CHURCH, RICHARD WILLIAM [1815-1890] – Dean of St Paul’s was born in Portugal. Originally an evangelical he moved, through his association with J H Newman [see 1845], to high churchmanship. He was appointed dean on Prime Minister Gladstone’s recommendation in 1871.
FRIEDRICH, JOHANNES [1836-1917] – Church historian. Educated at Munich and ordained in the Roman Catholic Church, he lectured in the theological faculty at Munich until his retirement in 1905. Secretary to a cardinal at Vatican I, he considered papal infallibility historically indefensible and joined in opposing such a dogma. Leaving Rome before Vatican I ended, he refused to accept the decrees and in 1871 was excommunicated. The Bavarian government gave him protection in respect of his university appointment at Munich. He continued as a priest with the Old Catholics [see 1889] whom he influenced profoundly, but left them because they did not uphold clerical celibacy.
GUARANTEES, LAW OF – This defined the relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and the Italian kingdom after the annexation of the States of the Church. Passed by the Chamber in 1871, it determined the papal rights and prerogatives but Pius IX categorically rejected the law, refused the financial offer, and withdrew into the Vatican as a voluntary “prisoner”. It was formally abrogated by the Lateran Treaty of 1929.
MACKAY, GEORGE LESLIE [1844-1901] – Scots Canadian Presbyterian missionary born in Canada and educated at Toronto, Edinburgh, and Princeton. He was ordained in 1871. He spent the rest of his life in missionary service in Formosa, an island then scarcely touched by Protestant missionary societies. He made converts among both the Chinese and aboriginal inhabitants, built up a strong church and trained indigenous leaders. He died on the mission field.
MIALL, EDWARD [1809-1881] – Congregational minister who was the acknowledged leader of the movement in the 19th century to disestablishment of the Church of England. Miall for this reason left his pastorate in Leicester in 1847 and founded and edited a newspaper “The Nonconformist”. In 1844 he arranged a large conference called by the Nonconformists and organised the British Anti-State-Church Association which became a highly organised pressure group. Miall also promoted the concept of universal suffrage, the ballot, the repeal of the Corn Laws, and programmes for improving the living conditions of the working classes. He had two terms in Parliament and the climax in his career came when in 1871 he was stirred by what he considered to be the too favourable treatment of the Church of England in the Education Act of 1870, and he moved, although unsuccessfully, for a committee on church disestablishment.
MOZLEY, JAMES BOWLING [1813-1878] – Anglican theologian educated at Oxford who was closely associated with the Tractarians [see 1833] and was joint editor of the “Christian Remembrancer”. His examination of baptismal theology was profound and Mozley found that the evangelical case was valid and thereby became estranged from many of his former colleagues. He gave the Bampton Lectures on miracles in 1865 which defended miracles in a traditional manner. Mozley was made professor of divinity at Oxford in 1871 and died a rather isolated figure seven years later.
QUARRIER, WILLIAM [1829-1903] – Scottish founder of the Orphan Homes. Brought up in poverty in Glasgow after his father died. He started work at 6 years of age and became a shoemaker at the early age of 12. He became a devout Christian at 17 and never forgot the plight of slum children such as he had been. He was very successful and soon owned a number of shops, plus a shoeblack brigade, a newspaper brigade, and a parcels brigade. He said of his concern for the poor, “When a little boy I stood in the High Street in Glasgow barefoot, bareheaded, cold and hungry, having tasted no food for a day and a half and I gazed at each passerby wondering why they did not help such as I. A thought passed through my head that I would not do such as they once I would get the means to help others.” He opened his first home for orphans in 1871. By the 1890’s “Quarrier village” as it was known had 34 houses, church and school, housing 1500 children at a time. He also assisted in 7000 children emigrating to Canada from 1870 to 1936. Quarrier made no appeals, had no collectors, street stalls, or entertainments for money raising purposes, relying on God’s supply. His work still functions from the “village”.
BARNETT, SAMUEL [1844‑1913] – Anglican social reformer, vicar of St Jude's Whitechapel [1872‑1893]. In 1869 he founded the Charity Organisation Society. In 1884 and 1885 he helped form the Education Reform League and advanced the Artisans Dwelling Act. During his period in Whitechapel he encouraged Christians to study social problems.
BODELSCHWINGH, FRIEDRICH [1831‑1910] – German Lutheran pastor who found that teaching the Word of God to children made it come alive for him. He was also deeply moved by the loss of four of his own children in 1869. From 1872 he took charge at Bielefeld of an institution for epileptics known as Bethel [see 1867] where the disadvantaged were found useful work. He held strong views of the social responsibilities of the church and entered the Prussian Landtag in 1903.
CLEPHANE, ELIZABETH CECELIA [1830-1869] – Elizabeth was the third daughter of Andrew Clephane, Sheriff of Fife and Kinros
s. She lived most of her life in Melrose, Scotland, about 30 miles southeast of Edinburgh. She spent most of her money on charitable causes, and was known locally as “The Sunbeam.” Clephane’s hymns appeared posthumously, almost all for the first time, in the Family Treasury (1872), under the general title of “Breathings on the Border.” Her two most famous hymns were “Beneath the cross of Jesus“ and “The Ninety and Nine”. Folklore claims that Elizabeth wrote “The Ninety and Nine” for her brother, George Clephane, who had "returned to the flock" only a short time before his death. As the story goes, he fell from his horse and struck his head upon a rock and was killed instantly.
COMBA, EMILO [1839-1904] – Waldensian historian, author, and theologian, a man of great intelligence and spirituality who was ordained as a pastor in 1863. In 1872 he was called to Florence to succeed G P Revel one of the founders of the Waldensian theological facility and taught there for 32 years. He produced a number of books on the Waldensians.
GOMEZ, MARIANO [1788-1872] – Filipino priest and martyr. He had long defended his fellow priests in their just grievances against the friars. When in January 1872 Filipino soldiers and workers at the Cavite arsenal mutinied and killed their Spanish officers, the government and the friars used this as an opportunity to suppress all dissent. In this connection, Gomez with his colleagues Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora were arrested, and following a secret trial with perjured witnesses, the three were garrotted before a large crowd in Manila. The three martyred priests rapidly became a symbol of united nationalism.
MACLEOD, NORMAN [1812-1872] – Scottish chaplain and editor who belonged to a celebrated clerical dynasty that gave six moderators to the Church of Scotland general assembly. He was Queen Victoria's favourite chaplain who became widely known as editor of the immensely popular “Good Words”, and as a champion of the working man, and as a foreign missionary enthusiast.
PROCOPIUS II Patriarch of Jerusalem [1872-1875] see 1845 and 1875
ROSS JOHN [1842-1915]. – Ross was a Scottish Protestant missionary to Northeast China who established Dongguan Church in Shenyang. He is also known for translating the first Korean Bible. He received his education at Glasgow University and Theological Hall, Edinburgh. In 1872 he was sent by the Scottish United Presbyterian Mission [see 1796] to Northeast China, known at that time as Manchuria. John Ross went first to Yingkou, then moved to Mukden (the present-day Shenyang) and established a church there in 1889. This church was called Dongguan Church (East Gate Church) because it was built just outside of East Gate, as Christian churches were not allowed within the city wall. It was rebuilt after the Boxer Rebellion, and is now still used as a Protestant church. While in China, John Ross met traders from Korea one day, and decided to make a Korean translation of the New Testament, which was completed in 1887 and brought to Korea. This was the first Korean version. Ross returned to Scotland in 1910, but continued to help the Scotland-China Society.
CHAMBERLAIN, JACOB [1835-1908] – American missionary to India from the Dutch Reformed Church. He was a medical doctor who in 1859 joined the Arcot Mission in South India and established two hospitals. From 1873 to 1894 he chaired a committee to edit the Telegu Bible, and he formed a Telegu hymnal. Repeated sickness caused him to spend 10 years in the USA where he was able to encourage missionary interest. First moderator of the Synod of South India 1902.
CHENEY, CHARLES EDWARD [1836-1916] – Founding member of the Reformed Episcopal Church in America in 1873 in association with Bishop G D Cummins [see below]. He was a pronounced evangelical favouring the fundamentals of the Christian faith and opposed both Romanism and radicalism. He was deposed because of not associating regeneration with infant baptism but was reinstated on appeal.
CROSBY, HOWARD [1826-1891] – Presbyterian scholar who was a member of the New Testament Committee for the American edition of the Revised Version and moderator of the general assembly in 1873. He founded a society for crime prevention in 1877. Amongst his writings were commentaries on Joshua, Nehemiah and the whole New Testament.
CUMMINS, GEORGE DAVID [1822-1875] – Founder of the Reformed Episcopal Church was ordained after being a Methodist preacher for a number of years. As a low churchman he noticed that many of his colleagues were using the Book of Common Prayer which provided for greater ritualism. He tried to get the Prayer Book of 1785 accepted to change this, but failed, and as he was unable to continue to obey the church’s mandates and strictures against celebrating Holy Communion with non Anglicans he resigned his orders and in 1873 formed the Reformed Episcopal Church using the 1785 Prayer Book and having himself as presiding bishop.
DAMIEN, FATHER – Roman Catholic missionary priest. Born in Belgium he was trained for the priesthood by the fathers of the Sacred Heart in Paris and took the religious name Damien. He was sent in 1864 to Honolulu to be ordained as a missionary in the Sandwich Islands. In the 1860s the government decided to use the island of Molokai as an isolation settlement for lepers, but made no provision for permanent medical staff. Damien heard of the leper's plight and was allowed to join them. The colony thereafter increased to over 1000. He undertook the duties of a nurse, builder, superintendent, as well as priest. By 1885 he knew that he had leprosy, yet continued to serve the lepers right up to his death. His growing fame also created hostility among local officials and the Catholic hierarchy of the islands. The most famous defence of his character came from Robert Louis Stevenson in 1905.
GREENWELL DORA [1821-1882] - Dora (Dorothy) Greenwell was born into a wealthy family, but circumstances made it necessary for her father to sell the family estate, Greenwell Ford. This began a life of hardship for Dora herself. Ongoing health problems complicated what hymn historian J. R. Watson calls a sad and unfulfilled life. Dora lived for 18 years with her widowed mother, who discouraged her friendships and did not understand her longing for a fuller, freer existence. There is a possibility that she struggled later with an addiction to opium, possibly administered because of the physical pain she endured. Dora Greenwell may have been physically frail, but she had a keen mind and a loving heart. An evangelical Anglican, her longer prose works were on religious subjects, but her essays covered a variety of social causes including women's education, child labour, and the education of the learning disabled. The hymn that is most commonly associated with her is “I Am Not Skilled to Understand”, published in her book “Songs of Salvation”, in 1873.
MAY LAWS – Legislation associated with Bismarck's legislation against German Catholicism. Passed in May 1873 they were based on the theory of the absolute supremacy of the state. They limited the extent of Episcopal powers of excommunication and discipline, instituted a supreme ecclesiastical court whose members were appointed by the emperor and directly under state control, placed priestly training under close government supervision, and required all ordinance to pass through a state university and submit their state examinations in literature, history, and philosophy, and subjected clerical appointments by bishops to government veto. The laws were condemned by Pope Pius IX in 1875 and were also opposed by many German Protestants. They were eventually modified in 1886-87 after agreement between Bismarck and Pope Leo XIII.
MOON, CHARLOTTE DIGGES "LOTTIE" [1840–1912] was a Southern Baptist missionary to China with the Foreign Mission Board who spent nearly forty years (1873–1912) helping the Chinese. As a teacher and evangelist she laid a foundation for traditionally solid support for missions among Baptists in America. Moon was born to affluent parents who were staunch Baptists. She was very short in stature being only 1.3 metres tall. She excelled at languages including Latin, French. Greek, Hebrew, Spanish and later Chinese She underwent a spiritual awakening at the age of 18 and after the Civil War with her friend, Anna Safford, opened Cartersville Female High School in 1871. To the family's surprise, Lottie's younger sister Edmonia accepted a call to go to North China as a missionary in 1872 and Lottie herself soon felt called to follow her sister. On July 7, 1873, the Foreign Mission Board officially appointed Lottie as a missionary to China. She was 33 years old. While accompanying some of the seasoned missionary wives on “country visits” to outlying villages, Lottie discovered her passion: direct evangelism. Most mission work at that time was done by married men, but the wives of China missionaries had discovered an important reality: only women could reach Chinese women. Gradually she began wearing Chinese clothes, adopted Chinese customs, learned to be sensitive to Chinese culture, and came to respect and admire Chinese culture and learning. In turn she gained love and respect from many Chinese people. In 1885, at the age of 45, Moon gave up teaching and moved into the interior to evangelize full-time in the areas of P'ingtu and Hwangshien. Her converts numbered in the hundreds. She pleaded the "desperate need" for more missionaries, which the poorly funded board could not provide. She encouraged Southern Baptist women to organize mission societies in the local churches to help support additional missionary candidates, and to consider coming themselves. The first "Christmas offering for missions" in 1888 collected over $3,315, enough to send three new missionaries to China. Moon also argued that regular furloughs every ten years would extend the lives and effectiveness of seasoned missionaries. She suffered with the Chinese wars, famines and diseases sharing her meagre funds with them resulting in her health failing and death in Japan en route for America. Lottie Moon has come to personify the missionary spirit for Southern Baptists and many other Christians, as well. The annual Lottie Moon Christmas Offering for Missions has raised a total of $1.5 billion for missions since 1888, and finances half the entire Southern Baptist mission budget every year.
REINKENS, JOSEPH HUBERT [1821-1896] – Old Catholic [see 1889] bishop who was a professor of church history at Breslau University. He opposed the Vatican Council's definition of papal infallibility in 1870 joining J.J.I. von Dollinger [see 1826] in the Nuremberg Declaration. He was excommunicated. He was elected and consecrated first bishop of the German Old Catholics at Cologne in 1873 with his see at Bonn. Reinkens in turn consecrated Edward Herzog as the first Swiss Old Catholic bishop in 1876 and took a prominent part in the Bonn Reunion Conferences of 1874-75 and devoted the rest of his life largely to the Old Catholic cause.
SPAFFORD, HORATIO GATES [1828-1888]. He was born in New York and by the 1860s life was good for Horatio G. Spafford and his wife Anna. They were living in Chicago with their five children, Annie, Maggie, Bessie, Tanetta and Horatio, Jr. He had a successful law practice in Chicago. Horatio Spafford was quite active in the abolitionist movement. Frances E. Willard, president of the National Women's Christian Temperance Union as well as evangelical leaders like Dwight L. Moody were often guests in their home. Spafford was a Presbyterian church elder and a dedicated Christian. However, in 1870 their faith was tested by tragedy. Their four year old son, Horatio, Jr., died of scarlet fever. In October of 1871 when the Great Chicago Fire broke out Horatio faced another test of his faith as they had invested in significant real estate. The Spaffords did not despair. Their home had been spared and they had their family. Even though their finances were mostly depleted, Anna and Horatio used what resources they had left to feed the hungry, help the homeless, care for the sick and injured and comfort their grief stricken neighbours. The Spaffords planned to leave in November 1873 on their voyage to Europe. Due to a sudden business emergency Anna and the four daughters were sent off with Horatio to follow but on November 22, 1873 the steamer Ville du Havre was struck by a British iron sailing ship, the Lockhearn. The steamer Ville du Havre, with Anna Spafford and her daughters aboard, sank within twelve minutes in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. Only 81 of the 307 passengers and crew members survived this tragic shipwreck. Anna was taken to Cardiff, Wales where she telegraphed her husband Horatio. Anna's cable was brief and heartbreaking, "Saved alone. What shall I do" Horatio left on the next available ship and the day that they crossed the place of the disaster he penned his famous hymn "It Is Well With My Soul." He died of Malaria on October 16, 1888 in Jerusalem. Anna Spafford continued to work in the surrounding areas of Jerusalem until her death in 1923.
STALKER, JAMES [1848-1927] – Scottish minister, scholar, and writer who was educated at Edinburgh, Berlin, and Halle. He was ordained into the United Free Church and was the pastor of two churches before becoming professor of church history at the United Free Church College Aberdeen from 1902 to 1926. He was best remembered however as a preacher who shared in the revival movement following the 1873 Moody and Sankey mission that have a lasting effect upon him. Stalker was fearless and untroubled by personal ambition, declining a number of advancements, and encouraged every movement that carried the Gospel to the people.
BONN CONFERENCES where church reunion between the Catholics, Anglican, Greek and Russian churches were examined in 1874 and 1875. One of the major problems was the gap between the Eastern and Western doctrines of the Holy Spirit. Another was the refusal of the Eastern Orthodox church to commit themselves to the validity of Anglican orders.
CHAUTAUQUA MOVEMENT – began when John H Vincent, first chairman of the International Sunday School Lesson Committee, began summer camps for Sunday School teachers at Lake Chautauqua New York. Meetings are still held there in July and August.
FISK, JOHN [1842-1901] – American philosopher, historian, and lecturer. A highly precocious child he graduated from Harvard and was admitted to the bar without formal legal training. He turned from the Calvinism of his youth to propagating Herbert Spencer's evolutionary philosophy. Claiming “Evolution is God's way of doing things” he infused evolutionism with religious values in such works as “Outline of Cosmic Philosophy” in 1874 and “The idea of God” in 1885.
HOLTZMANN, HEINRICH JULIUS [1832-1910] – German theologian and New Testament scholar who was educated at Berlin before beginning his academic career. He taught in Heidelberg from 1858 and in Strasbourg from 1874 until his retirement in 1904. In a study on the synoptic Gospels he developed a two-source theory with its dual necessity of accepting a “teachings” source for Matthew and Luke and the priority of Mark, which yielded the kind of portraits of Jesus compatible with the liberal psychological scheme. As a consequence Holtzman was involved in the church-political squabbles of the German pastors. He laid the foundation of the New Testament research of the 20th century.
KIRELLOS V Coptic Patriarch of Alexandria [1874-1928] see 1862 and 1929 He joined the Paromeos Monastery in the Nitrian Desert, where he served as abbot prior to his elevation to Pope. In the beginning of his papacy there was a dispute between him and the members of the General Congregation Council of the Coptic Orthodox Church, whose secretary at the time who went on later to become the Prime Minister of Egypt. This disagreement was despite the fact they had elected him to become the Coptic Pope and contrary to the expectations of the council, he spent the better part of his papacy at loggerheads with the council and objecting on its interference in the church's matters. In general, his papacy was an era of regeneration for the Coptic Orthodox Church and he continued the work begun by Pope Kirellos IV in educational reform. In 1881, the Ethiopian Emperor Yohannes IV asked him to ordain a metropolitan and three Bishops for the Ethiopian Empire. Pope Cyril V chose the four monks from El-Muharraq Monastery. He was much loved in Ethiopia and once news of his death reached Ethiopia the rulers ordered requiem masses be said throughout Ethiopia, and that government offices be closed for three days. His was the longest of papal reigns in the Coptic church.
NEESHIMA, YUZURU [1843-1890] – Japanese Christian leader who was born into a Samurai family in Tokyo and was determined to bring the learning of the West to Japan. He secretly left his country in 1864 and finally reached Boston where the ships owner befriended him. Schooling and seminary followed his conversion and in 1874 on fire with a desire to evangelise his own people he was commissioned as a missionary by the Congregational Church. In 1875 he found founded in Kyoto, the stronghold of Buddhism, the first Christian school in Japan. Undaunted by broken health he worked passionately to give his students an education that united sound biblical teaching with the highest academic standards. He died from overwork when only aged 46.
ORR, JAMES [1844-1913] – Scottish theologian educated in Glasgow and studied theology under the United Presbyterian Church. He was the minister in Hawick from 1874 to 1891. Orr taught church history at the UP Theological College from 1891 to 1901 and was then professor of apologetics and theology in Glasgow. Writing in the heyday of liberal Protestantism he contended for historical evangelicalism from the standpoint of modified Calvinism. He wrote apologetics and also contributed to The Fundamentals from 1909 to 1915.
PASTOR, LUDWIG VON [1854-1928] – Church historian born in Germany who by 1874 had decided to write a history of the popes. He studied at Bonn, Berlin, and Vienna and subsequently played a role in opening up the Vatican Archives to all scholars in 1883. His major work was “The History of the Popes From the Close of the Middle Ages” in 16 volumes. This was based on extensive research in the Vatican and in over 200 other European archives.
RAINY, ROBERT [1826-1906] – Scottish minister and scholar who graduated from Edinburgh and in 1851 became minister of the Free Church of Scotland at Huntly. In 1862 he assumed the chair of church history at New College Edinburgh a post which he held for the next 44 years and with which from 1874 he combined the college principalship. He led the Free Church into union with United Presbyterian Church in 1900 and his own third term as moderator was over the United Free Church assembly. His funeral, delayed because he died in Australia, was reported as being the greatest spectacle in Edinburgh since that of Thomas Chalmers in 1847.
RYERSON, ADOLPHUS EGERTON [1803-1882] – Methodist leader and educationalist who was born in Canada and called to the Methodist ministry and became a successful saddleback preacher and missionary to the Credit River Indians. In 1829 he became the first editor of the influential “Christian Guardian” and secretary of the Wesleyan Missionary Society. Vitally concerned about education he helped found the Upper Canada Academy which became the Victoria College in 1841 with himself as principal. The educational system of Ontario after 1870 was largely based upon his 1846 Report. From 1874 to 1878 he was the first president of the General Conference of the Methodist Church of Canada and he was probably the most influential Canadian Methodist of his time.
SAYCE, ARCHIBALD HENRY [1845-1933] – Professor of Assyriology who was a son of a vicar. Educated at Oxford, Sayce was ordained but did not marry and pursued a life of leisurely scholarship which took him almost every winter from 1879 to 1908 to his houseboat on the Nile. He became the first professor of Assyriology in England from 1891 until his retirement in 1919. He was a member of the Old Testament revision company [1874-1884]. He was no literalist but with his realisation of the importance of discoveries he became a wise opponent of higher critics who were so involved with their own theories of literary formation to look at the empirical evidence.
SMITH, HANNA WHITALL [1832-1911] – A member of a pious Quaker family who with her husband Robert Pearsall Smith was a speaker at interdenominational "Higher Christian Life" meetings in America and England. She was converted in 1858 under Plymouth Brethren influence at the same time as her husband, a Presbyterian layman. After 1867 she testified to a life of spiritual victory and rest through complete commitment to Christ. Her husband, originally sceptical joined her as a leader of the Christian assemblies devoted to the study of teaching on the life of victory in Christ. In 1872 they moved to England because of her husband's declining health and for two years experienced great success in interdenominational meetings devoted to biblical exposition of their new found religious experience. The movement thus initiated led to the founding of the Keswick Convention in 1874 were annual sessions are still devoted to a consideration of biblical teaching on the higher life for the believing Christian.
SMITH, HENRY PRESERVED [1847-1927] – Old Testament scholar of Puritan descent who was educated at Lane Theological Seminary and the University of Berlin. He taught at Lane from 1874 and was ordained as a Presbyterian and up to 1882 was a conservative. An article on Wellhausen reinforced his observation that textual corruption of the Bible implied non-infallibility. It was not however until he defended C.A. Briggs [see 1890] that he too was tried for heresy by the Presbyterian Church in 1892 and suspended from ministry. Subsequently he taught at various theological schools.
STEBBINS, GEORGE COLES [1846-1945] – American gospel hymn writer who studied music at Rochester, Chicago, and Boston. He served as musical director from 1874 at Boston's Clarendon Street Church and was a lifelong acquaintance of D.L. Moody, Ira Sankey, P.P. Bliss, and D.W. Whittle. For nearly 50 years Stebbins led choirs, wrote music, and worked as an evangelical music director. He authored over 1500 hymns, the best-known of which being "Take Time to be Holy".
STONE SAMUEL JOHN [1839-1900]. Samuel Stone is remembered as the writer of "The Church's One Foundation," was the son of Rev, William Stone. He was educated at Pembroke College, Oxford and served as curate of Windsor from 1862 to 1870, then of St. Paul’s Haggerston where in 1874, he succeeded his father as vicar. In 1890 he became rector of All Hallows-on-the-Wall in London. St. Paul's Haggerston was in a poor section of London. Stone would open the church at 6:30 in the morning so that commuters, frequently poor working girls, arriving early could have a brief service and prayer, then have time to rest, to read or to sew. He built numerous churches; his belief was that poor people deserved beautiful churches in which to worship. His thoughtfulness earned him the title of "the poor man's pastor". Stone wrote poems and hymns, publishing several collections. His hymns have been described as expressing "a manly faith" and being "rhythmic, vigorous and scriptural". He also was a member of the committee that assembled “Hymns, Ancient and Modern”. He was a supporter of Bishop Gray in the controversy of Bishop Colenso over the historicity of the Bible.
SVERDRUP, GEORG [1848-1907] – American church leader of Norwegian descent who studied theology at Oslo and at German universities. In 1874 he was called to America as professor of theology at Augsburg Seminary Minneapolis. Sverdrup accepted the ideal of "living" Christianity and in his new country felt convinced that this would prosper only in the form of a free church with lay preaching and independent congregations. He became therefore the champion of the free church ideal and the Norwegian Lutheran Church was founded in 1897 and organised according to his ideas.
BRUCE, ALEXANDER BALMAIN [1831-1899] – Scottish theologian educated at Edinburgh who in 1859 became the minister at Cardross. He transferred to Broughty Ferry nine years later and in 1875 was appointed professor of apologetics and New Testament exegesis. His writings include “The Humiliation of Christ”, “The Kingdom of God”, and commentaries on the synoptic gospels and the epistle to the Hebrews.
DIXON, AMZI CLARENCE [1854-1925] – Baptist pastor and author who was born in North Carolina and studied at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. He had a number of pastorates including the Moody Memorial Church in Chicago [1906-1911] and the Metropolitan Tabernacle London [1911-1919]. He was active in the conservative Bible conference prophetic movement and in evangelical crusades from about 1875. He joined R. A. Torrey [see 1900] in the publication of The Fundamentals, a 12 volume paperback series dedicated to the defence of the fundamental doctrines of the Christian faith.
EDERSHEIM, ALFRED [1825-1889] – Biblical scholar born of Jewish parentage in Vienna who went to the University of Vienna in 1841 but was forced to leave after a few months due to the illness of his father. Shortly after, he came under the influence of the Scottish Presbyterian, John Duncan, who was chaplain to workmen on the Danube bridge at Pesth. Edersheim accompanied Duncan to Scotland and was enrolled as a student at New College, Edinburgh, and later at the University of Berlin. In 1846 he became a missionary to the Jews in Rumania and three years later was inducted as minister of the Free Church in Old Aberdeen. In 1875 he was ordained in the Church of England and was vicar of Loders, Dorset. Of his writings the most widely read was The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah 1883.
GALESBURG RULE – “Lutheran pulpits for Lutheran ministers only; Lutheran altars for Lutheran communicants only” was adopted by the Lutheran General Council meeting at Galesburg, Illinois in 1875. It was intended to preserve confessional distinctiveness threatened by practices of some Lutherans that seemed to promote unionism and Americanisation. The rule, suggested by president C.P. Krauth, was enacted at Akron, Ohio in 1872, with carefully worded provisions for exceptional cases.
HAWKER, ROBERT STEPHEN [1803-1875] – English poet, educated Oxford, who spent most of his life as a vicar on the north coast of Cornwall. Although his Anglo-Catholicism was marked by his own eccentricities he was undoubtedly sincerely attracted to the lore of the Celtic saints. There is some controversy as to whether or not he was accepted into the Roman Catholic Church on his deathbed.
HIEROTHEUS Patriarch of Jerusalem [1875-1882] see 1872 and 1882
KESWICK CONVENTION – This annual summer gathering of evangelicals at Keswick in the English Lake District originated in the Moody - Sankey revival of 1875 through the efforts of the then vicar of Keswick, Canon Harford Battersby. The keynotes of Keswick are prayer, Bible study, addresses, and much enthusiasm for foreign missions. Local Keswick Conventions are held in various cities. Supporters come mainly from Christians of the Reformed tradition especially evangelical Anglicans.
LAWS, ROBERT [1851-1934] – Scottish medical missionary who joined the Livingstonia Mission in 1875 as medical officer and second in command. As leader after 1877 he founded stations at Bandawe in 1881 and Livingstonia in 1894 and helped to develop extensive work west of Lake Nyasa. He regarded evangelism, education, industrial training, and medical work as complementary aspects of the Christian mission and gave practical expression to this belief while living at Livingstonia which he superintended from 1894 to 1927. His work there provided trained leaders of the autonomous African Church which he hoped to create.
MACKAY, ALEXANDER MURDOCH [1849-1890] – Scottish missionary to Uganda who studied at the Free Church training college and in 1873 went to Berlin to acquire qualifications with an engineering firm. In 1875 having read H.M. Stanley's book on David Livingstone [see 1841] he changed his original intention about working in Madagascar and applied to the Church Missionary Society (CMS) for work in Uganda. He arrived in East Africa and began work on making a road through to Lake Victoria Nyanza 230 miles inland. It took two years. He arrived at the lake shortly after the murder of two CMS colleagues and after all the others had left because of ill-health. The boat, intended for the lake and brought up in sections, had suffered severe damage but Mackay's engineering knowledge and resourcefulness resulted in its completion and made an enormous impression. A party set out in the boat for Entebbe headquarters of King Mtesa, and he gave him permission to read and expand on the New Testament on Sundays. Arab traders opposed him and the French catholic priests introduced problems. There was much persecution of Christians and Mackay finally withdrew to the south of the lake where he taught and translated and there met Stanley. Mackay died from malaria but not before he saw the first copies of Matthew's gospel printed.
NEW TESTAMENT CRITICISM – The application to the New Testament of techniques used by scholars in the study of ordinary literature in the attempt to determine the original wording of the various documents and to decide questions of date, authorship, literary composition, and the like. “Criticism” has particularly negative connotations in many Christian circles not due to the work but to the attitude of many of the critics in their hostility to orthodox Christianity. The distinction between “the critics” and “Bible believing scholars” is a false one as anyone who studies the Bible in depth must be classified as a biblical critic for they must face the same questions. Criticism comes in five groups  Textural criticism which seeks to ascertain the original wording of the text,  Linguistic criticism seeks to understand the nature of the words of a document using Greek grammar.  Historical criticism which seeks to understand the historical setting  Literary criticism is concerned about authorship, sources, composition date and place of writing and is often called “higher criticism” as it is based on the previous type and  Redaction criticism which relates to understanding the special contribution of every evangelist.
PFLEIDERER, OTTO [1839-1908] – German Protestant scholar who studied at Tubingen under F.C. Baur [see 1845] and became an adherent of the Tubingen School [see 1826]. In 1875 he took the chair of theology at Berlin. After lecturing in Britain he considered Pauline theology a very logical outworking of Christian teaching.
CLARK, WILLIAM SMITH [1826-1886] – American agriculturist who reached Sapporo in Japan and within eight months set up a college, school, and experimental farm. He converted all sixteen students to Christianity and following his lead the converts won all the second class for Christ. This group became known as the Sapporo Band. Its most prominent member was Kanzo Uchimura [see 1881].
COMBER, THOMAS JAMES [1852-1887] – Baptist pioneer missionary born in London and accepted by the Baptist Missionary Society he sailed for the Cameroons in 1876 meeting Alfred Saker [see 1845] en route. With George Grenfell [see 1884] he was appointed to the proposed Congo Mission. They established a base at San Salvador in 1878. His wife died within a month of arriving in Africa. Comber and Grenfell explored the Congo River as far as Liboko on the mission steamer “Peace”. Many missionaries died including Comber’s brother and sister and he finally succumbed in his thirty fifth year.
EAST AFRICA UGANDA. The pioneer missionary work in Uganda may be said to have been started by the explorer H. M. Stanley. In April 1875 he had several interviews with Mutesa I, the Kabaka of Buganda in which he found the king to be very interested in the Christian faith. The result was Stanley's famous letter to the Daily Telegraph and New York Herald in which he appealed for some pious practical missionaries to come to the kingdom of the Buganda. The Anglican CMS took up the challenge and in 1876 a party of eight missionaries led by Lieut. Shergold Smith set out from Britain. Only three reached Buganda, and of these two were killed in a local dispute leaving only the Rev C.T. Wilson who was alone for the next year or so. In November 1878 Alexander Mackay [see 1875] a Scottish Presbyterian arrived. Stanley's letter had been read also by the head of the White Fathers and in 1878 he sent a party of missionaries to Buganda despite the personal request from the CMS Secretary not to do so in order to avoid the competition and consequent confusion in their minds the people of Buganda. Much unhappiness and even warfare would have been avoided if this request had been heeded. Mutesa I died in 1884 and was succeeded by his son Mwanga who was a cruel and treacherous ruler and the infant Christian Church was subjected to persecution which produced many martyrs both Anglican and Roman Catholic. The first Anglican bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa, James Hannington [see 1882] never reached Buganda but was murdered at Busoga on Lake Victoria in 1885 by Mwanga's orders.
Finally in 1894 Uganda was declared a British protectorate. This finished Mwanga's reign of terror. The government built a railway from Mombasa to Lake Victoria which was a major factor in opening up Uganda to the world. Outstanding among the Anglican missionaries was Alfred Tucker, bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa, who arrived in 1890. He had firm views on the needs to establish an indigenous church. In 1898 he was installed as the first Anglican bishop of Uganda but because of ill health was forced to resign in 1911. In 1894 the Mill Hill fathers of the Catholic persuasion came from Britain to work in East Uganda. After the establishment of law and order under the British administration there was a mass movement among the people in Buganda into both the Anglican and Roman Catholic churches. The Protestant influence in Uganda has remained predominantly evangelical and Anglican but a few other Protestant missions have entered the country; thus there has been no need for a Christian Council as in Kenya and Tanzania. There have been a few separatist movements in the Uganda church, the most important was led by Rubens Spartas in 1929 when he broke away from the Anglican Church to establish the African Orthodox Church which in 1946 was recognised by the Greek Orthodox patriarch of Alexandria.
HOWE, JULIA WARD [1819-1910] – Writer and reformer who married Samuel Howe in 1843. He was a humanitarian and teacher of the blind which placed Julia in the company of prominent Bostonian intellectuals, poets, and social reformers. Brought up an Episcopalian she became a Unitarian and occasionally preached from Unitarian pulpits. After husband's death in 1876 she gave herself unceasingly to public service, a leader of every humanitarian movement or cause. She advocated women's suffrage, prison reform, international peace, and children's welfare. Her most famous piece of poetry is ‘The Battle hymn of the Republic’.
LOBSTEIN, PAUL [1850–1928] – French Protestant theologian who was educated at Strasbourg, Tubingen, and Gottingen where he taught as professor of theology from 1876. Essentially a systematic theologian he wrote mainly in French with only a few books in German. His later studies were in historical theology and dogmatics; aspects of Calvin's thought, studies of the doctrines of God, and the person and work of Christ.
MCGRANAHAN, JAMES [1840-1907] – Born in Pennsylvania, his father sent him to a singing school, and he soon became an assistant by playing the bass viol. At the age of nineteen he organized his first singing class. He entered the Normal Music School in 1861 and in 1875 he accepted the position as one of the managers of Dr. Root's Normal Musical Institute, in which capacity he served as director and teacher for three years, He was a close friend of Philip Bliss [see 1860] who encouraged him to use his tenor voice for Christian service. This was shortly before Bliss’ death and he became his natural successor in 1876 for Major Whittle’s evangelical ministry where he served for eleven years. His most famous hymn “Far, far away in heathen darkness dwelling” reflected the need for world wide evangelism.
NIAGARA CONFERENCES – Gatherings for Bible study at Niagara-on-the-Lake Ontario in the closing decades of the 19th century. These assemblies marked the beginnings of the Bible Conference Movement. The idea of conferences probably originated in 1868 when eight men associated with pre-millennial periodical “Waymarks in the Wilderness” met informally in New York City. In 1875 another small group met near Chicago and the following year they met again at Swampscott Massachusetts for fellowship and Bible study. The conference usually open with a Wednesday evening prayer meeting and for the next week the participants heard two Bible lessons each morning, two every afternoon, and another each evening. There is evidence that the early conferences were a result of J Darby's travels in the United States and influence of the Plymouth Brethren.
ROBINSON, GEORGE WADE [1838-1877] – George Robinson was a poet and hymnist from Cork, Ireland. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and New College, St. John’s Wood, London. He entered the Congregational ministry and was co-pastor at York Street Chapel in Dublin with Dr. Urwick. He then became pastor at St. John’s Wood, Dudley, and at Union Street, Brighton. His most remembered poetry is in the Hymn “Loved with Everlasting Love” with its chorus “I am His and he His mine” He died in January 18, 1877.
SLESSOR, MARY [1848-1915] – Missionary to West Africa who was born in Aberdeen, Scotland in a very poor family. Her mother was a devout Christian who was deeply interested in the United Presbyterian Church's Calabar Mission. Mary was converted in her teens and having experienced youth work in Dundee slums she sailed for Nigeria in 1876 and worked there almost continuously until her death. She fought against witchcraft, drunkenness, twin killing, and other cruel customs. She acquired great skill in the languages and had an almost uncanny insight into the African mind. She was instrumental in establishing trade between the coast and inland areas to their benefit and in beginning the Hope Waddell Institution to train Africans in useful trades and to carry out medical work. She was the first woman vice consul in the British Empire when British rule was established in the area. As a result of her work under God the Ibo people became more Christian than tribes in other parts of Nigeria.
WEBB-PEPLOE, HANMER WILLIAM [1837-1923] – Anglican minister and missioner who was educated at Cambridge and ordained in 1863. He held a number of positions before becoming vicar of St Paul’s Onslow Square London from 1876 to 1919. He was a prebendary of St Paul's Cathedral London from 1893. A champion gymnast, he suffered an injury while at Cambridge, putting him on his back for three years in which position he did all his degree and ordination examinations. A leader of the Evangelical party and the chief promoter of Keswick he was also a strong supporter of missions particularly among the Waldensians.
WESLEY, SAMUEL SEBASTIAN [1810-1876] – English composer and organist who was the grandson of Charles Wesley [see 1738]. Anglican prejudice was against the Wesley's inhibited him in his early years. Like Bach he suffered from inadequate forces to carry out his ideals and was angered by official indifference. He did however write some fine anthems and composed the well-known tune Aurelia for the hymn “The Church’s one foundation”.
AMENT, WILLIAM SCOTT [1851-1909] – He was a missionary to China for the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions from 1877, and was known as the "Father of Christian Endeavour in China”. Ament became prominent as a result of his reported heroism during the Boxer Uprising and controversial in its aftermath because of the personal attacks on him by American writer Mark Twain for his collection of punitive indemnities from north China villages.
BAEDEKER, FREDERICK [1823‑1906] – English based Brethren missionary to Russia and Scandinavia with especial emphasis on prisons. Both he and his wife were converted in 1866 under the ministry of Lord Radstock who encouraged them to evangelise in Europe. In 1877 he settled for three years with his family in St Petersburg and in 1889, in spite of official disfavour, he obtained a unique permit which was renewed every two years until his death, to preach and distribute Bibles in any Russian prison.
DELITZSCH, F. J. [1813-1890] – Lutheran Old Testament scholar who was born and educated in Leipzig where he taught for some years, later holding chairs at Rostock and Leipzig. From a Jewish background he sought to combat both the extremes of anti-Semitism and Zionism and to aid in the conversion of the Jews to Christianity. In 1863 he founded a Jewish missionary college; translated the New Testament into Hebrew in 1877 and established at Leipzig an institution for the Jews. In 1886 he published a number of Old Testament commentaries of a conservative character. He examined carefully the critical series of Wellhausen [see 1892] and came to uphold the liberal view that there are different literary styles in the Pentateuch and of the dual authorship of Isaiah. His critical views were probably more widely accepted in the English-speaking world than those of Wellhausen himself. It is however as an exegete for which he is chiefly remembered.
EDDY, MARY BAKER [1821-1910] – Founder of Christian Science. Born into a Congregational family in New Hampshire she was from infancy subject to attacks of convulsive hysteria and even as a grown child had to be rocked to sleep in a cradle made by her father. She was highly sensitive, intensely religious, seeing God everywhere. Reared on the Westminster confession, she was accepted on confession of faith at the age of 12 by her father's church, despite her rejection of the Westminster's predestinationism. In 1862 Mary visited "Doctor" Phineas Quimby an ignorant non religious blacksmith who practised hypnotism and through it set her free from years of suffering. Impressed by his healing through the use of mind, Mary combined Quimby's methods with her understanding of Christianity and gave birth to her Divine Science of healing, which she claimed came by direct revelation from God. In 1877 she married Asa Gilbert Eddy a man of poor health whom she cured. After his death this remarkable widow of 61 went on to fame, wealth, and the founding of her own church. She died at 89, after years of loneliness and mortal terror that enemies were projecting some mental arsenic into her mind.
GIBBONS, JAMES [1834-1921] – Catholic archbishop of Baltimore. Son of Irish immigrants, he rose from simple surroundings to become the “American Cardinal”, the dominant Roman Catholic prelate in United States history. He was appointed as archbishop of Baltimore in 1877 and named cardinal in 1886. He led the nation’s first archdiocese and thus much of the American church until his death. Although untalented as a writer and a thinker he extended Catholic influence in an age of intense anti-Catholicism.
GRANT, GEORGE MONRO [1835-1902] – Canadian minister and educator. Ordained a minister in the Church of Scotland in 1860 he became pastor of St Matthew's Church Halifax in 1863. In 1877 he was appointed principal of Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, and held that office until his death. Emphasising very strongly the practical, social, and political aspects of Christianity, he became a national figure because of his involvement in national and imperial interests, and because of his book Ocean to Ocean published in 1873. In 1899 he was moderator of his denomination’s general assembly and in 1901 became president of the Royal Society of Canada. Grant was known as author, educator, politician, and minister, and was regarded almost as a national institution.
HODGE, ARCHIBALD ALEXANDER [1823-1886] – Presbyterian theologian and son of Charles Hodge [see 1841] who succeeded his father at Princeton as systematic theologian in 1877. Explainer of his father's ideas rather than creator of new concepts, and less prolific and scholarly, he was noted for a number of works defending the Princeton fundamentals of divine sovereignty and human depravity, and attempted to enliven these ideas through social application.
LAMBUTH, WALTER RUSSELL [1854 – 1921]. – Lambuth was a Chinese-born American Methodist Bishop who worked as a missionary establishing schools and hospitals in China, Korea and Japan in the 1880s. Walter's parents were pioneering missionaries in China. Together they also founded the mission work of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South in Japan. He came from a line of Methodist ministers. Walter graduated with theology and medical degrees before he returned to China with his wife Daisy Kelly as a medical missionary in 1877. Then he was dispatched to West Japan where they were founders of Methodist work in Japan. He also established Methodist work in the Belgian Congo, later travelling to Europe and establishing Southern Methodism in Belgium, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Siberia and supervising missionary work worldwide until his death in 1921.
SABATIER, LOUIS AUGUSTE [1839-1901] – French Protestant scholar who was brought up in the early 19th century Protestant revival and became a leading exponent of liberal Protestantism in France. He taught at Strasbourg [1868-1870] which was cut short for political reasons but eventually in 1877 he helped to restore the faculty in Paris. From 1886 he taught also at the Sorbonne. His theology evolved in relation to his wide interests in modern cultural problems and was also shown in his prolific regular writings on literature and politics.
SCHERESCHEWSKY, SAMUEL ISAAC [1831-1906] – Missionary translator was born in Lithuania of Jewish parents. He graduated from Breslau University and through reading the New Testament became a Christian. Going to the USA he joined the Baptist Church and studied at a Presbyterian seminary [1855 to 1858]. He served as a missionary in Shanghai in 1859 and Peking [1863-1875]. He was gifted in languages and contributed with others in the translation of the Prayer Book and New Testament into Mandarin and undertook the Old Testament by himself. He became bishop of Shanghai in 1877 and four years later was struck down with paralysis due to a stroke. He resigned his see in 1883 but over the next twenty years completed, with the help of his wife, a translation of the Bible into Wenli, typing some 2,000 pages with the middle finger of his partially crippled hand. Four years before his death in 1906, he said, “I have sat in this chair for over twenty years. It seemed very hard at first. But God knew best. He kept me for the work for which I am best fitted.”
SOLOVIEV, VLADIMIR SERGEEVICH [1853-1900] – Russian theologian and philosopher who graduated from the University of Moscow in 1873. After research in London and Egypt he returned to Moscow in 1876 and the following year moved to the University St Petersburg where Dostoevsky [see 1880] and Leo Tolstoy [see 1861] were among those present at his lectures on "Godmanhood". He was forced into retirement in 1881 after he advocated mercy for the assassins of Alexander II, and devoted the rest of his life to his writings. He was deeply influenced by German idealistic philosophy and Gnostic mysticism. He advocated the reunion of the Eastern and Western churches and the establishment of a universal theocracy. Because of his connection with Rome he is sometimes called the Russian Newman. He was a prolific author.
TIELE, CORNELIUS PETRUS [1830-1902] – Dutch theologian who was educated in Amsterdam and became professor of religious history at Leyden University in 1877. During his professorship he exercised a great influence on the development of the study of comparative religion, especially in the Netherlands. He had a vast knowledge of ancient languages and history and was able to write in a lucid and orderly way.
WEISS, BERNHARD [1827-1918] – German Protestant New Testament scholar who taught at a number of universities in Germany including Berlin from 1877 to 1908. Demonstrating that criticism and positive Evangelical theology were not mutually exclusive, Weiss was one of a long line of conservative German scholars who have not been given the recognition they deserve. He was a strong critic of F.C. Baur [see 1845] and the Tubingen scholars.
WORLD ALLIANCE OF REFORMED CHURCHES – The oldest international Protestant body membership of which was open to any church organisation based on Presbyterian principles which honours the supreme authority of the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments in matters of faith and morals and has a creed that is in harmony with the consensus of the Reformed Churches. This group had its first general council in 1877. The Alliance remains essentially consultative and advisory.
BOOTH, WILLIAM [1829‑1912] – Founder of the Salvation Army in 1878. He was converted in 1844 and became a minister and evangelist but resigned in 1861 from the Methodists to become a freelance evangelist. With his wife Catherine [1829‑1900] they tackled social evils alongside his evangelical preaching. Cheap food centres, night shelters and unemployment exchanges were all set up by Booth. While his wife was dying of cancer he conceived of a Missing Persons Bureau and Legal Aid for the poor. In 1904 aged 75 he did a 29 day motorised evangelistic tour of Britain 1224 miles long and 164 meetings long. In his preaching life he travelled 5 million miles, preached 60,000 sermons and had drawn 16000 officers to serve in the Salvation Army.
FARRAR, FREDERIC WILLIAM [1831-1903] – Dean of Canterbury. Born in India to missionary parents, he went to school at King William's College, Isle of Man where the religious teaching was strongly evangelical. He further studied at King's College London where he was influenced by F.D. Maurice [see 1838], and after graduation and ordination was a schoolmaster until his mid-40s. He had a tremendous influence on the Victorian middle classes in both religious and cultural matters. His “Life in Christ” published in 1874 went through 12 editions in the first year and his “Life and Works of St Paul” published in 1879 also had a great impact. Much controversy was aroused by a collection of sermons in which he questioned the doctrine of eternal punishment for the wicked. In 1882 he preached at Charles Darwin’s funeral. It was held that Farrar's broad outlook long hindered his ecclesiastical promotion, but eventually, after having been a royal chaplain and canon of Westminster, he was appointed dean of Canterbury, which post he held the last eight years of his life. He was elected in 1866 as a fellow of the Royal Society, an honour not accorded to many modern churchmen.
JOACHIM III – Patriarch of Constantinople [1878-1884, 1901-1912] succeeded Joachim II [see 1860]. He was born in Constantinople in 1834 and educated in Vienna. In 1858-1861 he was a deacon in the holy temple of St George. In 1864 he was elected bishop of Varna and ten years later bishop of Thessalonica. During his first reign, he worked on the improvement of the financial state of the patriarchate. In 1880 he founded the magazine "Truth" and undertook various other charitable acts. He is seen as one of the most prominent and important patriarchs of modern times. Patriarch Joachim III repeatedly attempted to find a solution to the Bulgarian schism.
LEO XIII – Pope [1878-1903]. He was educated by the Jesuits at Viterbo after which he studied in Rome and was ordained a priest in 1837. He gained a reputation as a social reformer and in the 1840’s mediated an educational controversy between the Jesuits and the Catholic University of Louvain. In 1853 Leo was created cardinal and spent his long episcopate building and restoring churches and encouraging learning and social reform and although not popular with Pius IX protested against the loss of temporal power by the papacy in 1870. By conciliatory methods he overcame anti-clerical protests in Germany after the decree of papal infallibility in 1870. After his election as pope he renewed contacts with Russia and Japan and improved relations with Britain. In France however he tried with little success to disassociate the Catholic clergy from the Royalist party and during his last years relations between church and state in France had deteriorated into a period of aggressive anticlericalism. In Italy as well the loss of the Papal States remained permanent so that the pope was considered “The Prisoner of the Vatican”. Leo did much in the social area attempting to stem the flow of common people away from the church by promoting the concept of just wages and trade unions. He encouraged the study of the Bible and in 1883 opened the Vatican library to historical research. He succeeded Pius IX [see 1846] and was succeeded by Pius X [see 1903].
MILLS, BENJAMIN FAY [1857-1916] – He was an evangelist and Christian Socialist born in New Jersey and ordained as a Congregational minister in 1878. In 1886 Mills started itinerant evangelism. Believing social and economic problems could be solved only by effecting God's kingdom on earth, Mills became the only major evangelist attempting to unite revivalism with the social gospel. Finding this impossible, he terminated his itinerant ministry in 1895 to preach Christian Socialism in New York and Boston. In 1899 despairing of evangelical awakening he became minister of the First Unitarian Church in Oakland California.
PEARSON, CHARLES WILLIAM (1847-1917) – Pearson was a pioneer Anglican missionary in Uganda, and thus was one of the pioneers of the Church of Uganda. He was later a parish priest in England. He started life as a merchant seaman for some years before being discharged in London in 1875. The next year he attended the Church Missionary Society's college in Islington, and in 1878 led a party of four missionaries to Uganda to replace four who had died. The first party of CMS missionaries, led by Lt. G. Shergold-Smith, had landed at Bagamoyo in July 1876, but a year later two had been killed in a skirmish, and two others had died of fever. Pearson and his party reached Rubaga in Uganda in February 1879, over nine months after setting out. They were received at the court of Mutesa I, the Kabaka (King) of Buganda, A week later a party of French Roman Catholic missionaries arrived, and difficulties ensued as Mutesa played off Arab, British and French interests against each other. The Christian missionaries had not come prepared to be used as political pawns. Their denominational rivalry reduced the effectiveness of their message, as the Catholics refused to kneel for the Anglican prayers and vice versa. Pearson appears to have been mainly occupied in translation work. After serving in Uganda for two years Pearson returned to England for health reasons, using the more conventional route via the East Coast and Zanzibar. He was known as a student of languages, and gained knowledge of 17 languages. He was eminent as a translator, and served several publishers and missionary organisations in that capacity.
ZAIRE – H.M. Stanley's exploration of the basin of the Congo brought the first Protestant missionaries to Zaire in 1878. The first two societies were the Livingstone Inland Mission and the British Baptists. The former was a branch of the Regions Beyond Missionary Union and when the parent body found itself overextended the Congo mission was handed over to the American Baptists. Other missions followed until they totalled some 46 societies, a high percentage of them American. It was the missionaries who revealed the atrocities committed during the time of King Leopold's personal rule. This obliged the Belgian government to step in and take control in 1908. The Roman Catholic government showed a distinct favouritism towards Roman Catholic missions which had followed the Protestants into the field, until after World War II when a more liberal party came into power. Independence brought chaos to much of the country. For the next few years many missionaries had to be evacuated some of them up to three times. A number were killed, both Catholics and Protestants, along with an uncounted numbers of Congolese Christians.
BRITISH ISRAELITES – Founded in England by John Wilson’s book “Our Israelitish Origin” published in 1840. They believed that the British and American peoples are part of the "lost" tribes of Israel. The first Anglo Saxon Association was founded in 1879. Critics urge that the evidence for British Israelitism is very slender and that the lost tribes were largely absorbed into Judah.
HAVERGAL FRANCES RIDLEY [1838–1879] – She was an English religious poet and hymn writer. “Take my life and let it be” and “ Lord speak to me that I may speak” are the best known of her hymns. She also wrote hymn melodies, religious tracts, and works for children. She was born into an Anglican family, her father, William Henry Havergal (1793–1870), was a clergyman, writer, composer, and hymn writer. In 1852-3 she studied in the Louisenschule, Düsseldorf, and at Oberkassel. Otherwise she led a quiet life, not enjoying consistent good health; she travelled, in particular to Switzerland. She supported the Church Missionary Society. She died of peritonitis at Caswell Bay on the Gower Peninsula in Wales.
HERGENROTHER, JOSEPH [1824-1890] – Roman Catholic scholar who studied at Wurzburg, the German college in Rome, and was appointed as professor of canon law and church history there. He was a consultant for the preparations of Vatican I and became a cardinal in 1879 and the first prefect of the Vatican archives. Defending papal infallibility, he refuted Dollinger having earlier attacked his liberalism.
LIGHTFOOT, JOSEPH BARBER [1828-1889] – Bishop of Durham. He was a sickly child and educated at home, then at King Edward's School Birmingham where he formed a friendship with E.W. Benson later archbishop of Canterbury. In 1847 he went to Cambridge and studied under B.F. Westcott [see 1851] and held professorships there. In 1879 he was appointed bishop of Durham and devoted himself with great energy to his duties. He saw to the building of churches into the expanding industrial areas, and also had living with him young graduates who were training for the ministry. Lightfoot was fluent in seven languages and was at his best when dealing with and assessing facts rather than ideas. This made him a good foil for both Wescott and F.J. Hort [see 1881]. With both he intended to write a commentary on the complete New Testament. Lightfoot was to do the Pauline epistles and completed Galatians in 1865, Philippians in 1868, and Colossians and Philemon in 1875.
MACARIUS OF MOSCOW [1810-1882] – Metropolitan of Moscow who was educated at Kursk and at Kiev and became a leading theologian in the Russian Orthodox Church holding a professorship of dogmatic theology at St Petersburg. He was made metropolitan of Moscow in 1879 and became an authority on the official theology of the Roman Catholic church. He is the author of a number of books.
MAXWELL, JAMES CLERK [1831-1879] – Scottish physicist who was educated at Edinburgh and Cambridge. His investigations and discoveries cover a wide field but he is best known as the creator of the electromagnetic theory. Throughout his life he was a committed Christian whose philosophic consideration of his faith led him to some of his greatest scientific discoveries. Sir Richard Glazebrooke said of him “all he read helped only to strengthen that firm faith in the fundamentals of Christianity in which he lived and died.”
RENAN, JOHN ERNEST [1823-1892] – French humanist historian and oriental linguist who unsettled both Catholics and Protestants with his publication ”The Life of Jesus” in 1863. In this publication he depicted Jesus as a truly remarkable itinerant preacher but certainly not the Son of God. His portrait came at the right historic moment for him and achieved immense popularity among the enlarging sceptical readership. From 1845 he went on numerous archaeological digs in the Near East and became professor of Hebrew at the College of France in 1862 until removed because of the furore over his publication. He was reinstated in 1870 and appointed director of the college in 1879 under the secularist Third Republic.
YOUNG, ROBERT [1822-1888] – Scottish theologian and Orientalist. He was apprentice to a printer and combined his work with book selling from 1847 and spent much time in the study of languages. In 1856 he went to India as a literary missionary, superintendent of the mission press at Surat and retained his missionary interest when he returned to Europe in 1861. Young is best known for his comprehensive “Analytical Concordance to the Holy Bible” published in 1879.
CABRINI, FRANCES-XAVIER [1850‑1917] – Italian Catholic who founded the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart. She was shy and delicate but had a strong spirit. Abandoning her career as a primary school teacher she founded her own women’s missionary society in 1880. Leo III [see 1878] sent her to New York in 1889 where she worked with Italian immigrants founding schools, hospitals, and charitable organisations on a worldwide scale.
CHURCH OF ENGLAND ZENANA MISSION was a British Anglican Christian missionary society that was involved in sending workers to countries such as China during the late Qing Dynasty..
ELLIOT EMILY ELIZABETH STEELE [1836-1897] – Emily Elizabeth Steele Elliot was the niece of Charlotte Elliot, author of the hymn “Just As I Am. She wrote a number of hymns for the church in England where her father served as pastor. Elliot published a book called “Under the Pillow” containing 48 of her hymns. It was designed for the use of those in hospitals and infirmaries. The one song of hers in common use today is the Christmas hymn “Thou Didst Leave Thy Throne.” She published “Chimes of Consecration”, a volume of seventy original hymns, in 1873, and “Chimes for Daily Service”, seventy-one hymns, in 1880. She edited the “Church Missionary Juvenile Instructor” for several years.
HARRIS, JAMES RENDEL [1852-1941] – Quaker scholar and Orientalist who was educated Cambridge and taught mathematics at the University until 1882 when he migrated the USA. Returning to England he gained the reputation of a brilliant but unorthodox scholar who specialise in textural problems. Having previously been a Congregationalist, in 1880 he joined the Society of Friends or Quakers. In 1896 he organised relief for Armenians at the time of the massacres. Theologically he was a liberal Christian and was scornful of fundamentalism.
KUYPER, ABRAHAM [1837-1920] – Dutch Calvinist theologian and political leader. As a young preacher he was attracted by the deep-seated Calvinistic Pietism of the villagers and this along with other influences led him to embrace orthodox Calvinism. He ran for parliament and made orthodox Calvinism a political force. His programme called for state aid for religious schools, extension of the suffrage, recognition of the rights of labour, reforms in colonial policies, and a revitalisation of national life. By 1880 Kuyper started an orthodox Calvinist Free University which was free from church and state control. He also taught in the seminary. By 1886 he led an exodus of over 100,000 orthodox from the Reformed Church to set up the second largest Protestant group in the Netherlands. This is known as the “Doleantie”. As a theologian he revived a systematic, orthodox Calvinism, marked by an emphasis on common grace. His achievement was also to give the long submerged common people the lower-middle-class orthodox Calvinistic group a religious and political voice.
LATHBURY, MARY ARTEMISA [1841-1913]. – She was born in Manchester, Ontario County, New York, a daughter of a Methodist minister and wrote extensively for the American religious periodical press. She was a teacher, artist, and editor as well as a writer. She taught art at a number of schools in the north eastern USA, and was then hired as associate editor for the Methodist Episcopal Sunday School publications. She wrote and illustrated many poems and other pieces for those books and magazines, including the “Child's Life of Christ.” Her two best known hymns are "Break Thou the Bread of Life" a "Study Song" for the Chautauqua and Scientific Circle written in the summer of 1880 and "Day is dying in the West" written in the same year at the request of the Rev. John H. Vincent D.D.
PITRA, JEAN-BAPTISTE [1812-1889] – Cardinal and scholar. After study at Autun he became a Benedictine and in 1843 prior of St Germain in Paris. He travelled widely in search of Latin and Greek manuscripts. The pope sent Pitra on an ecumenical mission to Rome after which he became Pius IX’S adviser on oriental matters. In 1869 he was appointed librarian at the Vatican where he catalogued precious Greek manuscripts. In 1880 he was made cardinal legate of Monte Cassino.
RYLE, JOHN CHARLES [1816-1900] – Bishop of Liverpool who was educated at Oxford the son of a wealthy banker. Ryle was a fine athlete, he rowed and played cricket for Oxford. He was spiritually awakened in 1838 on hearing Ephesians Chapter 2 read in church and was ordained in 1842. He was a country pastor until at the age of 64 he was appointed in 1880 at Disraeli's recommendation the first bishop of Liverpool. He was a prolific writer and the author of numerous tracts and books. His leadership of evangelicals was sound and sensible persuading them not to isolate themselves from the mainstream of church life by boycotting church congresses which would leave the High Church alone to put forward their views. He formed a clergy pension fund, constructed over 40 churches, and proved an able administrator. His strength of character was shown in that, despite strong criticism, he declared his policy to put first the raising of clergy stipends rather than commence the building of a cathedral. He worked well with people in having a kind and understanding attitude in his personal relationships. Vast numbers of working men attended his special meetings.
TYRRELL, GEORGE [1861-1909] – Roman Catholic modernist born in Dublin into an Anglican family and studied briefly at Trinity College before converting to Roman Catholicism which led him to entering the Jesuit order in 1880. After teaching philosophy he was called to his order’s English headquarters in London and produced acceptable orthodox publications until 1899. An article on Hell in the Weekly Register in 1899 in which he began questioning Roman Catholic theology led to his transfer to a provincial mission house where he remained in an active devotional life. Two letters to The Times in 1907 replying to Pius X condemnation of modernism led to his being refused the sacraments. When he died at 48, having been plagued by ill-health all his life, he still considered himself a Catholic but was unrepentant about his work. He was refused a Catholic burial and lies in a churchyard in Sussex
WATKINS, OWEN [1842-1915] – Wesleyan Methodist missionary who entered the ministry in 1863 and in 1876 was sent to Natal in South Africa for health reasons. In 1880 he became the first chairman of the Transvaal and Swaziland district of the Wesleyan Methodist Church. He and his colleagues travelled extensively contacting independent African evangelists, setting up stations, purchasing mission farms, and providing pastoral care for white communities, especially on the Witwatersrand goldfields. Watkins contracted a fever while walking 200 miles from Umtali to Beira and was invalided home in 1892. He wished to advance into Central Africa but that was not possible and he finished his ministry in British circuits.