DA COSTA, ISAAK [1798-1860] – Dutch poet and theologian who was born into a wealthy Jewish family in Amsterdam. He was, through the persistence of Willem Bilderdijk [see 1795] converted from an admiration of Voltaire to fervent Christianity. He had a profound influence on the subsequent religious history of the Netherlands. He edited the poems of Bilderjidk in 16 volumes. One of his own collected works, The Four Witnesses in 1851, compiled over many years, was first published after Strauss's Life of Jesus had begun to make an impact in Holland.
GODET, FREDERIC LOUIS [1812-1900] – Swiss reformed theologian and exegete. He became chaplain to the king of Prussia, and professor of biblical exegesis [1851-1873] in Neuchatel and then professor of New Testament exegesis in the same city [1873-1887]. He was one of the most influential Reformed scholars of his day, his work being translated into various languages. He defended the orthodox Christian position against a growing theological liberalism in academic Protestant circles.
HUNG, HSIU-CH’UAN [1813-1864] – Leader of the Taiping rebellion. He was given the outlines of Christianity written by Liang A-fah [see 1814] but because he had no teaching in the faith he began to teach a mixture of Chinese beliefs and the doctrines of the Christian faith and adopted much Christian teaching and practice. Being also egocentric he assumed the imperial title in 1851 and led a peasants uprising against the Manchu rule declaring that he was to set up the “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace”. The group degenerated and was finally suppressed by foreign troops led by Lt. Col. C. G. [Chinese] Gordon. Hung committed suicide.
STOWE, HARRIET ELIZABETH BEECHER [1811-1896] – Abolitionist and author born in Connecticut she studied and taught at Hartford. When her father Lyman Beecher [see 1832] became president of the Lane Theological Seminary in 1832 she went with him and married Professor Calvin E. Stowe in 1836. They sheltered fugitive slaves in their home until they moved in 1850 to Brunswick Maine. Uncle Tom's Cabin or Life Among the Lowly appeared in the magazine National Era in 1851 and as the book in the following year. It promoted strong antislavery sentiment. She produced many books subsequently.
THORNWELL, JAMES HENLEY [1812-1862] – Presbyterian minister and scholar, educated at South Carolina College who engaged in pastoral work for a few years before becoming professor at that college which was later the University of South Carolina. He became president in 1851 before taking up a position as professor of systematic theology at Columbia Theological Seminary. He helped to establish the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States during the Civil War.
WESTCOTT, BROOKE FOSS [1825-1901] – Bishop of Durham who attended King Edward’s School Birmingham where he was much influenced by the headmaster James Prince Lee. In 1844 he went to Trinity College Cambridge and became a fellow there in 1849. His pupils included J.B. Lightfoot [see 1879], E.W. Benson [see 1882], and F.J.A. Hort [see 1881]. He was ordained in 1851 and then went to teach at Harrow School. Westcott became canon of Peterborough in 1869 and the following year he became professor of divinity in Cambridge. Here he personally taught early church history and Christian doctrine and was also prominent in the formation of the Cambridge Mission to Delhi and the founding of the Cambridge Clergy Training School later known as Westcott House. In 1890 the age of 66 he was appointed to succeed Lightfoot as bishop of Durham. He showed a deep concern for the social and industrial problems of the dioceses and often spoke to the miners. In 1892 he helped to settle a coal strike. He is best remembered for his work with Hort in establishing a text of the New Testament  by making a scientific evaluation of the vast mass of manuscripts. It was intended that Lightfoot, Westcott, and Hort, should between them write a complete commentary on the New Testament, and he completed his share apart from the Book of Revelation. Westcott’s knowledge of the early Fathers’ commentaries was unrivalled and his exegesis and exposition were always marked by great theological and spiritual depth.
WESTERN TEXT – The name given by Westcott [see above] and Hort [see 1881] to a type of text of the Greek New Testament which had special affinities with the West. Its chief representatives are Codex Bezae [D] for Acts and the Gospels and Codex Claromontanus [Dp] for the Epistles, both of which the text is written in Greek and Latin, the Old Latin version, and the Curetonian Syriac. Most of the Latin Fathers made use of the Western form of the text in their quotations. The characteristics which Westcott and Hort found in it included an apparent freedom to change things in order to bring out the meaning better which might involve the omission or insertion of words, clauses, or even whole sentences.
BLUMHARDT, JOHANN CHRISTOPH [1805‑1880] – German evangelical leader who studied at Tubingen and became a tutor in 1830 at the missionary training centre in Basle which had been founded by his uncle Christian Gottleib Blumhardt. He was involved with a revival in Mottlingen where he was pastor in 1845. He resigned from pastoral work in 1852 and acquired a centre at Bad Boll, for sufferers of all types of illness, as a Christian ministry.
CONYBEARE, WILLIAM JOHN [1815-1857] – Biblical scholar and author who as vicar at Axminster combined with J S Howson [see 1867] to write “The Life and Epistles of St Paul” which was an important book for introducing English speaking people to the 1st century environment in which Paul worked.
RUOTSALAINEN, PAAVO [1777-1852] – Finnish Pietist leader who was the son of a farmer. He experienced a personal revival as a youth in a Pietistic sense but spiritual discernment came later when a blacksmith told him, “Lacking one thing you lack everything, the inner knowledge of Christ”. This sentence became a motto for the Pietistic Movement. He succeeded in uniting two branches of the Pietistic revival in Finland and developing what is now the biggest and perhaps the most significant movement in Finland which still influences large groups of people. Ruotsalainen has influenced Christian life in Finland more than anyone else in that country's modern church history.
COLENSO, JOHN WILLIAM [1814-1883] – First Anglican bishop of Natal whose theology was liberal. He, unlike most missionaries, favoured baptising polygamists and respected African beliefs and customs. He questioned the historicity and authorship of the Pentateuch and Joshua. He was deposed but reinstated on appeal to the Privy Council. His positive contribution to missionary work and bible scholarship was degraded by an inadequate theology, an unattractive personality and the conservatism of his critics.
DALE, ROBERT WILLIAM [1829-1895] – Congregational preacher who graduated in London and started his career as a schoolmaster but soon turned to the Ministry becoming in 1853 pastor of Carr’s Lane Chapel Birmingham where for several decades he exerted a powerful influence upon the religious educational and social life of the city. He is remembered particularly for his works on the atonement 1875 in which he saw in the death of our Lord the sole ground of man's reconciliation with God. He strenuously opposed extreme Calvinism and the High Church movement. He co-operated in revival meetings with D. L. Moody.
FAIRBAIRN, PATRICK [1805-1874] – Scottish theologian who studied at Edinburgh University and after ordination served in parishes in Orkney, Glasgow and East Lothian where he continued as minister of the Free Church after the 1843 disruption. In 1853 he went to his church's Aberdeen College as professor of divinity and three years later became principal of Glasgow College, which post he held until his death. He was a member of the Old Testament Revision Company. He wrote a definitive work “The Typology of Scripture’, which was reprinted in 1953, as well as other publications.
GUICCIARDINI, PIERO (Count) [1806-1886] – Italian Protestant leader and a descendant of Francisco Guicciardni [see 1516]. Contact with the Swiss Protestant Church in Florence and study of the Bible led to his conversion in 1836, a date which he desired to be remembered on his tomb. Actively involved in preparing religious reform, in the reaction and repression after 1848 he was imprisoned and exiled with many others, and took refuge in Britain. Here he came into contact with the Open Brethren. At the invitation of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge he collaborated in a revision of the Italian Bible which had been translated by Diodati. The Guicciardini Bible of 1853 remained for a long time the best Italian translation. In 1854 he returned to Italy with the purpose of preaching the gospel to his compatriots with Pietrocola-Rossetti [see 1857]. The communities formed were called Free Italian Churches and by 1870 there were more than 35 scattered throughout Italy.
HERZOG, JOHANN JAKOB [1805-1882] – Swiss German Reformed theologian who studied in Berlin where he was a pupil of F. Schleiermacher [see 1804] and J. Neander [see 1813]. While professor of historical theology at Lausanne he authored several works on the Zwinglian and Calvinist Reformation. In 1854 he was named professor of Reformed theology at Erlangen and in 1848 he was invited to undertake the editorship of a comprehensive religious encyclopaedia from the Protestant perspective to counter a Catholic work then being published. The editing of this 22 volume encyclopaedia commenced in 1853 was his most significant endeavour. Herzog himself contributed 529 articles to it.
MONSELL, JOHN SAMUEL BEWLEY [1811-1875] – Anglican Minister and Hymn Writer. Son of the Archdeacon of Derry, Monsell was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, graduating in 1832. He married Anne Waller in 1835. Their eldest son Thomas died on the way to the Crimean War in 1855, aged 18, in a shipwreck off Italy; their eldest daughter Elizabeth Isabella died in Torquay at the age of 28 in 1861. He held a number of appointments commencing with a curacy in Derry, Vicar at Egham near Windsor [1853-1870], Rector of St. Nicholas’, Guildford and Chaplain to Queen Victoria 1870-75. Monsell himself died after being struck by falling masonry from the roof of St. Nicholas' church, Guildford, which was being renovated. He was a prolific hymnist publishing eleven volumes of poems and about 300 hymns. His hymns which are currently sung include “Fight the good fight with all thy might” and “Worship the Lord in the beauty of holiness”
PARKER, JOSEPH [1830-1902] – English Congregational preacher who was ordained in 1853 as minister of the Banbury Congregational Church though his formal education ceased when he was 16. He eventually became pastor of City Temple London where he served from 1874 to his death. Preaching twice Sunday and every Thursday morning he earned a reputation alongside Spurgeon and Liddon. His theology was the whole system of evangelical truth enshrined in the Apostles Creed. During 1885-1892 he preached through the Bible and these discourses were published in the 25 volumes of “The People's Bible”.
REES, WILLIAM [1802-1883] – Welsh Congregational minister, author, and social leader, whose only education was a few terms of the local school. He spent his early years as a farm labourer and shepherd but this did not prevent him from obtaining a large amount of literary culture that was available to him in the Welsh language. He became a Congregational minister, serving from 1831-1853 in a number of areas including the Tabernacle at Liverpool, and Salem Liverpool from 1853 until his retirement in 1875. Rees provided a most vivid example of the way in which evangelical Christianity in its Calvinistic form inspired cultural and political activity of a radical kind in 19th-century Wales.
BARKER, FREDERIC [1808‑1882] – Bishop of Sydney [1854‑1882] who was an English clergyman educated at Cambridge. His service under Archbishop Sumner led in 1854 to his being appointed as bishop of Sydney where he re‑established evangelical tradition in the diocese. He founded Moore College in 1856, the oldest theological college in Australia. During his 28 year term of service he saw the division of his vast diocese and a considerable strengthening of the parish system.
BORTHWICK, JANE [1813‑1897] – Scottish publisher of hymns, mainly of German origin. Staunch supporter with her sister Sarah of the Free Church of Scotland. The sister’s translations represented relatively more hymns for the Christian life and fewer for the Christian year than Catherine Winkworth [see1855].
DUFFIELD, GEORGE [1818-1888] – Pastor and Hymn Writer. He was the son of a Presbyterian Minister and born at Carlisle, Pennsylvania. He graduated at Yale College, and at the Union Theological Seminary, New York. From 1840 to 1847 he was a Presbyterian Pastor at Brooklyn; 1847 to 1852, at Bloomfield, New Jersey; 1852 to 1861, at Philadelphia; 1861 to 1865, at Adrian, Michigan; 1865 to 1869, at Galesburg, Illinois; 1869, at Saginaw City, Michigan; and from 1869 at Ann Arbor and Lansing, Michigan. His most famous hymn was “Stand up, stand up for Jesus” .The origin of this hymn is as follows:— "I caught its inspiration from the dying words of that noble young clergyman, Rev. Dudley Atkins Tyng, rector of the Epiphany Church, Philadelphia, who died about 1854. His last words were, ‘Tell them to stand up for Jesus: now let us sing a hymn.' He had been much persecuted in those pro-slavery days for his persistent course in pleading the cause of the oppressed, it was thought that these words had a peculiar significance in his mind; as if he had said, ‘Stand up for Jesus in the person of the downtrodden slave.'
FISHER, GEORGE PARK [1827-1909] – Church historian who graduated from Brown University in 1847 and continued his studies at Yale Divinity School as well as in Germany. From 1854 to 1861 he was a pastor, and then joined the faculty at the Yale Divinity School, where he became professor of ecclesiastical history. He was a major author.
HUNT, WILLIAM HOLMAN [1827 – 1910]. English painter who led the Pre-Raphaelite brotherhood grouping of the young British artists. In search of a serious subject matter, Hunt himself practised what he preached by going to Egypt and Palestine to paint biblical scenes with authentic local settings and types of people. Holman Hunt helped break the conventional iconographic pictures of Christ in paintings like his well known “The Light of the World” in 1854 which appealed to the new middle-class patrons of the arts.
IMMACULATE CONCEPTION – In 1854 Pius IX in a papal bull Ineffabilis Deus stated that “from the first moment of the conception, the Blessed Virgin Mary was, by the singular grace and privilege of Almighty God, and in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, Saviour of Mankind, kept free from all stain of Original Sin”. This dogma is based on the belief that a person is truly conceived when the soul is created and infused into the body. At the moment of her animation Mary was given sanctifying grace which excluded her from the stain of original sin. Mary was redeemed at conception by Christ in anticipation of His atoning death. At the same time the state of original sanctity, innocence, and justice was conferred upon her. Mary was therefore sinless from the moment of her conception, although this did not exempt her from sorrow, sickness, and death, consequent upon Adam's sin. No direct or categorical proof of this dogma can be brought forward from the Bible. Protestants have always rejected the doctrine.
INGERSOLL, ROBERT GREEN [1833-1899] – American politician and agnostic who was admitted to the bar in 1854 and was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress in 1860. Ingersoll received as much as $5000 for some of his famous antireligious speeches. His main attack was directed against the authority of the Bible and its alleged inaccuracies. He gave titles to his famous speeches such as “The Gods”, “Ghosts”, “Skulls” and “Some Mistakes of Moses”. Few rivalled his eloquence.
KIRELLOS IV Coptic Patriarch of Alexandria [1854-1861] see 1810 and 1862 Despite his relatively short papacy, he is regarded as the "Father of Reform" of the Coptic Orthodox Church in modern times. He is credited for establishing a great printing house and printing many Church books. While abbot of the monastery of St. Antonios, he was sent to Ethiopia at the request of the Pope to mediate between Abuna Salama and his opponents in the Ethiopian Church, as well as "prevent the sympathies for the Catholic missionaries and their teaching from increasing further." As Patriarch, Cyril returned to Ethiopia at the request of viceroy Sa'id of Egypt, the first recorded visit by the head of the Coptic church to that country. Emperor Tewodros II, whom Trimingham described as "unable to conceive how a Christian prelate could consent to act as the envoy of a Muslim prince", received Pope Cyril unfavourably in December 1856. Sven Rubenson records that when the Patriarch expressed an interest in reviewing the Emperor's army, Tewodros suspected him of being a spy, and confined him with Abuna Salama to their house; only after the Ethiopian clergy intervened, were both men released. During a flare-up of tempers between the Abuna and Emperor in November of the following year, which led to the Abuna excommunicating Emperor Tewodros, Patriarch Cyril lifted the interdict against the wishes of Abuna Salama and left Ethiopia soon after.
LOWRY, ROBERT [1826-1899] – Baptist Pastor and Hymn Writer. Lowry was an American professor of literature, a Baptist minister and composer of gospel hymns. After graduating from Lewisburg in 1854 he was ordained and had charge of churches in a number of places including New York; Brooklyn; West Chester, Pennsylvania; and New Jersey. In 1869 he returned to Lewisburg as a faculty member and later went on to become its chancellor. From 1880 until 1886 he was president of the New Jersey Baptist Sunday School Union. He is most remembered as a composer of gospel music and a hymn writer including "Low in the Grave He Lay". Despite his success as a hymn writer, it was as a preacher that Lowry would have preferred to be recognised. He once stated: "Music, with me has been a side issue, I would rather preach a gospel sermon to an appreciative audience than write a hymn.
LUDLOW, JOHN MALCOLM FORBES [1821-1911] – Christian social reformer who was educated in France where he was influenced by socialists and social Catholics. He became a lawyer in England and at Lincoln's Inn came into contact with F.D. Maurice [see 1838]. From Paris, Ludlow wrote a letter to Maurice insisting that “the new socialism must become Christianised”. The Chartist fiasco of 1848 united him with Maurice and Charles Kingsley [see 1842] into the Christian Socialist movement, but it was Ludlow who was the real leader and who supplied the social ideas, co-operative associations being one of his main contributions. He had wide contacts with the trade unions and workers leaders; and had a large role in the Industrial and Provident Societies Act . Ludlow conceived the scheme of the Working Man's College which he and Maurice opened in 1854 and at which he taught in many years. He believed in industrial emancipation as well as education.
MARIOLATRY – The worship of Mary. The term is used critically by Protestants but strictly speaking the Roman Catholic Church does not encourage worship which is due to God alone but special veneration. References to Mary in the New Testament do nothing to encourage such a cult but it seems to have come unofficially into the church in the fourth century. Pressure rising from this popular devotion led to the definition of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of Mary in 1854 and that of her Assumption in 1950. Therefore in the Roman Catholic Church she was thus officially provided with a beginning and end of life parallel to that of Jesus and terms like Our Lady and the idea of her as mediatrix of redemption have helped to increase her importance as an object of devotion.
MARTENSEN, HANS LASSEN [1808-1884] – Danish bishop and theologian. As a student he was impressed by N.F.S.Grundtvig [see 1825] and later on a tour study tour of Germany he was greatly influenced by Hegel and the Roman Catholic philosopher of religion Father Baarder. He was appointed professor of systematic theology at Copenhagen University in 1840 and from 1854 till his death he was the bishop of Zealand. Martensen exerted extraordinary influence upon his students. In his writings he made a strong attempt to bring about a harmonious synthesis between faith and thought, theology and philosophy, Christianity and culture. Unlike most other church people at this time he displayed some understanding of socialism and the legitimacy of the claims of the workers.
NEVIUS, JOHN LIVINGSTON [1829-1893] – American missionary to China who was educated at Princeton Seminary and went to China in 1854 under the Presbyterian Mission Board serving mainly in the Shantung area. He is best known for the “Nevius method” of self support and propagation. In principle there were four areas  Each Christian should support himself by his own work and be a witness for Christ by life and work in his own neighbourhood  Church methods and machinery should be developed only so far as the indigenous Christians could take responsibility for these.  The church should select for full time work those who seem best qualified and whom it was able to support  Churches were to be built in a native style and by the Christians from their own resources. The Korean missionaries adopted this approach, and a vigorous church rapidly developed which maintained an independent spirit virtually unmatched in the non-Western world.
PUSEY, PHILIP EDWARD [1830-1880] – English scholar, the only son of E.B. Pusey [see1828] who was both deaf and crippled. He graduated from Oxford in 1854 but his physical defects prevented his ordination and he resolved to devote his life in helping his father. This he did by preparing a critical edition of the Peshitta and the works of Cyril of Alexandria. Despite his ill-health he pursued his studies with exemplary thoroughness visiting libraries throughout Europe and the Near East.
SAPHIR, ADOLPH [1831-1891] – Presbyterian minister born in Hungary, the son of a Jewish merchant who with the rest of his family were converted to Christianity by the Jewish Mission of the Church of Scotland. He studied at the Free Church College in Edinburgh as well as at the universities of Aberdeen and Glasgow and served as a missionary to the Jews in Hamburg in 1854. He also held ministries in English Presbyterian churches, and throughout his lifetime maintained a great interest in the conversion of Jews and other non-Christians in Europe, serving in many capacities in various missionary agencies. He authored a number of books.
ZELLER, EDUARD [1814-1908] – German Protestant theologian and philosopher. A student and later son-in-law of F.C. Baur [see 1845]. Zeller first taught theology at Tubingen then moved to Marburg via Bern after which he turned to philosophy. He published in 1854 “The Acts of the Apostles according to its Contents and Origin Critically Investigated” where he combined the concepts of Baur with the mystical approach of Strauss calling into question the historical authenicity of Acts.
BERSIER, EUGENE [1831‑1889] – Swiss pastor and leader of the Free Reformed Church in France from 1855‑1877 who eventually persuaded the group to reunite with the Reformed Church. His theological studies in Geneva, Gittingen and Halle was followed by a ministry in French churches from 1855-77. He was also the author of a number of books regarding Protestants.
BURNS, JAMES DRUMMOND [1823-1864] – He was a Scotch Presbyterian minister who was born in Edinburgh and was a graduate of the University of Edinburgh. In 1845 he became a pastor of the Free Church of Scotland at Dunblane. In 1848 he took charge of a Presbyterian Church at Funchal, Madeira. In 1855 he became pastor of a Presbyterian Church in London. He was the author of about one hundred hymns as well as a translator of German hymns however only a few of which have come into common use. His most famous hymn was “Hushed was the evening hymn”.
COX, FRANCES ELIZABETH [1812-1897] – Translator of German hymns who ranks next to John Wesley [see 1738] and Catherine Winkworth [see below] in the quality of her translations of German hymns and the extent to which they are still sung.
CYRIL VII – Patriarch of Constantinople [1855-1860] who succeeded Anthimus VI [see 1845]. There is no additional information readily available.
JOHN, GRIFFITHS [1831-1912] – Co-founder with Robert Wilson of the first Protestant mission in Inland China. He was appointed to China by the London Missionary Society in 1855. The first mission was established in Hankow six years later. John travelled widely from Hankow through Hupeh and Hunan, up the Yangtze River into Szechwan, though no work could be started there until 1888, when a Chinese evangelist took up residence in Chungking. John also prepared a translation of the New Testament in Mandarin and started on the Old Testament for the Bible societies. In 1901 the London Missionary Society under John’s leadership established several stations in the long-resistant province of Hunan. He was undoubtedly one of the five most prominent missionaries in China in the 19th century.
KUENEN, ABRAHAM [1828-1891] – Netherlands Protestant theologian who was professor of New Testament, ethics, and Old Testament interpretation at Leyden from 1855. He was the earliest expositor of the so-called “literary-historical school” of which Wellhausen is generally claimed as the chief exponent.
WALKER, MARY JANE DECK [1816-1878]. Mary Walker wrote the lyrics for “Jesus, I Will Trust Thee” and had it published in 1855 in her husband’s hymnal called “Psalms and Hymns for Public and Social Worship.” Her brother, James George Deck, is a well-known hymnist who lived in New Zealand. Several of Mary Jane Walker’s hymns appeared as leaflets. Ira David Sankey set to music the leaflet hymn “Jesus I Will Trust Thee”.
WHITFIELD, FREDERICK [1829-1904] – Anglican minister and hymn writer. Frederick Whitfield was born and reared in England and graduated from Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland. He studied for the ministry and was ordained in the Church of England. He was first appointed to parishes in Yorkshire, and later served at Greenwich near London. He wrote the hymn “There is a name I love to hear” in 1855 while still a student at Trinity College. In less than ten years after its first printing, the hymn began to appear in hymnals in America. The refrain is not part of Whitfield's original hymn, but was later added by some unknown person. Characterized by simplicity and a lilting style, the tune used here is typical of camp meeting songs that emerged in America in the early 19th century.
WINKWORTH, CATHERINE [1829-1878] – Translator of hymns. She was a pioneer in women's higher education and prepared the ground for the University College of Bristol. In 1853 she first met C.C.J. von Bunsen [see 1841] whose publication she drew upon for her translation of German hymns over 300 of which were published.
YOUNG WOMEN’S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION – This was originally two separate organisations both founded in Britain in 1855 by Emma Roberts and Lady Kinnaird. They united in 1877 and the first World Committee of YWCA met in London in 1894. Like the YMCA it has spread with internationalism and an interdenominational character remaining a keynote of the organisation. It has the blue triangle as its symbol.
BONAR, ANDREW ALEXANDER [1810‑1892] – Scottish Free Church preacher who was the seventh son of a solicitor and with his brothers John and Horatius [see 1883] made a famous trio of ministers. He was involved in the Disruption of 1843 and started a new Free Church in Glasgow in 1856. He was also a member of a Mission of Enquiry to Palestine in 1839 as he was concerned with evangelisation of the Jews.
BROWN, JOHN [1800-1859] – Controversial leader of part of the abolitionist movement who engaged in many business ventures in several states and was the defendant in a number of legal battles resulting from his failure to meet financial requirements. In 1854 he organised guerrilla warfare activity in Kansas to get rid of slavery. Believing himself to be divinely appointed to destroy the supporters of slavery he led a group of six to commit the Pottawatomie Massacre of 1856 where five pro slavery men were seized in their homes at night and hacked to death. In 1859 he tried to set up a revolutionary government by force when he attacked the arsenal at Harpers Ferry with twenty one followers but their efforts were easily crushed and he was convicted of treason and hanged.
CLOSE, FRANCIS [1797-1882] – Dean of Carlisle who as incumbent at Cheltenham from 1826 for thirty years exercised a powerful evangelical ministry in this fashionable resort denouncing many vices, promoting five new parish churches and the foundation of Cheltenham College. In 1856 he was appointed as dean of Carlisle where his ministry was especially directed to the poor whose moral and physical condition he tried hard to improve.
CUSHING, WILLIAM ORCUTT [1823-1903] – W.O. Cushing as he liked to be known was an American minister and hymn writer. After the death of his wife in 1870 and with declining health, he retired from the ministry and began writing hymns. He wrote over 300 hymns. Most of his songs were of death and heaven. The most familiar are, "Down in the valley with my Saviour I would go" and the "jewel song," "When He cometh, when He cometh " He wrote the "jewel song" when he was a young man, in 1856, and it was composed for use in his own Sunday school. George F. Root, the famous composer, wrote for it a very effective tune. A minister once returning from Europe on a British steamer visited the steerage and proposed a song service there. He started it with this "jewel song." Mr. Root's melody was at once caught up by the immigrants, and they soon learned the hymn, which was sung by these men and women of all nations during the rest of the voyage. When at Quebec they took the train for their journeys to their new homes the song burst from every car.
PALMER, BENJAMIN MORGAN [1818-1902] – American Presbyterian minister who received degrees from university of Georgia and Columbia Theological Seminary and served as pastor from 1841 to 1853 before becoming professor of ecclesiastical history at Columbia Seminary. In 1856 he accepted a call to the first Presbyterian Church of New Orleans where he remained until his death. Regarded as one of the great ministers of the Southern Presbyterian Church he was the first Presbyterian moderator under the Confederacy in 1861, and defended slavery.
PATTERSON, JOHN COLERIDGE [1827-1871] – He was the first missionary bishop of the Church of England in Melanesia. Patterson was educated at Oxford and was persuaded by G.A. Selwyn [see 1841] bishop of New Zealand to go out to Melanesia as a missionary in 1855. In 1856 he made the first journey to Melanesia to encourage boys to return with him to study at the college Selwyn had set up first in Auckland and later in Norfolk Island. The training given by Patterson and his ability to acquire the many languages of the islands provided a strong basis for the mission. In 1861 he was consecrated bishop of Melanesia and travelled constantly supporting his English and native workers. On the main island of Mota he saw the conversion of most of the population. His work was often made more dangerous by the activities of white traders known as Black birders who forcibly took natives to labour in Australia. In September 1871 unaware of a recent outrage by these traders he landed on the island of Nukapu and was speared to death.
SWEDEN [see also 1528] – After 1815 and the humiliations of the Napoleonic Wars there was a reaction against 18th century rationalism aided by Pietism and the Moravians. Through the work of George Scott an English Methodist, Bible and tract work were developed; Sunday School and foreign missions were concentrated on, and the result was the Swedish Mission Covenant in 1878 bringing together most free churches with lay organisation and evangelism groups. In 1894 the World Student Christian Movement was inaugurated in Sweden. The Evangelical National Institute formed in 1856 became a leading missionary movement. Sweden made a distinguished contribution to the ecumenical movement through Nathan Soderblom [see 1914]. Among those who reacted to 19th-century liberalism were the scholars Gustav Aulen [see 1933] and Anders Nygren [see 1949].
WILLIS, LOVE MARIA [1824-1908] – Love Willis, who was born at Hancock, New Hampshire. Her maiden name was Whitcomb, and she was a member of the Unitarian Church. After marrying a Boston physician named Frederick L. H. Willis, she moved to Boston and served as the editor of “The Banner of Light”, a Boston magazine and “Tiffany’s Monthly Magazine”. It was in the latter publication that the hymn "Father, Hear The Prayer We Offer" was published in 1856. It was modified by Samuel Longfellow (1819-1892) in 1864.
ARNOLD, MATTHEW [1822-1888] – English poet and eldest son of Thomas Arnold [see 1828] who was educated at Rugby, Winchester, and Oxford being professor of poetry at Oxford for ten years from 1857 and inspector of schools from 1851 to 1886. He saw culture as mans greatest need stressing the personal and moral side of Christianity whilst denying miracles.
COILLARD, FRANCOIS [1834-1904] – French missionary to South Africa sent out by the Paris Evangelical Mission in 1857 and stationed at Leribe. In 1877 he attempted to lead a group into Matabeleland but was denied access by the overlord Lobengula. He then pressed on to Barotseland where Chief Lewanika was friendly but refused to accept conversion. Many colleagues died and critics suggested withdrawal but developments after his death proved he had not laboured in vain.
CROWTHER, SAMUEL AJAYI [1806-1891] – Anglican bishop and missionary who was enslaved in 1821 and taken to Sierra Leone after his liberation by the British Navy. Baptised in 1825 he entered the African Institution two years later. In 1841 he was the Church Missionary Society representative on the Niger expedition. His most significant work was with the Niger Mission which he initiated in 1857 and led for thirty years. In 1864 he was made bishop of Western Africa beyond colonial limits but the European missionaries would not accept his jurisdiction so he was virtually bishop of the Niger. His achievements however led his former opponents to recommend an African bishop of Yorubaland in 1875 but this confidence was not shared by younger European missionaries who attacked the policy of African leadership and his position was progressively undermined. The conflict led to the formation of the United Native African Church in Lagos in 1892and the appointment of a white successor after Crowther’s death. This helped to discredit Henry Venn’s [see 1841] “three self” policy under which concept Crowther had been appointed.
EADIE, JOHN [1810-18720] – Scottish secessionist and United Presbyterian Church minister and New Testament scholar. In 1843 he was appointed professor of biblical literature in the United Presbyterian Church Divinity Hall, and in 1857 he was moderator of his church's general assembly. His Analytical Concordance, Family Bible and Biblical Cyclopaedia proved very popular, and his widely acclaimed commentaries on several of the Pauline epistles helped to secure for him a place as one of the New Testament Committee engaged in preparing the Revised Version of the Bible in English in 1870.
GOSSE, PHILIP HENRY [1810-1888] – English son of an itinerant painter of miniatures, he became a farmer in North America from 1827 to 1838. He returned to England and after a brief spell with the Methodists he associated with the Brethren. He visited Jamaica in 1847 and soon became a prolific writer and lecturer on natural history. He invented and popularised the aquarium. After his first wife's death in 1857 he retired to St Mary's Church remarried and shepherded a Brethren assembly. His attempt in 1857 to reconcile Genesis with Geology satisfied no one.
GUNTHER, ANTON [1783-1863] – German religious philosopher who studied law and philosophy at Prague where his faith was shaken by his study of Kant, Fichte and Schelling. He was appointed as a tutor in the household of Prince Bretzenheim which brought him under the influence of C.M. Hofbaur [see 1785] and his Christian convictions were restored. He began studying theology and propagated his system of philosophy and speculative theology. He was interested in apologetics and tried to combat the contemporary pantheistic idealism of Schelling and Hegel. His writings were condemned by the Index in 1857 for their basic rationalism and its application to Christian doctrine.
PELOUBET, FRANCIS NATHAN [1831-1920] – Writer of Sunday school literature. He was born in New York and graduated from Bangor [Maine] Theological Seminary. Ordained in 1857 as a Congregational minister, Peloubet was pastor at several churches in Massachusetts from 1857 to 1883. He produced between 1875 and 1920 the annual volumes of “Select Notes on the International Sunday School Lesson”.
PIETROCOLA-ROSSETTI, TEODORICO [1825-1883] – Italian Protestant poet and patriot who studied law at Naples and was involved in the 1848 uprising. As a result he had to flee and took refuge first at Leghorn and then Lyons, Paris, and London where he was warmly received by the many exiles including his cousin and poet Gabriel Rossetti whose surname he joined to his. He earned a living by giving Italian lessons and was invited by one of his pupils to attend an Open Brethren meeting which led to his conversion experience. Christ became the centre of his life and he devoted himself to the preaching of the Gospel, which he considered the only remedy for the sad plight of Italy. In 1857 after a most solemn commendation meeting he left London for Piedmont to begin amid all kinds of difficulties and persecution a successful work of evangelism and forming congregations. These were called the Free Italian Churches and in spite of a sad division in 1863 by 1870 they had grown to more than 30 communities scattered throughout Italy some of which were large. He spent the last years of his life in Florence, his death occurring on a Sunday at the morning meeting after giving a message which in the words of the hearers “had led the congregation up to heaven”. He wrote many valuable commentaries and hymns some of which are still sung today.
SOUTH AFRICA – While there were Roman Catholic missionaries in Mozambique and adjacent areas in the 16th century, the Dutch settlements at the Cape was more significant for the development of Christianity in Southern Africa. For over a century only the Dutch Reformed Church was permitted there and it has remained the spiritual home of most Afrikaners. The evangelisation of the indigenous Hottentots and imported slaves received little attention until the late 18th century when van Lier and Vos awakened missionary interest among the colonists. This lead eventually to a strong Dutch Reformed Mission Church among the Cape coloured people. After 1857 missions to the black Africans were also undertaken. The first missionary at Cape was Moravian Georg Schmidt [see 1742] who returned to Europe in 1744. In 1799 the London Missionary Society entered the field but the concern of its missionaries notably J.T. Vandercemp [see 1799] and John Philip [see 1828] regarding the rights of indigenous people made the London Missionary Society highly unpopular with the colonists. Methodism arrived with British soldiers at Cape Town and British settlers on the Eastern frontier, and spread among black and white throughout South Africa. The first Anglican bishop of Cape Town was Robert Gray while the Roman Catholics became well established after the arrival of its first bishop in 1838.
TREGELLES, SAMUEL PRIDEAUX [1813-1875] – English New Testament textual critic who was brought up as a Quaker which meant that he could not pursue a university career. As a teenager he learned Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Welsh while working at the same time in an ironworks. His abilities were recognised by G.V. Wigram who employed him to work on his famous Englishman's Greek and Hebrew Concordances. He travelled extensively across Europe for the purpose of systematically examining and collating all the then known manuscripts and was able to get his Greek New Testament published in six parts between 1857 and 1872. He wrote a number of books including many books on Bible prophecy in which he defended what lately came to be known as “post-tribulational premillennialism”. Tregelles was associated with the Plymouth Brethren in the early days of the movement as a brother-in-law of B.W. Newton [see 1847] but later worshipped with the Presbyterians and finally the Church of England.
WICHERN, JOHANN HINRICH [1808-1881] – German Protestant minister and founder of the Innere Mission [see 1848]. He studied theology at Gottingen and Berlin. Returning to Hamburg he was moved by the plight of underprivileged children in the poorest sections of the city. In 1833 he founded a school for neglected children in the village of Horn near Hamburg. Under his leadership the group expanded and children in the school were divided into family groups of around twelve under the guidance of an overseer, generally a candidate for the ministry, and two assistants. In 1848 at the First Congress of Evangelical Churches at Wittenberg Wichern called for all charitable activities in Germany to be administered through a single agency, the Innere Mission. He also took part in the prison reform in Prussia in 1857.
BERNADETTE [1844‑1879] – French Roman Catholic visionary who was the eldest child of a poor miller who founded the Lourdes pilgrimage after having seen a series of visions in 1858 in a cave near the river Gave. She believed the young lady who had appeared to her was the Virgin Mary. At first the church authorities disbelieved her but since then Lourdes has become one of the greatest centres for pilgrimage in Western Christendom.
BEVAN, FRANCES EMMA [1827‑1909] – Daughter of the bishop of Chichester who after marriage in 1856 became associated with the Open Brethren. She was a hymn writer who published her first collection of hymns in 1858 including many translated or paraphrased from the German.
BURNS, FRANCIS [1809 – 1863] – Burns was an American missionary in Liberia. He was the first Missionary Bishop and the first African American Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church being elected in 1858. Born into a slave state he was placed in the service of a farmer who allowed him to go to school during the winter months. He was converted at 15 and felt led to preach but he was under indentures until the age of 21. He however pursued knowledge and became "the first coloured teacher in a white school," and became licensed as a preacher. In 1834 he accompanied a missionary to Liberia as a Missionary Teacher. He was ordained in 1844. He opened an academy in Monrovia in 1851 and in 1858 the Liberian Conference elected him as their first bishop. He worked for a further five years with failing health and he returned to the USA dying a mere three months after Emancipation in the United States. Bishop Burns was buried in Monrovia, Liberia.
CALLINICUS Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria [1858-1861] see 1847 and 1861
GREEK EVANGELICAL CHURCH – Its first leader, Michael Kalopothakes, a native of Areopolis near Sparta came under the influence of Protestant missionaries, having attended a missionary school run by two missionaries of the Southern Presbyterian Church of the United States. As a student in Athens he attended the meetings of Jonas King [see 1830] but the missionaries had no intention of establishing a Protestant church in Greece. Strong opposition compelled Kalopothakes and other Greeks to organise an evangelical church. After graduating in medicine he attended the Union Theological Seminary in New York, and in 1858 organised the first church in Athens, opened the first Sunday school, and in 1871 erected the first evangelical building at the foot of the Acropolis. He became the first agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society. Parallel to this movement was a similar evangelical effort among the Greeks in Asia Minor, Turkey, where a number of churches were organised. In 1922-23 as a result of war, the Greeks had to evacuate Asia Minor, and the evangelicals in Turkey came to Greece as refugees, joined the local church, and also formed new congregations in different areas. The church continues today.
HECKER, ISAAC THOMAS [1819-1888] – Founder of the Paulist Order. Born in New York City of German parentage he became a Roman Catholic in 1844 and entered the Redemptorist Order. After studying in Belgium, Holland, and England he was ordained in 1845 and worked with Roman Catholic German immigrants after returning to America in 1851. Because of an unauthorised trip to Rome he was excluded from his order, but freed from his vows by Pius IX to found in 1858 the Missionary Priests of St Paul the Apostle to convert Protestants.
LOURDES – Famous town in south-west France which gained fame in 1858 when a 14-year-old resident Bernadette Subirous [see above] reported 18 visions of the Virgin Mary. After the first vision, crowds began to accompany her to the grotto on the riverside but only Bernadette saw the visions. In one of the visions she was instructed to dig for a spring which gushed forth as she dug and is still flowing. Spring water is used for sacramental baths by pilgrims. In other visions the Virgin told her that she the Virgin was the Immaculate Conception [see 1854] and instructed Bernadette to have a chapel built and to encourage pilgrims to attend. Thousands of cures have been reported and by 1959 fifty eight of them had been officially designated as miracles.
MACKENZIE, JOHN [1835-1899] – Scottish missionary to South Africa under the London Missionary Society in 1858. He settled among the Ngwato at Shoshong from 1864 to 1876 and gained the confidence of Kgama III. He was convinced that the protection of the Africans demanded the extension of British rule to the Zambezi and therefore became politically involved as a government representative and as a promoter of imperial expansion in Britain. In this he was repeatedly frustrated principally by his fellow imperialist Cecil Rhodes whose motives and methods differed fundamentally from his. His final years were spent as a missionary at Hankey Cape Colony.
MACLAREN, ALEXANDER [1826-1910] – Baptist minister who was pastor at Portland Chapel Southampton from 1846-1858 and Union Chapel Manchester from 1858 to 1903. He was classified as the prince of expository preachers. His sermons drew vast congregations and in the pulpit he expounded evangelical certainties yet his writings show him prepared to accept a critical position. MacLaren was twice president of the Baptist Union and first president of the Baptist World Alliance in 1905. He strove unsuccessfully to unite the Baptist and Congregationalist denominations.
PATON, JOHN GIBSON [1824-1907] – Pioneer Presbyterian missionary to the New Hebrides. He was educated the University of Glasgow and for a decade from 1847 was a city missionary at Glasgow. Paton and his wife left Glasgow in 1858 for the island of Aneityum in the New Hebrides and subsequently became the pioneer missionaries on the island of Tanna. In 1859 his wife died in childbirth, and by 1862 Patton was in almost daily danger of his life and was forced to leave the island. He became a travelling ambassador for the New Hebrides mission. He was in Scotland in 1864 where he secured recruits and remarried then moved to the island of Anwai where he saw the conversion of the majority of the islanders. After many years of hard labour on the islands in the 1880s he made Melbourne in Australia his headquarters for work to support the mission. Until his death he travelled the world for the mission. At the Ecumenical Missionary Conference in 1900 in New York he was recognised as a great missionary leader.
RAWSON, GEORGE [1807-1889] – Rawson was an English Congregational layman, born in Leeds, where he practiced many years as a solicitor. He contributed to various books. His knowledge of music and his gifts as a hymn writer led the Congregational ministers of Leeds to call on him for assistance in compiling the Leeds Hymn Book, 1853. In 1858 he assisted Dr. Green and other Baptist ministers in the preparation of Psalms and Hymns for the Use of the Baptist Denomination. His Hymns, Verses, and Chants, published in London in 1876, contained eighty original pieces. His Songs of Spiritual Thought appeared in 1885. His best known hymn is "By Christ redeemed, in Christ restored;"
ANTONELLI, GIACOMO [1806-1876] – Cardinal and secretary of state for Pius IX [see 1848]. His work and policy consisted of generally resisting, unsuccessfully, the final and revolutionary overthrow of the pope’s political rule and its incorporation into the kingdom of Italy [1859-61, 1870].
BOSCO, JOHN [1815‑1888] – Roman Catholic founder of the Silesian Order which has now spread worldwide. He was born in poverty and ordained as a priest in 1841 and worked in Turin for the betterment of poor boys, establishing night schools, workshops, and eventually a technical school. In 1859 he established the Society of St Francis of Sales (Salesians) [see below]. Reason, kindness, and the Christian faith were the basis of his educational philosophy known as the preventive system. His motto was “as far as possible avoid punishing try to gain love before inspiring fear.”
DARWIN, CHARLES ROBERT [1809-1882] – English naturalist who graduated from Christ College Cambridge in 1831. His theory of evolution was formulated during a five-year voyage around South America. In 1837 he "opened his first notebook on the Transmutation of Species" but hesitated until 1849 before publishing his "Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection”. Lifelong vacillation between agnosticism and faith was accompanied by psychosomatic pain. Originally intending to become a clergyman, by 1850 he declared himself agnostic. In 1857 at the Oxford meeting of the British Association, T. H. Huxley as Darwin's bulldog attacked Bishop Samuel Wilbeforce [see 1869] whose ridicule and lack of science was open target for Huxley. Fears that the new theory would brutalise humanity were well founded. Herbert Spencer opposed the betterment of the unfortunate because it might hinder selection by survival of the fittest. Marx, Nietzsche and Hitler justified war on the same grounds. Darwin's inner conflict continued into old age, according to the duke of Argyle unrelieved by his wife's prayers and Bible reading. Some credence is given to his nurse's record however that the epistle of Hebrews brought him final consolation.
FAUSSET, ANDREW ROBERT [1821-1910] – Anglican scholar who graduated from Trinity College Dublin in 1843. He was rector of St Cuthbert's York from 1859 until his death. Evangelical and pre-millennialist he was a prolific writer and editor.
HATCH, EDWIN [1835-1889] – Anglican minister who graduated from Oxford and in 1859 was appointed professor of classics at Trinity College, Toronto. His most important work was his Bampton Lectures on “The Organisation of the Early Christian Churches” which aroused considerable controversy, especially in High Church circles. They argued that the Christian episcopate had derived from the financial administrators of Greek religious associations. His hymn “Breathe on me Breath of God” is still in common use.
HEPBURN, JAMES CURTIS [1815-1911] – Missionary to Japan who was born in Pennsylvania and decided to become a medical missionary. In 1840 he and his wife joined the Presbyterian Board, but were invalided home after five years in Java, Singapore, and Amoy. From 1859 they were among the Protestant pioneers to Japan. Though preaching was forbidden Hepburn diligently applied himself to learning Japanese while living in a Buddhist temple. His lifetime of devoted service included the opening of the first dispensary, initiating classes for medical students, inventing a system for Romanising Japanese sounds, compiling the first Japanese-English dictionary, helping found an university, and playing a major part in the Japanese translation of the Bible which was completed in 1888.
IRELAND [see also 1642] – Two vital factors affected Christianity in this period. First was the vigorous impact of the ministry of John Wesley who preached in many parts of Ireland and while his influence was greatest where English settlers were most numerous, the cause he fostered has been permanently established throughout Ireland. The second and very important factor was the revival in 1859 which was wider in scope and deeper in its effect. Most branches of the Protestant Church receive benefit from the movement. The onward progress of Christianity in Ireland has been closely identified with its political life. As a general rule Roman Catholics have been nationalists and republican in their outlook while the Protestant population has sought to maintain their link with Great Britain.
MIDLANE, ALBERT [1825-1909] – British poet who wrote several hundred hymns, most notably "There's a Friend for Little Children" and “Revive Thy work O Lord”. Born the youngest in a large family his father died in 1824. Brought up in a Congregational church at the age of 23 he joined the Plymouth Brethren but remained committed to Sunday school teaching and hymn writing. He was encouraged to start writing at a young age by his teacher, and he wrote his first hymn "Hark! in the presence of our God" in September 1842 while visiting Carisbrooke Castle. His hymn, "There's a Friend for Little Children", was written in 1859. He later published several of his own hymn books, including Jewish Children's Hymn Book, Bright Blue Sky Hymn Book, Gospel Echoes Hymn Book and The Gospel Hall Hymn Book, each of which contained hundreds of his hymns. He never accepted any money for his writing, and as such became bankrupt. Generosity from his fans meant that this was later revoked.
SALESIANS [The Salesian Society of St John Bosco] – The society was founded in Turin by Giovanni Bosco [see above]. It is the third largest Roman Catholic order which in 1970 had over 20,000 members throughout the world and was supporting over 1500 institutions. The order maintains 140 mission stations in Asia, Africa, and South America and cares for more than half a million orphans. Pius IX gave the order apostolic approval in 1868.
SOUTHERN AFRICA ZIMBABWE – Attention was drawn to Central Africa by the travels and writings of David Livingstone [see 1841]. The London Missionary Society established missions at Inyati in 1859 but general Christian penetration of Zimbabwe followed its occupation by the Chartered Company in 1890. The pattern of evangelism and education was similar to that which evolved in South Africa. The Christian Council of Zimbabwe promoted common action and several of its member churches with the Roman Catholic hierarchy confronted, from 1968, the Smith regime after the Unilateral Declaration of Independence.
WILLARD, FRANCES ELIZABETH CAROLINE [1839-1898] – Educator and temperance leader who was born in New York but grew up on the Wisconsin frontier. She graduated from Northwestern Female College Evanston in 1859 where she was converted, later becoming a Methodist. Never married, she taught for some years and became prominent in the Temperance movement  and helping to organise the Prohibition party in 1882. She was also a women’s rights reformer being president of the National Council of Women.
ALLEN, YOUNG JOHN [1836-1907]. – Young was an American Methodist missionary in China with the American Southern Methodist Episcopal Mission during the late Qing Dynasty. He arrived in China in 1860 and for the five years of the American Civil War was cut off from support causing him to work in a number of occupations. Allen's most influential work was in the field of education, as he worked at a government school before founding the Anglo-Chinese College in Shanghai. He was also a strong force in educating women at a time when that was very radical for Confucian society. His efforts helped to found the McTyreire School for girls. Allen also published several newspapers and magazines as a form of both evangelism and education, which influenced many Chinese reformers of the Self-Strengthening Movement and prompted philosophical discussions comparing Christianity and Confucianism. His publications were popular among many Chinese for their attention to Western concepts of international relations, economics and the natural sciences.
BLISS, PHILIP PAUL [1838‑1876] – America Baptist hymn writer who was converted at the age of 12 and joined the Elk Run Baptist Church. He worked on farms and wood cutting until entering the Normal Academy of Music in New York. He was a famous bass and became a musical associate of D.L. Moody [see 1873]. He and his wife were killed in a train crash. On 29 December 1876 the Pacific Express train which Bliss and his wife were travelling in approached Ashtabula, Ohio. While the train was in the process of crossing a trestle bridge, which collapsed, all carriages fell into the ravine below. Bliss escaped the carriage but the carriages caught fire and Bliss returned to try and extricate his wife. No trace of either body was discovered. Ninety-two of the 160 passengers are believed to have died in what became known as the Ashtabula River Railroad Disaster. Found in his trunk, which somehow survived the crash and fire, was a manuscript bearing the lyrics of the only well known Bliss gospel song for which he did not write a tune. “I Will Sing of My Redeemer” His hymns included "Man of Sorrows, What a Name". “I will sing of my Redeemer” “Wonderful words of life”
FABRI, FRIEDRICH [1824-1891] – German mission executive. He was appointed inspector of the Rhine Mission in 1857 and was particularly interested in the expansion of the work in South Africa. On his initiative the highly successful Sumatra field was opened in 1860. He founded the West German Association for Colonisation and Export in 1880 to pressure for a colonial policy. In 1884 he retired from the Rhine Mission, accepted an honorary professorship in Bonn and spent his last years in colonial agitation.
HIEROTHEOS Patriarch of Antioch [1860-1885] see also 1843 and 1885
JOACHIM II – Patriarch of Constantinople [1860-1863, 1873-1878] succeeded Cyril VI [see 1855]. There is no additional information readily available.
JOWETT, BENJAMIN [1817-1893] – English classicist and theologian who was educated at Oxford and elected a fellow there while he was still an undergraduate in 1838. He was ordained in 1842 and wrote commentaries on the Epistles of Paul  and through an essay on scriptural interpretation contributed to “Essays and Reviews” in 1860. He fell under suspicion of unorthodoxy and ceased to write on theological subjects. He worked to secure the abolition of theological tests for university degrees and offices. His classical learning was almost unsurpassed in his day and he was known as “the Great Tutor”.
KAEHLER, MARTIN [1835-1912] – German Protestant theologian who spent his entire academic career from 1862 until his death at the University of Halle. He was strongly influenced in his theological development by Rothe, Tholuck, Muller, Beck, and von Hofmann. In one of his books he opposed the tendency of biblical scholars to drive a wedge between the historical Jesus and the proclamation of the Apostles. He said that the real Jesus is not the portrait of Jesus of Nazareth which historians are able to reconstruct, but the Christ of faith who is experienced again and again by the Christian community (“the real Christ is the preached Christ”).
KEIM, KARL THEODOR [1825-1878] – German Protestant theologian and church historian who was professor at Zurich from 1860 to 1873. He concentrated on the history of primitive Christianity and the Protestant Reformation. He rejected the historicity of the fourth Gospel altogether though he argued for the primitive nature and primacy of Matthew.
LYNE, JOSEPH LEYCESTER [1837-1908] – Religious community leader, as “Father Ignatius” he revived the Benedictine monasticism in the Church of England. He was ordained deacon in 1860 and started communities at Claydon in 1863 and Norwich in 1864. In 1870 Lyne began building a monastery in Wales. He was often away on missions and in fund raising including an extended visit to America in 1890-91. During these times the life of the abbey became unsettled. Despite his ritualism his theology was soundly evangelical after his conversion 1866. He rejected penance and purgatory as detracting from Christ finished work. Crowds flocked to his simple preaching of Christ as Saviour. Gladstone put him among the first of contemporary orators.
MABILLE, ADOLPHE [1836-1894] – Swiss missionary to South Africa who went to Lesotho in 1860 with the Paris Evangelical Mission. Apart from enforced absences and an expedition to the East Transvaal in 1873 he spent his entire ministry at Morija where he operated a printing press and established normal, Bible, and theological schools. He initiated a local synod arousing resentment by his negative attitude to tribal custom. The British annexation of Lesotho in 1868 which prevented Boer domination owed much to his advocacy. Cape Colony took over the administration and they tried to disarm the Basuto, so Mabille helped to obtain the transfer of Lesotho from them to direct British rule in 1884.
MAZZARELLA, BONAVENTURA [1818-1882] – Italian patriot, preacher, and philosopher. He studied at Naples and as a barrister and judge fought against poverty, ignorance, and social injustice. He was actively involved in liberation movements and the war of 1848. He was persecuted and left Italy. During the time he was away he came in touch with the Gospel and was converted. Mazzarella first joined the Waldensian Church but soon found a more congenial atmosphere in the rising Free Italian Church [see 1853] caring for a large community of believers in Genoa. In 1860 he became professor of pedagogy at Bologna and then Genoa, a next to impossible achievement for a non-Roman Catholic. He was one of the finest intellects of Italian evangelism who championed the cause of religious liberty and the interests of the much neglected southern regions of Italy, and was much respected for his moral integrity and deep humanity.
METHODIST NEW CONNEXION entered China in 1860, immediately after the signing of the Treaty of Tianjin, which virtually opened all China to the Christian missionaries. The pioneers of the movement were Rev John Innocent and Rev W. N. Hall, who established themselves in Tianjin, which was then a pioneer mission field. Hall died of fever in 1878, but Innocent survived, and was the Nestor of the Mission. There were three preaching rooms in the city of Tianjin, one being in the main thoroughfare, and in these daily preaching was maintained. On the English concession there was a large mission establishment, consisting of a training college for native students for the ministry, missionaries’ houses, and a boarding school for the training of native women and girls in Christian life and work. Rev. J. Robinson-Brown was the principal of the college, and Miss Waller was in charge of the school for girls. The largest mission of this Society was in the north-east portion of the province of Shandong, where about fifty native churches were maintained in an agricultural district extending over about three hundred miles. The headquarters of this circuit were in Chu Chia, Lao-ling district, where were situated the mission houses, and a medical dispensary and hospital. Another mission was opened at the Tang-san Collieries, near Kai Ping, in the north of the province of Chih-li. This under the charge of Rev. F. B. Turner rapidly extended having a church in the ancient city of Yung-ping-fu, near the old wall, and also several rural chapels in the district round Kai Ping. The work of this Society was chiefly carried on by native agency; a large number of efficient men had been trained and qualified by means of the training college. Several native women were also set apart as Bible women to their own sex. One of these, Mrs. Hu, laboured in this capacity for nearly twenty-five years, and was the first such agent ever employed in China. This Mission in 1890 numbered seven missionaries, two medical agents, one lady agent, forty-six native helpers, and six female native helpers. It had over thirteen hundred communicants, and about two hundred and fifty scholars in its day and boarding schools.
ROBERTS, ISSACHAR JACOX (1802 – 1871) – Roberts was an American Baptist missionary in China. Roberts graduated from Furman University, a Baptist school in Greenville, South Carolina. He was known for his erratic behaviour and "falling into difficulties with nearly everyone who worked with him", which cost his connection with Southern Baptist Convention. Roberts was the only Baptist known to have influenced Hong Xiuquan who led the Taiping Rebellion (1851-1864) against the Qing Dynasty. Hong spent two months studying with Roberts at Canton in 1847. Roberts refused Hong's request for baptism, perhaps due to a misunderstanding. In 1860 Roberts left Canton for the Taiping capital at Nanjing. He was dismayed to find that the beliefs of the Taiping departed widely from his own Christianity, but nevertheless accepted a post as advisor to Hong Rengan, Foreign minister at the Taiping court. While there Roberts arranged for some Baptists from the United States to visit Nanjing and meet Hong directly. He left in January 1862 on board the British gunboat Renard following a dispute with Rengan, and was thereafter fiercely critical of the Taiping.
SOGA, TIYO [c.1829-1871] – The First African ordained minister in South Africa. Soga was the son of a Christian mother and entered Lovedale Seminary in 1844 and went to Scotland for theological training [1851-1856]. As a minister of the United Presbyterian Church he served at Mgwali  and Tutura  proving himself a fine preacher and a faithful pastor. His work on the revision of the Xhosa Bible and a translation of Pilgrim Progress in 1866 revealed great literary ability. He died at the early age of 42.
WHITING, WILLIAM [1825-1878] – Hymn Writer. The original hymn “Eternal Father, strong to save” was written by William Whiting of Winchester, England, in 1860. It was originally intended as a poem for a student of his, who was about to travel to the United States. In 1861, John B. Dykes, an Anglican clergyman, composed the tune "Melita" for this hymn. "Melita" is an archaic term for Malta, an ancient seafaring nation and the site of a shipwreck involving the Apostle Paul. It became a hymn often associated with the Royal Navy or the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps. Accordingly, it is often known as The Navy Hymn.