and in military service instead. He wrote about his prison experiences in “The House of the Dead” 1861, and "Notes from Underground" in 1864 is an extraordinary picture of a mentally disturbed and alienated man. For a period he became very unstable, overwhelmed by gambling debts and emotional tensions, and epileptic seizures. His Russian Orthodoxy is represented by characters who seek salvation through suffering.
EVANGELICAL COVENANT CHURCH OF AMERICA – Founded in Chicago in 1885 it traces its origins to the Reformation, biblical instruction in the Lutheran State Church of Sweden, and the awakenings of the 19th century. It has traditionally cherished the historic confessions and creeds, but recognises the sovereignty of the Word of God over their interpretations. Its chief institutions are North Park College and Seminary in Chicago, and it has extensive missionary outreach.
GERASIMOS Patriarch of Antioch [1885-1891] see also 1860 and 1892
JONES, SAMUEL PORTER [1847-1906] – Evangelist and prohibitionist, born in Alabama USA. Chronic nervous indigestion kept him from his college and alcoholism soon ended a law career begun in 1868. He was converted under his Methodist grandfather's preaching and became a circuit rider for the North Georgia Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South in 1872. He was very successful in winning converts in Georgia and in raising funds as an agent for the Methodist Orphanage Home at Decatur. After 1885 he became an evangelist of national prominence. His meetings, characterised by controversial, vernacular oratory, often produced organised efforts to enforce local restricting laws and helped stimulate the National Prohibition movement.
KEITH-FALCONER, ION GRANT [1856-1887] – Missionary, Hebrew and Arabic scholar who was born into a noble Scottish family and educated at Cambridge and Leipzig. He was very tall, had an attractive personality and was also one of the earliest bicycle champions. He helped found the Cambridge Intercollegiate Christian Union in 1877 and engaged in evangelism among the poor. In 1885 he went as a missionary to the Arabs even though he had been appointed professor of Arabic at Cambridge. He and his young wife founded the Sheikh Othman hospital near Aden but he died of fever within a few months. His social, academic, and athletic standing, together with his early death, made him a great Christian influence on his contemporaries.
PARKER, WILLIAM HENRY [1845-1929]. – Baptist Hymn Writer. Parker was born and died in Nottingham, England. He was said to have been apprenticed in the machine construction department of a large lace making plant in Nottingham but was also involved in an insurance company. He was a Baptist layman, who attended the Chelsea Road Baptist Church and was greatly interested in the work of the Sunday School. His 1885 gospel song “Tell Me the Stories of Jesus” was inspired by the often repeated request of the children in his Sunday School class, “Teacher, tell us another story.”
REVISED VERSION of the English Bible published.
SABATIER, PAUL [1859-1928] – French Calvinistic scholar and pastor who studied at Lille and enrolled at the Protestant faculty of the University of Paris where his brother Louis [see 1877], and Ernst Renan [see 1879] were amongst his teachers. From 1885 he was vicar at a Protestant church in Strasbourg for five years but was expelled from Germany and returned to France where he was a pastor for another five years before resigning to devote himself to a life of scholarship. He travelled to Assisi in Italy where he studied the life of Francis and the Franciscan Order. Later he became professor of Protestant theology at Strasbourg. His “Life of St Francis of Assisi” was an immediate success and shows a sympathetic understanding of Francis. During World War I he served as chaplain for pastors who were in the Armed Forces.
STUDD, CHARLES THOMAS [1862-1931] – Pioneer missionary who was the third son of Edward Studd a wealthy retired planter who was converted under D.L. Moody in 1877. Charles was converted the year after and educated at Cambridge where he excelled at cricket and was in the English team in 1882. He volunteered for missionary service and was one of the group of students known as the Cambridge Seven which aroused much enthusiasm on missions in Edinburgh and elsewhere. He sailed for China under the China Inland Mission in 1885 and gave away his inheritance to Christian causes. Invalided home in 1894 he was working two years later with students in America when the Student Volunteer Missionary Union was formed. He was pastor of the Union Church in Ootacumund in South India in 1900 to 1906 until forced home again through illness. Contrary to medical advice, after preaching in Britain for some while he went to Africa in 1910 where he founded the Heart of Africa Mission in 1912 which later became the Worldwide Evangelisation Crusade [WEC]. He laboured with Alfred Buxton and others in Central African until his death.
SWAINSON, CHARLES ANTHONY [1820-1887] – Anglican theologian who was son of a Liverpool merchant and educated at Cambridge. After a series of appointments he became Vice Chancellor of the University in 1885. Swainson was an authority on church creeds and liturgy. He travelled widely to view early manuscripts and published several works on the subject. He was also devoted to practical work of the ministry despite his high academic standing.
UNDERWOOD, HORACE GRANT [1859-1916] – Dutch Reformed missionary to Korea who was born in London and emigrated to America in 1872 where he graduated from New York University and three years later from the New Brunswick Theological Seminary. He went to Korea in 1885 under the Presbyterian Board for Foreign Missions and four years later married the queen's physician. Underwood mastered the language, taught theology, and helped establish a hospital and college as well as a church. Trust and confidence of the Royal family generated through his persistent efforts brought more freedom for Christian missions in Korea.
VAN MANEN, WILLEM CHRISTIAAN [1842-1905] – Dutch theologian who became a preacher in the Dutch Reformed Church. He was recognised as an able theologian who moved from a relatively orthodox position steadily towards an advanced higher critical viewpoint. In his early 40s he was appointed as professor at Leyden in 1885 and became a brilliant exponent of radical higher criticism. He concluded that the Pauline epistles were sub-apostolic and extended this to most of the New Testament dating them from the second century and saw it as part of an effort to transform Judaism into a universal religion.
WALKER, THOMAS [1859-1912] – Anglican missionary to South India who was named “Walker of Tinnevelley”. Walker was educated at Cambridge and ordained in 1882 and sent by the Church Missionary Society to Tinnevelley in 1885. Apart from his evangelism and Bible teaching in the Tamil field he was a noted preacher at conventions particularly at hill stations and exerted considerable influence on the reformed section of the Syrian Orthodox Church. He was associated closely with the work of Amy Carmichael [see 1903] who wrote his biography.
WORDSWORTH, JOHN [1843-1911] – Bishop of Salisbury and elder son of Christopher Wordsworth [see 1869]. From 1878 he worked on a critical edition of the Vulgate text of the New Testament amassing and collating a huge number of manuscripts and was a professor of interpretation of Scripture in 1883. Wordsworth was made bishop of Salisbury in 1885 and was a close friend and adviser of Archbishop E.W. Benson [see 1882]. In the hope of a church reunion he maintained relations with the Eastern churches.


ANDOVER CONTROVERSY involved the Andover Theological Seminary from 1886 to 1893. The seminary had been founded in 1808 by the Congregationalists to counter the Unitarian tendencies at Harvard. E.C Smyth and his colleagues argued that the heathen who die without knowledge of the Gospel will have an opportunity to accept or reject the gospel before facing final judgement. In 1887 Smyth was deprived of his chair but in 1891 his dismissal was voided by the Supreme Court of Massachusetts.
BEYSCHLAG, WILLIBALD [1823‑1900] – German Evangelical Church leader who was a strong supporter of the rights of the laity and for the autonomy of the church. Active as a religious journalist in 1876 he founded an organisation for the moderates in the church and was always concerned about the Catholic aggression which he had met in Trier when he was there in 1850-56. In 1886 he founded a group to counter the influence of the Catholic Church in the Evangelical Church.
BOBERG, CARL GUSTAV [1859–1940] – Boberg was a Swedish poet, author and hymn writer, and parliamentarian, best known for writing the Swedish language poem of "O Store Gud" (O great God) from which the English language hymn "How Great Thou Art" is derived. He was a carpenter’s son, worked briefly as a sailor, and served as a lay minister. The inspiration for "How Great Thou Art" came from a visit to a beautiful country estate on the southeast coast of Sweden. Boberg got caught in a midday thunderstorm with awe inspiring moments of flashing violence, followed by a clear brilliant sun. Soon afterwards he heard the calm, sweet songs of the birds in nearby trees. The experience prompted Boberg to "fall to his knees in humble adoration of his mighty God." A nine-stanza poem beginning with the Swedish words "O Store Gud, nar jag den varld beskader" captured his exaltation of how great God is. It was translated into English by British missionary Stuart K. Hine, who also added two original verses of his own composition. It was popularized by George Beverly Shea and Cliff Barrows during Billy Graham crusades. Boberg was the editor of a weekly Christian newspaper, Sanningsvittnet (Witness of the Truth), from 1890 until 1916. He served in the Swedish Parliament for 20 years from 1912 to 1931 and published more than 60 poems, hymns and gospel songs.
CHICAGO LAMBETH ARTICLES adopted by American Bishops. The four basics are known as the Chicago Quadrilaterals and consist of [1] adherence to the Holy Scriptures as the ultimate standard of faith, [2] adherence to the Apostles and Nicene Creed, [3] adherence to the two sacraments of Baptism and Lord’s Supper, and [4] adherence to a belief in an historic episcopate. In 1888 the Lambeth Conference adopted a similar quadrilateral as the basis for its own discussion of Christian unity with other churches.
FAIRBAIRN, ANDREW MARTIN [1838-1912] – Congregational minister who had little regular schooling and was earning his living before he was 10. He however read widely and eventually studied at Edinburgh University. He entered the Evangelical Union theological college in Edinburgh in 1857 and ministered as a pastor before becoming the principal of Airedale Theological College in 1877. He transferred to Mansfield College Oxford in 1886 at which he was the first principal, a post which he held for 23 years. An original and refreshing teacher whose theological liberalism reflected the views of the German scholars, Fairbairn was much in demand as a preacher and lecturer and paid several visits to the USA.
KAFTAN, THEODOR [1847-1932] – German Lutheran churchman and elder brother of Julius Kaftan [see 1883. He was general superintendent for the province of Schleswig from 1886 to 1917. A strong confessional Lutheran, he clashed with the spokesman for both the orthodox and neo-Protestant positions. He opposed Prussian attempts to Germanise north Schleswig and sought to protect the Danish character of the church life there. He disliked the church’s growing dependence upon the state and was the author of numerous works in the field of practical theology.
LISZT, FRANZ [1811-1886] – Hungarian composer and pianist who was one of the most influential figures of the Romantic era in music and was one of the great innovators of the 19th century. His interest and involvement in religious music is not so generally recognised. He wrote three large-scale settings of the Mass, two oratorios, and an assortment of other sacred works.
MOODY, DWIGHT LYMAN [1837-1899] – American evangelist who started work at the age of 13 in Northfield and at 17 secured employment in a shoe store in Boston. He began attending Mount Vernon Congregational Church in Boston and was converted in 1855. He moved to Chicago and became a travelling salesman and successful businessman. Moody joined Plymouth Church and soon rented four pews for men invited from the hotels and on street corners. In 1860 he decided give up business and spend full-time in Sunday School YMCA work. During the Civil war he also threw himself into work among soldiers and soon established the nondenominational Illinois Street Church. At a national Sunday School conference he met Ira Sankey [see 1870] who he enlisted as a musical associate. In 1873 Moody sailed for Britain. This his third tour which lasted two years, was destined to make him a national figure. Major crowds attended his meetings in Scotland and when he went to London for a four-month period total attendance at the meetings reached more than 2 1/2 million. He returned to the United States where he established a school for girls, Northfield Seminary, and two years later a school for boys, Mount Hermon School. In 1880 he began a summer conference ministry, and in 1886 started the Chicago Evangelization Society later to be known as the Moody Bible Institute. It has been established that he travelled more than 1,000,000 miles and addressed more than 100 million people. In the midst of his last evangelistic campaign in Kansas City Moody became ill and died a few days later.
NICOLL, WILLIAM ROBERTSON [1851-1923] – Religious journalist, son of a Free Church of Scotland minister, who was educated at Aberdeen and subsequently entered the ministry. Ill health caused his resignation from the pastorate and moving to London he edited “The Expositor” [1885-1923] and “The British Weekly” [1886-1923]. He also wrote for the secular press and published many books. He was knighted by Edward VII in 1909.
ROWLEY FRANCIS HAROLD [1854-1952] – The son of a doctor, Francis Harold Rowley became an ordained Baptist clergyman who, for about 30 years, served churches in several States in America. He was also greatly interested in animal welfare, wrote books on the subject, and was president of the Massachusetts S.P.C.A. for 35 years, being made chairman of the board at the age of 91. For his notable interest in both human and animal welfare, the Rowley School of Humanities at Oglethorpe University in Atlanta was named in his honour. “I Will Sing the Wondrous Story” is the only hymn credited to Rowley. He was serving a church in Massachusetts at the time of writing it (around 1886). The church was holding a series of evangelistic meetings, assisted by gospel musician Peter Bilhorn. Pastor Rowley says, “One night, after the close of the service, he said, ‘Why don’t you write a hymn for me to set to music.’ During the night these most unpretentious and wholly unworthy verses came to me.” Years later, the author was walking down a street in London, late at night, and saw a group of Salvation Army people holding an open-air service. He says, “As I came nearer to them, it occurred to me that the hymn they were singing was familiar. Then it dawned upon me that it was this one.”
SOUTHERN AFRICA ZAMBIA – Zambia was entered from several directions with F. Coillard [see 1857] coming from Lesotho to found the Barotse Mission in 1886 closely followed by the Primitive Methodists. The London Missionary Society entered Bembaland from Tanganyika; the Presbyterians, the Dutch Reformed Church, and Anglicans from Malawi; the Wesleyan Methodists from Zimbabwe. The development of the Copper Belt after 1925 led to the spontaneous formation of an African Union Church and to united action by several missions. Zambia was proclaimed a Christian country in 1991.
TERESA OF LISIEUX [1873-1897] – Carmelite and devotional writer who had a deprived childhood and became gravely ill. This led however at Christmas 1886 to a conversion experience that led her to her monastic commitment. She was able to enter the Carmelite convent in Lisieux at only fifteen years of age. From 1893 she was acting novice mistress and wrote “Little Way”. Pope Benedict XV said it contained the secret of sanctity for the entire world. Dying of tuberculosis she wrote her autobiography, the wide circulation which has led to her extensive cult. She was canonised in 1925.


BLACKSTONE, WILLIAM EUGENE [1841‑1935] – American friend of the Jews who was converted as a boy and served in the Civil War with the US Christian Commission. Impressed by the lack of literature on the Second Coming he became a writer on the Second Advent. He founded the Chicago Hebrew Mission in 1887 and three years later headed the first conference between Jews and Christians in that city.
DIONYSIUS V – Patriarch of Constantinople (1887-1891) succeeded Joachim IV [see 1884]. There is no additional information readily available.
EVANS, OWEN [1829-1920] – Welsh minister with elementary education only, who served as minister in several Congregational churches. He was chairman of the Union of Welsh Independents in 1887. Apart from being a successful pastor he was a prolific author. He specialised in books of the popular nature dealing with biblical themes and written in a clear and interesting style. Throughout his life he was an ardent defender of the Reformed faith against the attacks of modernism and liberalism.
GOFORTH, JONATHAN [1859-1936] – Canadian Presbyterian missionary to China. Educated at Knox College Toronto he was ordained in 1886 and went with his wife to China in 1887. Here they were pioneers in the Canadian Presbyterian work in Honan Province. Theologically conservative and a firm believer in preaching he became famous for his leadership and participation in revivals which swept over China in the early 20th century. Though he lost his eyesight during his final years in China, he continued to minister there until 1934.
KIDD, BERESFORD JAMES [1864-1948] – Church historian educated at Oxford and was ordained in 1887. He was vicar of St Paul’s at Oxford from 1902 to 1920 then became warden of Keble College until his retirement. He wrote a number of books on church history. His work on the history of Christianity was based on careful study of its documents, illustrative collections of which he also published.
POLLARD, SAMUEL [1864-1915] – Missionary to China who was born in Cornwall son of a Methodist minister. Pollard reached China under the Bible Christian Mission [see 1815] in 1887 and was appointed to the south-west region. He soon began the evangelisation of the Miao tribe and spent 20 years among them. He reduced their language to writing and prepared literature in the script he devised. His educational efforts were greatly resented by those who gained from their workers being illiterate, and on one occasion Pollard was severely beaten. Before he died of typhoid he witnessed the mass movement of the Miao into the Christian church.
PREMILLENNIALISM – The view which asserts that Christ will come a second time before the 1000 years of His millennial reign, and places the Rapture of the Saints, the First Resurrection, the Tribulation, and The Second Advent before the Millennium in prophetic time sequence with the brief release of a bound Satan, the Second Resurrection and Last Judgement afterwards. This view was held by the early church fathers until Origen, Eusebius, and Augustine modified it. It was revived in the modern era by John Darby [see 1845], W.E. Blackstone [see above], and C.I. Scofield [see 1909], among others.
SAMMIS, JOHN HENRY [1846-1919] – John Sammis was born in Brooklyn, New York and died in Los Angeles, California. He was a businessman who later attended McCormick and Lane Theological Seminaries. Ordained a Presbyterian minister in 1880, he served in numerous pastoral positions in the Midwest and taught at the Bible Institute of Los Angeles for the remainder of his career. He wrote over 100 hymns of which the most famous is “When we walk with the Lord” written in 1887.
SLEEPER, WILLIAM TRUE [1840-1920]. – William Sleeper was an American Congregational clergyman. He had pastorates in Massachusetts and Maine. He was pastor of the Summer Street Congregational Church in Worcester, Massachusetts, for over 30 years. He is best remembered for his hymn “Out of my bondage, sorrow, and night Jesus I Come” published in 1887. Musician George Stebbins [see 1874] spoke of his ability to compose hymns. He said “I spoke to Reverend Sleeper, one of the pastors of the city who sometimes wrote hymns, of my impression of the message and asked him if he would write me some verses on the subject. He acted at once on my suggestion and soon after came to me with the hymn. Before the meetings closed a musical setting was made.”
STAINER, JOHN [1840-1901] – English composer and organist both at Magdalen College in 1860 and St Paul’s cathedral 1872. His most famous composition was the oratorio “The Crucifixion” published in 1887. He was knighted the following year by Queen Victoria.
WARFIELD, BENJAMIN BRECKINRIDGE [1851-1921] – American Presbyterian scholar who took an arts degree at Princeton and travelled in Europe for a year before becoming editor of the “Farmers Home Journal”. Later he trained for the ministry at Princeton Theological Seminary and at the University of Leipzig. In 1878 he became instructor of New Testament language and literature in Western Theological Seminary, Pittsburgh, holding the rank of professor from 1879 to 1887. He then moved to Princeton where he succeeded A.A. Hodge [see 1877] as professor of didactic and polemical theology. Warfield was a committed Calvinist with a high regard for the Westminster Confession of Faith and held dogmatically to an inerrant Scripture, original sin, predestination, and a limited atonement. He fought a running battle with the C.A. Briggs [see 1890] and H.P. Smith [see 1874] over biblical inerrancy, which he and Charles Hodge [see 1841] defended vigorously.


ABBOT, LYMAN [1835-1922] – Congregational minister who became pastor in Terre Haute Indiana in 1860 and after the Civil War served on the American Union Commission which promoted reconstruction in the South. In 1888 he succeeded H Beecher [see 1847] as pastor of Plymouth Church in Brooklyn. During the 1880’s he changed from an orthodox position to radical biblical criticism and liberalism accepting Darwinism and applying evolutionary principles to religious questions.
AFFIRMATION which is the right to affirm, provided for those giving evidence in English civil courts who, with or without religious faith, object on conscientious grounds to take an oath on God’s name. The Common Law Procedure Act of 1854 extended this right to any who had conscientious reasons for objecting to be sworn but this option did not explicitly include atheists until the Oaths Act of 1888.
BATIFFOL, PIERRE [1861‑1929] – French Roman Catholic scholar who specialised in Roman Catholic Church history and took a strong stand against modernism. In 1888 he was appointed to teach in Paris where he worked for the next decade. His book on the Eucharist was placed on the Index. He later took part with Cardinal Mercier at the conversations at Malines [see 1921] between the Catholics and Anglicans.
BURGON, JOHN [1813‑1888] – Anglican scholar educated at Oxford who was an author and controversialist. He wrote in 1888 the popular "Lives of Twelve Good Men" which was a study of twelve high churchmen of his era. He strongly defended Textus Receptus for the N.T. and was against the Revised Version of the Bible. He also denounced the disestablishment of the Irish Church in 1869.
HOW, WILLIAM WALSHAM [1823 – 1897]. Bishop and hymn writer. The son of a Shrewsbury solicitor How was educated at Shrewsbury, Oxford and Durham. He was ordained in 1846 and for upwards of thirty years was actively engaged in parish work at Whittington in Shropshire and Oswestry (rural dean, 1860). He refused preferment on several occasions, but his energy and success made him well known, and in 1879 he became a suffragan bishop in London, under the title of bishop of Bedford, his province being the East End. There he became the inspiring influence of a revival of church work. He founded the East London Church Fund, and enlisted a large band of enthusiastic helpers, his popularity among all classes being immense. He was particularly fond of children, and was commonly called the children's bishop. In 1888 he was made bishop of Wakefield, and in the north of England he continued to do valuable work. His sermons were straightforward, earnest and attractive; and besides publishing several volumes of these, he wrote a good deal of verse, including such well-known hymns as “For all the saints” and “It is the thing most wonderful” Some thought him possibly the greatest 19th-century hymn writer. In 1863-1868 he brought out a Commentary on the Four Gospels and he also wrote a manual for the Holy Communion. Published by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge during the 1890s this book was widely distributed. In the movement for infusing new spiritual life into the church services, especially among the poor, How was a great force.
LOOFS, FRIEDRICH ARMIN [1858-1928] – Lutheran theologian who was educated at Tubingen and Leipzig before being appointed church history professor at Leipzig in 1886 and at Halle in 1888 where he remained until his death. He played a leading role in Lutheran affairs and became a member of the Saxon Consistory in 1910. He was a prolific author.
NICHOL, HENRY ERNEST [1862-1926]. – Nichol originally planned to be an engineer. But he switched to a study of music, graduating from Oxford University in 1888 with a Bachelor of Music degree. Most of his hymns were written for the Sunday School. For many of the songs he wrote both words and music. But in a few older hymnals it may not seem like it. Nichol created a pen name by rearranging the letters of his middle and last name. So you may see H. Ernest Nichol as the composer of the tune, and Colin Sterne as the author of the words, but it is the same man. One of Nichol’s contributions is the hymn “Lord it is eventide, the light of day is waning”
NORTH AFRICA – Unlike Egypt and the Lebanon, North Africa had no remnants of ancient churches to keep alive some semblance of Christian testimony. When Islam swept across the area in the seventh century the church of Augustine was all swept away because there had been no real missionary activity in the rural areas with each group remaining in their cities which were easy to take. It was not until the 1860s that the Roman Catholic missionaries were concerned with much more than ministering to the European population in North Africa and not until 1908 was the mission raised to the status of importance. There had been sporadic work in Algiers and Tunisia in the mid-17th century and progress was made by the Catholics reporting that by 1930 the Roman Catholic population was reported at about three quarters of a million. In 1888 John Anderson founded the Southern Morocco mission seeking especially to evangelise the Berbers and Arabs. Also early Lilias Trotter [see 1888] was responsible for the formation of the Algiers Mission Band which made special efforts to reach the oasis dwellers of the South. It was over the same period that Edward Glennie was the prime mover in the establishment of the North African Mission. These three eventually combined to form the North African Mission with an international structure and headquarters in the south of France. Other missions, including the American Methodists, the Emmanuel Mission, Mennonite Mission, Sahara Desert Mission, Southern Baptist Convention, the Gospel Missionary Union, the Bible Churchman's Missionary Society, and the Christian Brethren have all worked in different areas of North Africa. Most if not all have suffered setbacks due to aggressive nationalism in more recent times which has been strongly Islamic. Arabic is the main language of North Africa and the Van Dyke Bible has been widely distributed. Two World Wars saw the emergence of Islamic nationalism and a resentful feeling that Christianity was the religion of the occupying power and that it and its religious emissary's should go.
SHEDD, WILLIAM GREENOUGH THAYER [1820-1894] – American theologian educated at Vermont and Andover Theological Seminary. He was a pastor in both Congregational and Presbyterian churches but the major portion of his life was spent as professor of English literature at the University of Vermont and then in teaching in various theological seminaries. His theology was strongly conservative Calvinistic. His major work was "Dogmatic Theology" published from 1888 to 1894 and was a clear statement of Westminster Presbyterian Calvinism.
TROTTER, ISABELLA LILIAS [1853-1928] – Missionary to North Africa. She was the daughter of a London businessman and was privately educated. In 1876 she made the acquaintance of John Ruskin who admired her expert miniatures and exhorted her to devote her life to painting. Trotter however determined to sail as a missionary to North Africa. She began her work in Algeria in 1888 making dangerous missionary journeys and securing converts among the Arabs, French, Jews, and Negroes, and establishing preaching stations. Her Algiers Mission Band grew steadily from 3 to 30 full-time workers. Her translation of the New Testament into colloquial Algerian, and her illustrated tracts for Muslim readers, were greatly admired. She died while still on active service. Her society is now incorporated in the North Africa Mission.
VINCENT, JOHN HEYL [1832-1920] – Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church and Sunday school educator who was born in Alabama and was ordained an elder in 1857 after studying at the Wesleyan Institute in New Jersey. He pioneered in Sunday school improvements such as uniform lessons [1872] and with Lewis Miller two years later started the famous Chautauqua [see 1874] conferences in west New York State. The general conference of his church ordained Vincent bishop in 1888. He served in Switzerland from 1900 to 1904.
WALKER, WILLISTON [1860-1922] – He was an American Church historian who was educated at Amherst College, Hartford Seminary, and Leipzig University. In 1888-89 he lectured at Bryn Mawr College and after 12 years of being a professor at Hartford seminary became professor of ecclesiastical history at Yale where he remained until his death. He was a prolific writer.


ADDAMS, JANE [1860-1935] – American social reformer who attended medical school but had to retire due to poor health. She travelled in Europe and on her return with her friend Ellen Gates Starr founded Hull House as a refuge for poor immigrants near Chicago patterned after Toynbee Hall in London. She was active in legal improvements for the poor and participated in the women’s suffrage movement. She received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 and although not an orthodox Christian encouraged many to assist in the plight of the poor.
BUDRY EDMOND LOUIS [1854-1932] – Pastor and Hymn Writer. Budry was a Swiss hymn writer famous for writing the lyrics to the hymn "Thine Be the Glory" to music from Judas Maccabaeus by George Frideric Handel. Born in Vevey, he studied theology in Lausanne and was a pastor at Cully and Sainte-Croix between 1881 and 1889. He then became pastor of the Free Church in Vevey for a further 35 years, retiring in 1923. Besides writing original hymns, he translated German, English, and Latin lyrics into French.
FINLAND [see also 1249] – The pietistic revivals were most important in the development of the church and continued to enrich it from the end of the 17th century onwards. During the 20th century new groups arose such as the Fifth Movement which emphasis faithfulness to the Bible and the Lutheran Confession in reaction to liberal theology and higher criticism. These movements enjoy much freedom within the church and have influenced it to a great extent. The Church of Finland is a state church, but has considerable liberty. The Church assembly meets every five years; its enactments must be ratified by Parliament. In 1889 church law was passed giving everyone the right of choosing his religion. In 1923 this was enlarged to include the right to freedom from religion. There is a significant number of the Orthodox Church in Finland due to relationship with the Russian area. The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland claims more than 90% of the population in 1970 having rather more than 4.5 million members while the Orthodox church numbers about 68,000. There are few Roman Catholics in Finland.
GURNEY, DOROTHY FRANCES [1858-1932]. Anglican Poetess. She grew up in a devout Anglican Church parsonage. Her father, Rev. Frederick G. Blomfield, was rector of a London parish, while her grandfather had been a distinguished bishop of London. She displayed literary gifts early on. She wrote two volumes of verse as well as a devotional work title A Little Book of Quiet. One of her best known poems is "God's Garden." Dorothy married Gerald Gurney, a former actor who be came an ordained minister in the Anglican Church. Dorothy Gurney was visiting her soon-to-be married sister in the lovely, English Lake region of Windermere, the land of William Wordsworth, when her sister complained that for her forthcoming wedding, she could not find appropriate words for one of her favourite hymn tunes "Strength and Stay" by John B. Dykes. Apparently, her sister challenged her in a way that since she writes poetry, she can write new words to the same tune of "Strength and Stay." Gurney went to the library and in about 15 minutes came back with the text, "O Perfect Love." Her sister was pleased and asked it to be sung on her wedding. Gurney wrote only this one hymn text throughout her lifetime. Since then, it has been sung at many weddings, and eventually, found its way into the hymnals in 1889.
HARNACK, ADOLF [1851-1930] – German scholar who became professor at Berlin from 1889 to 1921. His appointment was challenged by the church because of his doubts about the authorship of the fourth Gospel and other New Testament books, his unorthodox interpretation of biblical miracles including the resurrection and his denial of Christ’s institution of baptism. Nevertheless he was perhaps the most influential church historian and theologian of his era until World War I. He was liberal in theology.
JULICHER, ADOLF [1867-1938] – German New Testament scholar and professor of theology at Marburg [1889 -1923] who wrote a very influential work on the parables of Jesus in which he argued that Jesus’ parables were originally intended to illustrate one truth only i.e. as true similes and not as allegories, and that all allegorical features are therefore secondary.
KENYON, SIR FREDERIC GEORGE [1863-1852] – Greek manuscript scholar, educated at Oxford and appointed to the British Museum staff in 1889. From 1898 to 1909 he was assistant keeper of manuscripts and from 1909 until 1930 director and principal librarian. His main work was done with Greek papyri and particularly with New Testament manuscripts. He used his considerable knowledge of manuscripts in the ancient world to demonstrate the substantial reliability of the New Testament text and its closeness to the events which it records.
LUX MUNDI – The title of a book containing “A Series of Studies in the Religion of the Incarnation” edited by Charles Gore [see 1911] bishop of Oxford and published in 1889. Dissatisfied with the superficial level of the Anglo-Catholic movements during the latter half of the 19th century, the contributors to this volume present a more liberal and socially informed Catholicism for the Church of England. These Oxford essays were violently attacked by the conservative members of the Church of England and assailed publicly in Convocation.
NIETZSCHE, FRIEDRICH [1844-1900] – German philosopher and philologist who was the son of a Lutheran minister. Before passing his final examination he was appointed an associate professor of classical philology at the University of Basle. He volunteered as a medical orderly in the Franco-Prussian war and due to ill-health returned to the University the same year finally retiring in 1879. He went insane in January 1889 as he had been awakened by the work of Charles Darwin [see 1859] and what he took to be the nihilistic implications of evolutionary theory. Nietzsche attacked Christian dogma but more especially he attacked the prevalent idea that Christian ethics could survive the overthrow of the Christian’s view of man which he believed the work of Darwin had brought about. He had the concept that the “superman” who had evolved could go beyond good and evil by his self-mastery and therefore beyond the “defunct” values of Christianity. The fascists later grasped the concept of “superman” in Nazi principles.
OLD CATHOLICS – The movement in German-speaking Europe especially Bavaria which rejected the dogma of papal infallibility declared by the Vatican Council [1870], and organised the Old Catholic Churches, in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria, not in communion with Rome. The movement was motivated by Febronianism and then Jansenism when it associated with the already established Church of Utrecht by a common adoption of the Declaration of Utrecht [1889]. The First International Old Catholic Congress convened at Cologne in 1890. From the start Anglicans have been close to Old Catholics. The bishops of Ely and Lincoln sent communications to the Munich Congress of 1871 and attended the second at Cologne in 1872 Old Catholics recognised Anglican ordinations in 1925 and achieved full inter-communion with the Church of England in 1932 and most other Anglican churches thereafter. By 1957 Old Catholics numbered 350,000 mainly in Germany, Holland, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, and North America.
SMITH, RODNEY “Gypsy” [1860-1947] – English evangelist who was the son of gypsies who travelled in East Anglia. Smith was greatly affected by his mother's death from smallpox. Soon after his father was converted and began to hold services where Rodney himself was converted in 1876 in Cambridge and the following year he joined William Booth in his Christian Mission serving as a captain in the Salvation Army until 1882. In 1889 he went to America on an evangelistic tour, after which he joined the Manchester Wesleyan Mission. Following a world preaching tour [1897-1912] he was missioner for the National Free Church Council. He served with the YMCA in World War I and George VI made him a member of the Order of the British Empire. He sang simple gospel solos.
SPURGEON, THOMAS [1856-1917] – Baptist pastor and twin son of C.H. Spurgeon. He studied theology at Spurgeon's College and art and wood engraving at London. In 1877 Thomas visited Australia including Tasmania and returned two years later accepting a Baptist pastorate in Auckland New Zealand in 1881. He acted as an evangelist for the New Zealand Baptist Union from 1889 to 1893. He returned to London as pastor of the Metropolitan Tabernacle but later resigned due for health reasons in 1908. His son Thomas Harold Spurgeon [1891-1967] served for many years in Dublin as the principal of the Irish Baptist College.
STUBBS, WILLIAM [1825-1901] – English historian and bishop who was educated at Oxford and from 1850 to 1866 was the vicar of Navestock. Between 1864 and 1889 Stubbs produced remarkable editions of English Mediaeval Chronicles which made him the outstanding historian of his time and the person who laid the foundation of the modern approach to the study of mediaeval history. In 1866 he was appointed regius professor of modern history at Oxford. He became bishop of Chester in 1884 and was translated to the see of Oxford in 1889. Theologically he was a High Churchman, politically he was a conservative.
TORREY, REUBEN ARCHER [1856-1928] – American evangelist and Bible scholar who graduated from Yale and also studied at German universities. He was ordained into the Congregational ministry in 1878 and became superintendent of the Congregational City Missionary Society of Minneapolis. Torrey had a long association with D.L. Moody [see 1886] and was the first superintendent of the Moody Bible Institute [1889 -1908]. He toured widely and from 1912 was dean of the Bible Institute of Los Angeles and pastor of the Church of the Open Door. Torrey wrote numerous devotional and theological books, the most important being “What the Bible Teaches”, “How to Work for Christ”, and “The Person and Work of the Holy Spirit”.
TURNER, CUTHBERT HAMILTON [1860-1930] – Anglican historian of early Christianity and New Testament scholar who came to Oxford as a student in 1879 and there remained until his death. He served as a research scholar, lecturer, and latterly as fellow of Magdalen College from 1889 to 1930 and Dean Ireland’s professor of exegesis from 1920-1930. His work centred on matters of chronology and textual criticism related to the Church Fathers and canon law. Turner failed to complete several major writing projects but published an extensive collection of documents relating to early Western canon law and a large number of essays, the most important being a classic study of New Testament chronology.
UTRECHT, DECLARATION OF – A creedal summary issued in Utrecht in 1889 which is important in the history the Old Catholic movement [see above]. The original Old Catholic Church grew out of the Jansenist controversies. Cornelius Steenhoven in 1724 was consecrated by a Catholic bishop without papal approval as bishop of Utrecht. The Old Catholic church continued as a small group and it wasn't until the 1870s when after Vatican I and the adoption of the doctrine of papal infallibility that many turned to Utrecht for their ordination. The 1889 declaration affirmed adherence to Catholicism but rejected the doctrine of papal infallibility. This was accepted as a doctrinal statement by the Old Catholic churches, including since 1897 the Polish Old Catholic movement in the USA.


BINGHAM, HIRAM, JR [1831‑1908] – American Congregationalist missionary who was born to missionary parents in Honolulu. In 1856 the American Board sent him out as a missionary to the Gilbert Islands where he published the first Bible portion in the native tongue four years later, and finished translating the whole Bible in 1890 having opened up missionary work in the Gilbert Islands.
BRIGGS, CHARLES [1841‑1913] – American minister and scholar who on being appointed professor of theology at Union Seminary vigorously condemned the dogma of verbal inspiration. As a result he was tried for heresy and acquitted. However on appeal he was suspended from the ministry. Union Seminary ignored this and he was ordained into the Episcopalian Church in 1900.
DE FOUCAULD, CHARLES EUGENE [1858-1916] – Roman Catholic missionary and ascetic who was born in Strasbourg of a distinguished and devout family. He had a somewhat dissolute army career but was honoured by the Paris Geographical Society for his expedition work in North Africa. Impressed by the Moslems he gave himself to prayer and asceticism followed by residence in a Trappist monastery in search of increased poverty and self-sacrifice. He read theology in Rome 1897 and lived there until 1900 with the Poor Clares [see 1213] at Nazareth, and in 1901 returned to France for ordination. Thereafter he went to the Sahara establishing a hermitage. He was murdered in circumstances that remain obscure.
GORDON, CHARLES WILLIAM [1860-1937] – Canadian Presbyterian minister and writer. After ordination in 1890 Gordon carried out a mission work in the lumber camps and mines of western Canada, and then accepted a call to Stephen's Church Winnipeg, where he remained apart from a period of chaplaincy service until his retirement in 1929. With considerable powers of description and an understanding of certain types of men, his stories found a large readership. His avowed reason for writing he stated was “Not wealth, not enterprise, not energy, can build a nation into true greatness, but men and only men with the fear of God in their hearts.”
HUGHES, HUGH PRICE [1847-1902] – Welsh Wesleyan who was trained for the ministry at Richmond College and graduated from London University. He served in various circuits, founding new churches wherever he went, and in 1885 launched the Wesleyan Forward Movement, a campaign of evangelism and social service characterised by the erection of central halls. Other related causes were the Wesleyan 20th Century Fund which he presented at the conference in 1898 for promoting the work including the construction of large halls which remain his most permanent memorial.
PARKER, HORATIO WILLIAM [1863-1919] – American composer who was the most distinguished composer of church music born in America at that time. He studied in Germany and held various organist posts in New York and Boston. He taught at Yale and had many distinguished pupils including Charles Ives.
PILKINGTON, GEORGE LAWRENCE [1865-1897] – Missionary to Africa who was born in Dublin and educated at Cambridge. He was a promising classical scholar who was converted in 1885. Although lacking theological training he felt called to Christian service and went to Uganda under the Church Missionary Society in 1890. He took on the task of translating the Bible into the Luganda language. In his personal ministry he stressed the need for the baptism of a Holy Spirit. He advocated the principle of self supporting and propagating indigenous churches and contended that most of the European missionaries should go to those areas where a strong aggressive national church was active. He was killed in a Sudanese militia uprising in Uganda.
ROWE, SAMUEL EVANS [1834-1897] – Rowe was a minister who reached high rank in the Methodist church before a distinguished period as a missionary in South Africa, holding senior posts in the church, and founding an educational institution for girls. In 1857 he was accepted as a Candidate for the Ministry and eventually entered the Wesleyan ministry and preached in several towns in England. He served on the London Circuit before going to South Africa as a missionary. He was appointed to Pietermaritzburg, where he worked for twelve years. He founded the educational Institution for Native Girls and was also Chairman of the Maritzburg Girls’ Collegiate School. In 1890, he was elected President of the Methodist Conference in Cape Town and five years later he was appointed to the Harrismith Circuit.
TORREY, REUBEN ARCHER [1856-1928] – American evangelist and Bible scholar who graduated from Yale and also studied at German universities. He was ordained into the Congregational ministry in 1878 and became superintendent of the Congregational City Missionary Society of Minneapolis. Torrey had a long association with D.L. Moody [see 1886] and was the first superintendent of the Moody Bible Institute [1889 -1908]. He toured widely and from 1912 was dean of the Bible Institute of Los Angeles and pastor of the Church of the Open Door. Torrey wrote numerous devotional and theological books, the most important being “What the Bible Teaches”, “How to Work for Christ”, and “The Person and Work of the Holy Spirit”.
TUCKER, ALFRED ROBERT [1849–1914]. – Bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa [1890-1898] and Uganda [1898 -1911]. Tucker renounced an artistic career for Anglican priesthood and after seven years in English parishes he joined the Church Missionary Society and reached East Africa in 1890. His main achievement was to consolidate and extend the Anglican Church in Buganda and neighbouring chieftains. He promoted educational and medical work and travelled widely to supervise established missions and pioneer new work. Tucker’s progressive views on church government aroused opposition among European missionaries who rejected full integration with the local church. He also campaigned for a British protectorate over Uganda in 1894 and frequently championed the interests of its people. Ill health compelled his resignation in 1911 after which he became canon of Durham.
TURNER, CUTHBERT HAMILTON [1860-1930] – Anglican historian of early Christianity and New Testament scholar who came to Oxford as a student in 1879 and there remained until his death. He served as a research scholar, lecturer, and latterly as fellow of Magdalen College from 1889 to 1930 and Dean Ireland’s professor of exegesis from 1920-1930. His work centred on matters of chronology and textual criticism related to the Church Fathers and canon law. Turner failed to complete several major writing projects but published an extensive collection of documents relating to early Western canon law and a large number of essays, the most important being a classic study of New Testament chronology.
TYNDALE-BISCOE, CECIL EARLE (1863 — 1949) – An Anglican missionary and educationalist, who ministered in Kashmir He was educated at Cambridge where he coxed the winning Cambridge crew in the 1884 Boat Race. In 1890, after a short time working in London's East End, Tyndale-Biscoe was appointed to a missionary school in Kashmir by the Church Missionary Society. Seeing the squalid conditions and caste system as a serious problem he aimed to use his own Christian values and western civic ideals to improve Kashmiri society. He did not actively pursue conversions as much as his missionary backers would have liked. His schooling placed emphasis on physical activities such as boxing, boating and football which would stimulate senses of courage, masculinity and physical fitness. The pupils were also engaged in civic duties, such as street-cleaning, and in helping deal with flooding and cholera. Enforcing participation in team sports and activities in a highly socially-stratified culture had significance beyond the replication of his English public school educational experience. By his later years he had founded six schools with 1,800 students.

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