EUGENIUS II – Patriarch of Constantinople [1821-1822] succeeded Gregory V [see 1797]. There is no additional information readily available.
FINNEY, CHARLES GRANDISON [1792-1875] – American revivalist who entered a law office in New York and was later admitted to the bar. He started attending church services conducted by a friend, George Gale. Although at first critical of religious dogmas, Finney after studying the Bible himself was converted in 1821. Turning from the law he began to preach and in 1824 received Presbyterian ordination. For the next eight years he conducted revivals in the eastern states with notable results. In 1835 he became professor of theology at a new college in Ohio. During the remainder of his life he was linked with the school and served as president from 1851-1866. In general he was a New School Calvinist, but laid heavy stress on man's ability to repent.
KENRICK, FRANCIS PATRICK [1796-1863] – Roman Catholic archbishop and educator who was born in Dublin and educated in Rome where he was ordained in 1821. Moving to America he taught in Kentucky for 10 years before being consecrated bishop of Philadelphia in 1831. He became archbishop of Baltimore in 1851 which post he held until his death. He published several books on biblical, theological, and apologetic topics.
SCUDDER, JOHN [1793-1855] – American Dutch Reformed missionary to India who was a graduate of the College of New Jersey in 1811 and New York College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1813. He was attracted to missions by the reading of a tract. In 1819 he with his wife left for Ceylon under the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Following ordination in 1821 Scudder founded a hospital and several schools and later established a printing press and mission at Madras [Chennai]. Failing health caused him to go to South Africa where he died. Seven of his sons became medical missionaries and pastors in India.
SOUTH AFRICA MISSIONS – Mission opportunities in a healthy climate and relatively safe conditions attracted numerous societies. They included the Glasgow Mission [Ciskei 1821], the Rhenish Mission [Cape and South West Africa in 1829], the Paris Evangelical Mission [Lesotho 1834], the American Board [Natal 1835], South African General Mission , the Berlin Mission [Cape 1834], and the Hermannsburg Mission [Natal 1854].
ULLMANN, KARL [1796-1865] – German Lutheran theologian who was deeply influenced by Schleiermacher [see 1804] and Neander [see 1813] and served as professor of theology at Heidelberg University from 1821 with the exception of a seven-year period at Halle [1829-1836]. He stressed the significance of salvation through Jesus. Ullmann also occupied several posts in the Baden church where he was eventually overthrown by the Liberals.
ANTHIMUS III – Patriarch of Constantinople [1822-1824] who succeeded Eugenius [see 1821]. There is no additional material readily available on him
BROWN, JOHN of Edinburgh [1784‑1858] – Scottish Presbyterian minister who was ordained at Biggar in 1806 and translated to Edinburgh in 1822 and soon became one of the most influential ministers of any denomination in the Scottish capital. He was appointed Scotland's first professor of exegetical theology. He became involved in prolonged controversy and indicted on twelve counts for liberal theological viewpoints on the Atonement and other important doctrines but was cleared before a United Presbyterian synod.
DE WETTE, WILHELM MARTIN LEBRECHT [1780-1849] – German biblical scholar and one of the most influential theologians of the 19th century. He taught at the University of Heidelberg 1807-10, Berlin 1810-19, and Basle 1822-1849. He wrote many books including Old Testament and New Testament introductions and a monumental work on Christian ethics as well as numerous commentaries on historical works and a translation of the Bible.
HEBER, REGINALD [1783 – 1826] – Bishop of Calcutta and Hymn writer. Heber was born in Cheshire and showed remarkable promise. In 1800 he entered Brasenose College, Oxford, where he proved a distinguished student, carrying off prizes in both Latin and English. After completing his university career, he went on a long tour of Europe. He was ordained in 1807 and took up the family living of Hodnet in Shropshire. In 1809 he married Amelia Shipley, daughter of the Dean of St Asaph. After a number of appointments he was made Bishop of Calcutta in 1822. In India, Bishop Heber laboured indefatigably, not only for the good of his own diocese, but for the spread of Christianity throughout the East. He toured the country, consecrating churches, founding schools and discharging other Christian duties. His devotion to his work in a trying climate told severely on his health. At Trichy he was seized with an apoplectic fit when in his bath, and died. The Bishop Heber College at Trichy is named after him and is famous for education and sports. His fame rests mainly on his hymns. These include “From Greenland’s icy mountains”, Holy Holy Holy, and “The Son of God goes forth to war”.
IRVING, EDWARD [1792-1834] – Scottish minister who was educated at Edinburgh and became assistant to Thomas Chalmers [see 1815] at St John's Glasgow. In 1822 he went to the Caledonian Chapel London and because of the hundreds who wanted to hear him speak a new church was built in Regent Square. Gradually however many people were alienated because of his treatment of prophecy, eschatology, the high view of the sacraments, and his encouragement of speaking in tongues during public worship. A sad process of deterioration set in. He wrote a number of books including one that led to his arraignment before the London presbytery, charged with holding the sinfulness of Christ’s humanity. He claimed his words had been misunderstood but he was excommunicated and in 1833 deposed from the Church of Scotland ministry.
NEWMAN, FRANCIS WILLIAM [1805-1897] – English scholar and younger brother of John Cardinal Newman [see 1845]. He was converted to the evangelical faith at 14 and in 1822 went to Oxford where John was already established as a don. He soon came to doubt the relevance of infant baptism and so declined to take his MA degree. He associated with the early Brethren and joined A.N. Groves [see 1833] in a mission to Baghdad where he was stoned by Muslims and just escaped martyrdom. Returning to England in 1833 to collect funds for the mission he suffered intensely as a result of rumours of his “unsoundness” which culminated in attack by J.N. Darby [see 1845] and exclusion from Brethren circles. Spiritually isolated for many years though earnestly longing for Christian fellowship he eventually lost his faith and though remaining a theist became for a time the foremost anti-Christian writer in the country. He became professor of classics at University College London, his knowledge was encyclopaedic. He became renowned as a defender of lost causes.
ELLIOT, CHARLOTTE [1789-1871] – Hymn Writer. Charlotte, was the daughter of Charles Elliott, of Clapham and Brighton, and granddaughter of the Rev. Henry Venn, of the “Clapham Sect”. The first 32 years of her life were spent mostly at Clapham. In 1823 she moved to Brighton, and died there in 1871. To her acquaintance with Dr. C. Malan, of Geneva, is attributed much of the deep spiritual mindedness which is so prominent in her hymns. She was an invalid and often a great sufferer however though weak and feeble in body, she possessed a strong imagination, and a well-cultured and intellectual mind. Her love of poetry and music was great, and is reflected in her verse. Her hymns number about 150. The finest and most widely known of these is “Just as I am without one plea” Her verse is characterized by tenderness of feeling, plaintive simplicity, deep devotion, and perfect rhythm. For those in sickness and sorrow she has sung as few others have done. Her hymns appeared in her brother's publication “Psalms & Hymns”
GOODELL, WILLIAM [1792-1861] – Pioneer American Congregational missionary to the Near East. He became one of a succession of notable scholarly missionaries in the Near East, serving there for 40 years. Appointed by the American board in 1823 he helped established the work in Beirut which became the centre of the Syrian Mission. In 1828 the mission was obliged to move to Malta, where for three years he supervised the press and worked on his Armeno-Turkish translation of the Bible from Hebrew and Greek which he eventually completed. Sent to Constantinople in 1831 he helped found the work in Turkey.
GUTZLAFF, KARL FRIEDRICH AUGUST [1803-1851] – Missionary to China who was sent by the Netherlands Missionary Society to Singapore in 1823. Some three years later he went on to Batavia where he met W.H. Medhurst [see 1843] and began to study Chinese. In the 1830’s he travelled along the Chinese coast distributing Christian literature before succeeding Robert Morrison [see 1807] as Chinese secretary to the East India Company at Canton. He helped negotiate the Treaty of Nanking, and in Hong Kong elaborated a plan for the evangelisation of China. He died in Hong Kong when he was 48 but not before inspiring others to form missions for China’s evangelisation. The Chinese Evangelistic Society, under which J Hudson Taylor [see 1854] and Timothy Richard [see 1870] originally went to China, was one of which owed its beginnings to Gutzlaff.
The INTERCONTINENTAL CHURCH SOCIETY is an organisation that provides a ministry to English speaking people through Anglican churches around the world. The organisation was founded in 1823. There are 55 chaplains in 65 locations both on permanent and temporary bases. In the Paris area there are five ICS churches
LEO XII – Pope [1823-1829]. He was educated at Rome, where he was ordained priest in 1783. In 1792 Pope Pius VI made him his private secretary creating him titular archbishop of Tyre the following year. In 1794 he lived in Augsburg, Germany. During the dozen or more years he spent in Germany he was entrusted with several missions, which brought him into contact with the political leaders of the day including Napoleon. During this time however he was criticised for his private life and unaccountability of his finances. After the Napoleonic abolition of the Papal States in 1798 he was treated by the French as a state prisoner, and lived for some years at the abbey of Monticelli, busying himself with music and with bird-shooting (pastimes which he continued even after his election as pope). After being chosen to carry the pope's congratulations to Louis XVIII of France upon his restoration he was elevated to the position of cardinal in 1816 and four years later became vicar general of Rome under Pius VII. In the conclave of 1823 he was elected pope with election being facilitated because he was thought to be at death's door, but he unexpectedly rallied. Personally most frugal, Leo XII reduced taxes, made justice less costly, and was able to find money for certain public improvements, yet he left the Church's finances more confused than he had found them, and even the elaborate jubilee of 1825 did not really mend financial matters. He succeeded Pius VII [see 1800] and was succeeded by Pius VIII [see 1829].
LYTE, HENRY FRANCIS [1793 – 1847]. Lyte was an Anglican minister and hymn-writer. He was born near Kelso, Scotland but his father deserted the family shortly after making arrangements for his two oldest sons to attend Portora Royal School in Ireland. The headmaster at Portora, Dr. Burrowes, recognized Henry Lyte's ability, paid the boy’s fees, and welcomed him into his own family during the holidays. Lyte was effectively an adopted son, and he never forgot Burrowes' generosity and compassion. Lyte was educated at Trinity College, Dublin and was ordained in 1815. In Dublin and underwent a great spiritual change after attending a friend's deathbed in 1817 and his whole outlook was altered and his preaching revitalised.For some time held a curacy in Taghmon near Wexford and in 1817 but because of bad health moved to England, and after several changes settled, in 1823, in the parish of Lower Brixham, a fishing village in Devon where he helped educate Lord Salisbury, later British prime minister. In poor health throughout his life, he developed tuberculosis. While in Brixham, Lyte wrote his most famous hymns including “Praise, my soul, the King of heaven” which is his version of Psalm 103. In 1844 Lyte's health finally gave way. After his last service, he penned his most famous hymn “Abide With Me” after watching the sun set over Torbay. Lyte died just two weeks later in 1847 in Nice, southern France, and was buried there.
SHAW, WILLIAM [1798-1872] – Wesleyan Methodist missionary to South Africa who accompanied the 1820 settlers to South Africa. Although officially chaplain to one party he established Methodism throughout Albany and used this settlers church as a base for advance beyond the frontier. Between 1823 and 1830 he planted six missions in the Ciskei and Transkei, others being added later. Shaw's high standing among the settlers and friendship with several African chiefs gave him unique breadth of outlook and sympathy. In 1856 he returned to England and did not return to the mission field. He is classified as the "Father of South African Methodism".
STOCKTON, BETSY [1798–1865] – She was an African American educator and missionary who was born in slavery in the U.S.A. about the year 1798. While a child, her owner Robert Stockton gave her to his daughter upon her marriage to Reverend Ashbel Green, president of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University). In 1817 she was admitted as a member of the First Presbyterian Church in Princeton, New Jersey, and formally freed at that time. She remained as a paid domestic servant with the family, learned from reading in their library and home schooling by Dr. Green, and expressed a desire to go as a missionary to Africa. She also did some teaching at this time. She learned of plans by Charles S. Stewart, a student at Princeton Theological Seminary and friend of the Green family, to go to Hawaii as a missionary. She expressed a desire to go with them. She was commissioned by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions as a missionary, and became the first single American woman sent overseas as a missionary. Her contract with the Board and with the Stewarts said that she went "neither as an equal nor as a servant, but as a humble Christian friend" to the Stewarts, and stipulated that she was not to be more occupied with domestic duties than the other missionaries. They arrived in 1823 and she was the teacher of the first mission school opened to the common people of Hawaii. She also trained native Hawaiian teachers who took over from her upon her departure until the arrival of another missionary. She stayed with the Stewart household until at least 1830. She established a school for Indians at Grape Island, Canada, and then returned to Princeton in 1835 where she taught in its school for blacks until her death on October 24, 1865.
BACON, LEONARD [1802‑1881] – American Congregational pastor was ordained in 1824 as an evangelist to the Western frontier. He served as a pastor at New Haven for 41 years. Bacon was active in the slavery issue and was noted as a peacemaker within the Congregational Union.
CARTWRIGHT, PETER [1785-1872] – American Methodist pioneer who was converted in 1801 after intense spiritual struggle over his delight in horse racing, card playing and dancing. He was ordained a deacon in 1809 by Francis Ashbury [see 1784]. He served in circuits in Kentucky until, due to his distaste for slavery, he relocated in 1824 to Illinois where he served as president for 45 years. He was defeated by Abraham Lincoln in the 1846 race for Congress.
CHRYSANTHUS I – Patriarch of Constantinople [1824-1826] who succeeded Anthimus III [see 1822]. There is no additional information readily available.
KITTO, JOHN [1804-1854] – English biblical scholar who at the age of 12 sustained an accident while assisting his father, a drunken stonemason, which left him permanently deaf. He was a workhouse inmate and then shoemaker’s apprentice before becoming converted in 1824. He was rescued by A.N. Groves [see 1833] who sent him to Islington Missionary College to train as a printer for the Church Missionary Society. However this body found his services both in London and Malta unsatisfactory and in 1829 he travelled to Muslim lands as one of Groves’ party of Brethren missionaries. In Baghdad he set up a missionary school which was destroyed in 1832 when he returned to England. He now broke with the Brethren and began to write for the wider evangelical world. He was honoured academically later but struggled against severe physical and monetary hardship until his death.
KNIBB, WILLIAM [1803-1845] – An early Baptist missionary in Jamaica who arrived on the island in 1824 to manage the Kingston school. In 1830 he went to minister to farmers near Montego Bay where he remained until his death. His ministry at Falmouth spans momentous years with the Slave Revolt of 1831-32, the persecution of evangelicals which followed it, emancipation, the shift of plantation to freehold residence, all crowd into the 15 years of Knibb’s ministry. He was a tireless champion of the Negroes, in slavery, in apprenticeship, and in freedom, when he risked personal credit to settle the slaves on their own land. He was also a prime mover in the decision to declare the Jamaica churches independent of the Baptist Missionary Society, in the formation of the Calabar College for the training ministers, and in organising the first West Indian mission to Africa.
SPITTA, KARL JOHANN PHILIPP [1801-1859] – Lutheran hymn writer, born in Hanover and apprenticed to a watchmaker, Spitta eventually graduated in theology at Gottingen in 1824. As a result of his conversion about that time he stopped writing secular verse and after four years as a tutor became a Lutheran pastor. Some of his hymns have been translated into English.
BOWRING, SIR JOHN [1792‑1872] – English linguist, diplomat and hymn writer who after a period of Consul in Canton became the Governor of Hong Kong. Author of many poems and hymns he is generally remembered now for his hymn “In the cross of Christ I glory” which was made famous by John Stainer in his oratorio The Crucifixion [see 1887].
CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY [1780-1842] – Unitarian leader and abolitionist who was ordained as pastor of a Congregational church in Boston 1803. Six years later he set forth the basis of Unitarianism [see 1558] with denial of the Trinity, the deity of Christ, total depravity and substitutionary atonement. He was a prime mover in the development of the American Unitarian Association in 1825.
CHURCHES OF GOD which is a name designating about 200 various religious bodies in the USA. It was first used by a revival group within the German Reformed Church [American] in this year. The Churches of God are divided into five general categories, the Pentecostal, the Wesleyan, a Seventh Day group, Small independent churches, and H W Armstrong’s Worldwide Church of God founded in 1947.
DRUMMOND, HENRY [1786-1860] – Politician, writer, and a founder of the Catholic Apostolic Church. Educated at Harrow and Oxford he entered the banking profession, was elected to Parliament in 1810 where his vote on major issues was uninfluenced by party considerations. He founded a chair of political economy at Oxford in 1825. Going to Switzerland he contended strongly against Socinian [see 1578] tendencies in Genevan Protestantism. Meetings of those in sympathy with the views of Edward Irvine [see 1822] were held for the study of prophecy at his home in Surrey.
FREETHINKERS – Those who refuse to submit reason to the control of authority in questions of religious belief. The term seems to have appeared first in 1692 and was used by Deists and other opponents of Orthodox Christianity in the 18th century in promoting reason above all else. It has been associated with a great number of movements. Modern secularism in its militant and the atheistic form claims that the term brings together many different strands of thought. Among these will be listed modern Unitarianism  Mexican secularism , the German free religious movement , organised positivism , New Zealand rationalism , Australian secularism , the Belgian league of the enlightenment [1864, the English religion society . Italian anticlericalism , Vosey's theistic church , American free thought , American ethical culture , the Dutch dawn , Argentinian secularism , and Austrian secularism  to which could legitimately be added the more radical groups within the major denominations and extend the list even to include political revolutionaries.
GRUNDTVIG, NIKOLAI FREDERIK SEVERIN [1783-1872] – Danish bishop and hymn writer who, except for short periods of service as a pastor, lived as an independent writer [1810-25] struggling for the reintroduction of an orthodox Lutheran Christianity. It was during a religious crisis in 1824 that he made his ‘unique discovery’. This he published in 1825 in a pamphlet called “The Church’s Reply”. This argued that the sure foundation of faith is not to be found in the Bible, but in the risen Christ himself, who lives and works in his congregation when it gathers around the sacraments. Around 1830 he visited England 3 times and was strongly impressed by the spirit of liberty and activity which he found characteristic of English society. From 1825 he was the leader of an ever increasing following. He was given the rank of bishop in 1861 by his denomination.
HIEROTHEUS I - Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria [1825-1845] see 1805 and 1845
LACHMANN, KARL KONRAD FRIEDRICH WILHELM [1793-1851] – German philologist and founder of modern textural criticism. He joined the Prussian army in 1815 and became professor of philology at Berlin from 1825 until his death. His life was spent in the study of philology especially of Old and Middle High German and he was one of the finest classical scholars of the day. He was the first scholar to produce an addition of the Greek New Testament in which the Textus Receptus was abandoned in favour of older manuscripts. He gave impulse to later scholars such as Tischendorf, Westcott, and Hort.
MULLER, JULIUS [1801-1878] – German Protestant theologian who studied at Breslau and Gottingen changing from law to theology in 1821. He was ordained in Breslau in 1825 and served in a parish before accepting an appointment as university preacher at Gottingen [1831-35]. He supported the Prussian Evangelical Union of Lutheran and Reformed Churches and attempted to draw up a formula of consensus to serve as the doctrinal basis for the Evangelical Church of Prussia.
RANKE, LEOPOLD VON [1795-1886] – Lutheran historian who became a professor at the University of Berlin [1825 to 1871]. Ranke’s most significant work in church history is his “History of the Popes” in two volumes which covered the period from the Reformation to the Vatican Council of 1869-70. The Prussian state named him official historian in 1841 and granted him the aristocrat’s title “von” in 1865 for his efforts.
REVEIL, LE – Literally means The Awakening. It was an evangelical revival which began in French-speaking Switzerland in the early 19th century and spread to France and the Netherlands by 1825. It shook the state churches of Geneva and Vaud and spawned free churches in those two cantons. It also deeply touched the French and Dutch Reformed communities and complimented contemporary revivals in the British Isles and in the United States. Le Reveil was basically a reaction against the rationalism and materialism which the Enlightenment had brought to the established churches of the Continent. It had an able leadership of Caesar Malan [see 1817], Francois Gaussen [see 1831], and Merle d’Aubigne [see 1817] in Geneva; Alexandre Vinet [see 1819] in Vaud; Felix Neff [d 1829], Henri Pyt [d 1835], Adolphe [d.1856] and Frederdijk [d.1863] Monod in France; and Willem Bilderdijk [see 1795], and Isaak da Costa [see 1851] in the Netherlands. By the end of the century Le Reveil had won over a majority of the Venerable Company of Pastors of Geneva, permeated the French Reformed Church, and rejuvenated hundreds of Dutch congregations.
SCHMUCKER, SAMUEL SIMON [1799-1873] – Lutheran clergyman who was the dominant figure of American Lutheranism in his day. He was a founder of the Lutheran Theological Seminary in Gettysburg Pennsylvania in 1825 and the first of its professors. He was also the creator of the Pennsylvania College where he asserted that Lutheran Pietism was the best weapon against rationalism.
AGATHANGELUS I – Patriarch of Constantinople [1826-1830] who succeeded Chrysanthus I [see 1824]. There is no additional material readily available.
DOLLINGER, JOHANN JOSEPH IGNAZ VON [1799-1890] – Roman Catholic church historian and theologian who was ordained in 1822 and became a professor of church history in Munich from 1826. A friend of Gladstone [see 1832] and Lammenais [see 1830] he like the latter blended liberalism in theology and politics. He disliked the decree on Immaculate Conception [see 1854] and saw the Syllabus of Errors [see 1864] as an outright attack on the modern world and on some of his own positions. He was excommunicated in 1871 when he refused to accept the doctrine of papal infallibility, and shared in the founding of the Old Catholic Church [see 1889] taking part in its discussions with Anglicans and Orthodox out of concern for Christian reunion, but fell out with the Old Catholics when they discarded traditions such as celibacy of the clergy, and aural confession.
MITCHELL, WILLIAM (1803 –1870) – He was an Anglican who was the first ordained person to provide religious services in the Swan Valley area of the Swan River Colony later named Western Australia. He studied at Trinity College, Dublin before deciding to become a missionary. In 1826 he left Ireland with his wife for a missionary position in India under the Church Missionary Society but in 1830 due to the failing health of his wife, the family returned to England. She died in March 1831 and he remarried and returned to India but due to his own health returned to England in 1835. Leaving the Church Missionary Society Mitchell joined the Colonial and Continental Church Society and moved to Western Australia as a missionary priest the following year.
PHILARET, DROZDOV [1782-1867] – Metropolitan of Moscow, humanitarian, who was educated in Moscow and became a lecturer at the seminary in 1803. He was ordained in 1809 and later held the chair of philosophy at St Petersburg. After a series of appointments he became metropolitan of Moscow in 1826. Having earlier been exposed to and much appreciated Protestant thinking, he protested the Russian Church’s insinuation of heresy, even declaring that their official pronouncements were only private opinions, doctrinal decisions being invalid as long as there were no administrative canons. With the liberal reforms of Tsar Alexander II in 1861 he was honoured by the production of a manifesto whereby the peasants were released from serfdom.
SHAFTESBURY, ANTHONY ASHLEY COOPER Seventh Earl of [1801-1885] – Evangelical social reformer who was educated at Oxford and entered Parliament in 1826 as a Tory though his growing concern with social issues and particularly his desire to improve working-class conditions which had been created by the Industrial Revolution made him more independent politically. In 1828 he became a member of the Metropolitan Lunacy Commission and began his work for the mentally ill. In 1845 he persuaded Parliament to establish a permanent Lunacy Commission for the whole country and was the chairman of it until he died. From 1833 to 1847 his main political concern was the factory question which after long battle resulted in the 10 Hours Act and the Factory Act of 1874. He championed the cause of the women and children working in mines and secured the setting up of a Royal Commission of Enquiry into children's employment in general. In 1875 the Climbing Boys Act protected children being used as chimney sweeps. He also promoted legislation to protect milliners and dressmakers as well as being involved in social work in connection with slums and The Ragged School Union of which he was chairman and his own schemes in industrial schools and training ships. He was a leading evangelical in the mid century supporting Catholic Emancipation in 1829. As Lord Palmerston’s stepson-in-law he advised him on ecclesiastical appointments during his premiership. He was president of the British and Foreign Bible Society and closely associated with the London City Mission, Church Missionary Society, YMCA, and the Church Pastoral-Aid Society.
SMITH, ELI [1801-1857] – American Congregational missionary and Orientalist who graduated from the Yale in 1821 and Andover Seminary in 1826. He engaged in mission work under the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions in Malta and Syria. In 1830 with H.G. Dwight he explored Asia Minor, Armenia, Georgia, and Persia. The two explorers published a book dealing with their trip which led to the establishment of the American mission among Nestorian Christians. In 1838 Smith and Edward Robinson explored Sinai, Palestine, and southern Syria. The last 10 years of Smith's life was spent translating the Bible into Arabic. He died in Beirut.
THOLUCK, FRIEDRICH AUGUST GOTTREU [1799-1877] – German Protestant theologian who concentrated on the study of oriental languages at the universities of Breslau and Berlin and was converted to Christ under Pietist influences and turned his study to theology. He was professor of theology at Halle for 49 years from 1826 where he exerted a powerful influence on students and on the churches. He was very influential in his day.
TUBINGEN SCHOOL – In the early 19th century there was a Tubingen School of conservative theology but the Tubingen School commonly referred to is that headed up by F.C. Baur [see 1845] who taught there from 1826 until his death in 1860. Baur’s teaching was characterised by his anti-supernaturalistic attitude to history, tendency criticism in the interpretation of biblical writings, and the use of idealist philosophy in interpretation of history. He saw a fundamental conflict between the Jewish church led by Peter and the Hellenistic Gentile church led by Paul. The degree in which New Testament books exhibited tendencies of this conflict determined their authenticity. Baur assigned most of them to the second century. It is questionable however whether the school ever amounted to more than Baur and his immediate circle as despite the attention Baur attracted, 19th century German liberal theology tended to follow other paths.
ANDREWS, LORRIN (1795–1868) - An early American Missionary to Hawaii and judge who sailed to Hawaii in 1827. On arrival he first learnt the language. He opened the first post-secondary school for Hawaiians called Lahainaluna Seminary and prepared a Hawaiian dictionary and several works on the literature and antiquities of the Hawaiians. His students published the first newspaper, and were involved in the first case of counterfeiting currency in Hawaii. He later served as a judge and became a member of Hawaii's first Supreme Court.
ATHANASIUS V Patriarch of Jerusalem - [1827-1845] see 1808 and 1845
BEETHOVEN, LUDWIG VAN [1770‑1827] – German composer who became while still a boy relief organist at Bonn Cathedral. Here he was introduced to music by J S Bach [see 1723]. He moved to Vienna where he soon attained fame as a composer and pianist but before reaching thirty he started to lose his hearing. He wrote some outstanding sacred compositions including "Christ on the Mount of Olives"," Mass in C", and "Missa Solemnis".
BORROW, GEORGE HENRY [1803‑1881] – English author and linguist who from 1818 was a trainee to solicitors in Norwich. Moving to London in 1824 he was grossly underpaid for translations while learning languages in his spare time. He left London as a tramp. He commenced 23 years of wandering on foot in Europe and the East in 1827 working at times with newspapers in Spain and Russia and for the British and Foreign Bible Society [see 1804]. Borrow was in danger many times and was reconciled to the fact that he might be martyred. In his later years he was a missionary to the gypsies and published a complete Romany dictionary.
DYER, SAMUEL [1804-1843] – English Congregational Missionary to Malaysia. Dyer and his wife Maria arrived in Penang in 1827. He was known as a typographer for creating a steel typeface of Chinese characters for printing to replace traditional wood blocks. Dyer's type was accurate, aesthetically pleasing, durable and practical. He was converted in 1820 in London and while at Cambridge he turned his thoughts to missionary service. He joined the London Missionary Society and studied not only theology but Chinese and the art of printing. After gaining some knowledge of the language in Penang Dyer faced the challenge of producing movable metallic types for the thousands of Chinese characters. He started with a systematic analysis of characters and strokes. At first, using wood reliefs to create the clay moulds from which type could be cast, he soon moved to steel punches and copper matrixes. Dyer's linguistic abilities, meticulous planning, and painstaking attention to detail resulted in Chinese fonts of high quality. They were later passed on to the American Presbyterian Mission Press in China and played a significant part in its development. By 1828 Samuel was preaching in Chinese only 5 months after their arrival. He grew committed to the production of Christian literature in Chinese, printing Bibles, tracts, and books with the moveable, metal-cast type with a controlled vocabulary that he developed. In 1835 they moved to Malacca and then to Singapore in 1841 where Samuel worked on a revision of the Chinese Bible. In 1843 he left with John Stronach for the LMS conference in Hong Kong where he was appointed Conference Secretary but he fell ill and died in Macau later that year. His type was known as Dyer’s Penang was the Chinese standard print until the 1860’s
EWALD, GEORG HEINRICH AUGUST VON [1803-1875] – German biblical Scholar who studied in Gottingen and therefore was put in touch with the first generation of modern critical studies of the Old Testament. Ewald’s place in the history of biblical scholarship is fixed by his initiating role in two of its major dimensions: Semitic linguistics in a historical vein from 1827 and the history of the people of Israel from 1843. Political views forced him to leave Gottingen in 1837 and it was 10 years before he could return during which he taught at Tubingen. In later life he was deeply involved in political affairs.
FARADAY, MICHAEL [1791-1867] – English scientist who was the son of a blacksmith and became a laboratory assistant to Sir Humphrey Davy at the Royal institution in 1813 and later succeeded him as professor of chemistry in 1827. His discoveries include the first electric motor, the first dynamo, and the first transformer. His outlook on science was deeply influenced by Christianity; in his lectures he often used science as evidence of God's power and wisdom. His life was devoted to Christian work in science; he was a brilliant lecturer who made science popular in his day. On Christian grounds he rejected wealth, and on retirement was very poor. However a government pension was granted to him in 1858 together with a house in Hampton Court which was provided for him by Queen Victoria.
GURNEY, JOSEPH JOHN [1788-1847] – Philanthropist and founder of the American Quaker group Gurneyites named after him. Born in England he became a Quaker minister in 1818. The “Friends” experienced a schism in 1827 when Elias Hicks of Long Island and his followers the Hicksters [see below] rebelled against a thoroughly evangelical statement of faith adopted by most of the Philadelphia Quakers. Between 1837 and 1840 Gurney toured America and the West Indies preaching widely, becoming a rallying point in conforming to the revivalist pattern and eventually giving his name to the movement. His followers in time took on the characteristics of normal Protestants using the sacraments and having a minister preach at worship services. On his return to England, Gurney helped his sister Elizabeth Fry [see 1813] in her work, and collaborated with Thomas Clarkson [see 1787] and others for the abolition of the slave trade.
HICKSITES – In 1827 a number of American Quakers followed the preaching of Elias Hicks [1748-1813] and withdrew from the orthodox Society of Friends and established their own yearly meetings. Hicks was an eloquent preacher and social crusader who had attacked such institutions as slavery, contended that man was capable of saving himself, and described the Bible and church dogma as functional but not authoritative. This group included those who had been influenced by Unitarianism [see 1558], those who wished to resist the attempt by evangelical Quakers to unite all yearly meetings and create written doctrine, and those who believed inner experience was primary. In the 20th century they have co-operated with orthodox Quakers.
LACORDAIRE, JEAN-BAPTISTE HENRI [1802-1861] – Celebrated French Roman Catholic orator who was ordained in 1827 and immediately became a revolutionary. He attempted to open a progressive school in Paris after the Revolution of 1830 failed. In addition the pope condemned and terminated a periodical he edited. In a series of fiery sermons at Notre Dame he electrified Paris and succeeded in reviving the Dominican Order which had been banned since the Revolution. He experienced continuous conflicts with Rome over periodicals he launched to air Republican principles.
SUMNER, CHARLES RICHARD [1790-1874] – Bishop of Winchester, brother of J.B. Sumner archbishop of Canterbury [see 1848]. He was educated at Cambridge, ordained in 1814 and made a royal chaplain by George IV. In 1826 he was consecrated bishop of Llandaff and the following year was translated to Winchester. Although a convinced evangelical he voted for the 1829 Catholic Emancipation Bill against the king's wishes which he later regretted. In 1850 he strongly protested against the restoration of the Roman Catholic hierarchy. Sumner established new churches and poor schools in his diocese and improved the lot of agricultural labourers.
WAYLAND, FRANCIS [1796-1865] – Baptist pastor and social reformer who was born in New York and graduated from Union College in 1813. He went to medical school where he experienced a profound religious change which led him to the Andover Theological Seminary in 1816. After five years of teaching at Union College and five years as pastor of the First Baptist Society of Boston he was elected as the president of Brown University in 1827, a position which he held the next 28 years. He sponsored prison reform, emancipation of slaves, and free trade. Baptist historians have hailed him as one of the strongest defenders of religious freedom and toleration.
ARNOLD, THOMAS [1795‑1842] – Anglican teacher who in 1828 was ordained and appointed headmaster of Rugby School laying the foundation of the modern public school system in England with its emphasis on religious training, moral character and public service. He became Regius professor of modern history at Oxford in 1841 but opposed the Oxford Movement [see 1833]. The essence of Christianity to him was practical goodness. Arnold also emphasised the universal priesthood of all believers.
HOWLEY, WILLIAM – Archbishop of Canterbury [1828-1848]. Howley was born in 1766 at Ropley, Hampshire, where his father was vicar. He was educated at Winchester School and in 1783 went to New College, Oxford. After some time working in Somerset as a private tutor he was appointed regius professor of divinity at Oxford University and canon of Christ Church, Oxford. He was an active English Freemason, having joined the 'Royal York Lodge' in Bristol in December 1791 and served the lodge regularly until his elevation to the episcopate took him to London. In October 1813, at Lambeth Palace, he was consecrated bishop of London, a post he was to occupy until 1828, when he became archbishop of Canterbury. Howley was archbishop during the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts (1828), the Emancipation of the Catholics (1829) and the passing of the Great Reform Act (1832.) The bench of bishops was generally opposed to all three measures. As archbishop, Howley was their spokesman and his heart-felt opposition to the Great Reform Act led to his carriage being attacked in the streets of Canterbury. Like very many other bishops at that time, Howley was an "old high-churchman." These people inherited a tradition of high views of the sacraments from the Caroline Divines and their successors. They held Catholic beliefs but were consistently anti-Roman. Archbishop Howley presided over the coronation of William IV and Queen Adelaide in 1831. At 5 a.m. on 20th June 1837, accompanied by the lord chamberlain, the archbishop went to Kensington Palace to inform Princess Victoria that she was now queen of Great Britain and Ireland. William Howley was married on 29th August 1805. The Howleys had two sons and three daughters; neither son reached adulthood. William Howley died in 1848 and was interred at Addington after an elaborate funeral. He succeeded Charles Manners Sutton [see 1805] and was succeeded by John Bird Sumner [see 1848].
MOHLER, JOHANN ADAM [1796-1838] – German scholar who studied at Tubingen and was ordained there in 1819. Mohler was professor of church history at Tubingen from 1828 and later at Munich from 1835. He became dean of Würzburg Cathedral just before he died from cholera, pneumonia, and general exhaustion. His efforts to understand and be understood by Protestants demonstrated his deep ecumenical interest.
PHILIP, JOHN [1775-1851] – Scottish missionary to South Africa. He was a Congregational minister in Aberdeen before beginning his 30 years work as resident director of the London Missionary Society in South Africa. He made frequent tours and aimed to silence his critics by improving the quality of missionary work, and also assisted the Rhenish, Paris, and American Board missions to enter the field. He played a controversial role in colonial politics with his vigorous campaign on behalf the Hottentots and prepared the ground for Ordinance 50 of 1828 which extended civil rights to coloured people. Philip was also active in various areas to give the native population justice. He is often condemned as an ignorant negrophile and although his information and judgements were sometimes faulty, few men were better informed. He had an intolerant manner but this was outweighed by his passionate concern for justice and his acute understanding of the colony’s true interests.
PUSEY, EDWARD BOUVERIE [1800-1882] – Leader of the Oxford Movement. He was educated at Oxford and graduated in 1819. From 1825 to 1827 he studied biblical criticism in Germany and in the process acquired a good knowledge of oriental languages. His works were strongly conservative the best known is his commentary on the Minor Prophets and on Daniel. In 1828 he was appointed regis professor of Hebrew at Oriel where he was already acquainted with Keble and Newman and contributed to the Tracts of the Times” which was edited by Newman. Two of them, one on baptism and the other on the Eucharist, were much longer than the previous tracts. In 1843 he was inhibited as a university preacher because of his sermon on the Eucharist. When in 1845 Newman seceded to the Roman Church, Pusey became the best-known figure in the Church of England. This encouraged others to remain in the Church of England. His own desire for reunion with the Roman Church led to him providing a paper in 1870 but he was disappointed with the response. In later years however he was more occupied with combating the growing strength of liberalism represented in Oxford by Benjamin Jowett [see 1860]. Pusey was a man of great personal devotion but his private life was haunted by tragedy. His wife to whom he was devoted died after 11 years of marriage and all but one of his children predeceased him.
THAILAND – The story Protestant Christian missionary work in this Buddhist land is one of repeated disappointments and frustrations although there were some outstanding missionaries. Karl Gutzlaff [see 1823] a German, was one of the first to arrive in 1828. In less than three years he saw the Bible completely though imperfectly translated into Thai and produced a grammar and dictionary. His wife and infant twin daughters died in 1831 and he himself had to leave the country apparently in a dying condition. In all 61 missionaries have died on this field. The American Board arrived in 1831 with David Abeel but in 1849 it officially withdrew. The American Missionary Association through Daniel Beach Bradley was basically a one-man work. Bradley made a greater impression on Thailand than any other missionary and was a good friend of King Mongkut yet he had few converts. After his death in 1873 the American Missionary Association also withdrew. The American Baptists came in 1833 with John Taylor Jones and the Chinese Baptist Church was organised in 1837. This was the first Protestant church in the Far East. The major continuing work was that of the American Presbyterians which began in 1840. In 1934 the Presbyterians formed the Church of Christ in Thailand and in 1957 the mission dissolved and turned over all the work to this national church. In 1929 the Christian and Missionary Alliance entered East Thailand but it was not until after World War II that there was a great influx by a number of new missions into the country.
AUBER, HARRIET [1773-1862] – Hymn Writer and Poet. She was born in London but during the greater part of her quiet and secluded life lived at Broxbourne and finally Hoddesdon in Hertfordshire. She wrote devotional and other poetry, but only a portion of the former was published in her “Spirit of the Psalms”, in 1829. This collection is mainly her work, and from it some useful versions of the Psalms have been taken and included in modern hymn-books including about 20 appearing in Spurgeon's Hymn Book. She is principally known through her exquisite hymn "Our blest Redeemer, ere He breathed."
BINNEY, THOMAS [1798‑1874] – Apprenticed to a bookseller before training for the Congregational ministry. After pastorates at Bedford and the Isle of Wight he became pastor of Weigh House Chapel, London [1829‑1869]. His preaching style appealed to the youth for whom he wrote his most popular book ”Is it possible to make the best of both worlds?”, which was published in 1853. He also promoted the use of more attractive music in his services.
BLEEK, FRIEDRICH [1793‑1859] – German biblical scholar who studied in Berlin from 1814-1817 under W. de Wette [see 1822], Johan Neander [see 1813], and F Schleiermacher [see 1804]. He held a conservative viewpoint opposing the Tubingen School [see 1826], and defended the traditional authorship of the fourth gospel. He was professor of theology at Bonn [1829‑1859], and also was elected as rector of the university. His major work was a three part commentary on Hebrews.
BURTON, EDWARD [1794-1836] – Scholar and church historian. He was educated at Oxford and studied on the continent for six years from 1818, and on his return to England gained a reputation as a precise and widely educated scholar. He was appointed regius professor of divinity at Oxford in 1829. He is chiefly remembered because of his untimely death which resulted in R D Hampden succeeding him and the consequent campaigning of the Oxford Movement [see 1833] against his successor.
GOSSNER, JOHANNES EVANGELISTA [1773–1858]. German founder of the Gossner Missionary Society. In 1796 he was ordained as a priest and became an evangelical. He served in a number of congregations in Germany and then served a German congregation at St Petersburg Russia from 1822-1824 until doubts regarding the celibacy of the clergy forced him to resign. In 1826 he joined the Lutheran Church and was appointed in 1829 to the pastorate of the Bethlehem Church in Berlin where he remained for 17 years. Here he founded schools, asylums, and the missionary society bearing his name in 1836. Missionaries from the society served mainly in East India. After resigning from the Bethlehem Church in 1846 he devoted the remainder of his life to the hospital which he had founded.
HARLESS, GOTTLIEB CHRISTOPH ADOLPH VON [1806-1879] – German Lutheran theologian who was influenced by F. Tholuck [see 1826] toward theology and particularly Luther's doctrine of justification. He was a professor of New Testament exegesis at Erlangen from 1829 to 1845 where he considerably raised the standard of theological teaching. He became president of the supreme consistory of Bavaria and reorganised the Lutheran state church giving them a new hymn book and a new order of service. He was one of the most influential representatives of Lutheran orthodoxy of his generation.
MEYER, HEINRICH AUGUST WILHELM [1800-1873] – German Protestant clergyman and New Testament scholar. His chief contribution to scholarship was a famous commentary series on the New Testament which he founded and commenced in 1829 and which has been revised over the years and is still a very important academic commentary on the New Testament. In introducing the work Meyer outlined the principles of historic grammatical exegesis as he understood it.
PIUS VIII – Pope [1829-1830]. He studied Canon law and, in 1800 became bishop of Montalto. After he refused to swear allegiance to Napoleon I of France (1804-14, 1815) he was taken to France. Following the defeat of France he was elevated to cardinal priest in 1816. He continued to live modestly, made no enemies, and although his own private life had always been irreproachable, he had shown no signs of judgement where others were concerned. He suffered from a very painful and distressing complaint, having perpetually weeping sores on his neck and body, and was too ill and feeble to do more than sign the documents presented to him by Giuseppe Cardinal Albani, who ruled the Papal States as autocratically as though he had himself worn the triple crown. Expressing concern on the debate on religious pluralism which was occurring in his own time he condemned the "foul contrivance of the sophists of this age" that would place Catholicism on par with any other religion. Regarding Bible translations, he wrote “We must also be wary of those who publish the Bible with new interpretations contrary to the Church's laws. They skilfully distort the meaning by their own interpretation. They print the Bibles in the vernacular and, absorbing an incredible expense, offer them free even to the uneducated. Furthermore, the Bibles are rarely without perverse little inserts to ensure that the reader imbibes their lethal poison instead of the saving water of salvation”. In 1830 he condemned Masonic secret societies and modernist biblical translations. Pius VIII accepted the situation on mixed marriages between Protestants and Catholics in Germany, but opposed liberalising tendencies in Ireland and Poland. He succeeded Leo XII [see 1823] and was succeeded by Gregory XVI [see 1831].
WILLIAMS, ISAAC [1802-1865] – Welsh Tractarian, poet, and theologian who was educated at Harrow and Oxford and deeply influenced by John and Thomas Keble and by Richard Froude. Ordained in 1829 he was tutor and dean at Trinity by 1833. Williams was curate to J.H. Newman at St Mary's. He produced many translation of hymns from Greek and Latin and was recognised to be the natural successor to John Keble for the professorship of poetry at Oxford in 1841. However his tract 80 raised great alarm and then antagonism in the Anglican Church cost him the chair so that he spent the rest of his life in semi-retirement writing hymns, poetry, sermons, and devotional works.
BARNES, ALBERT [1798-1870] – American Presbyterian minister born in Rome New York into a Methodist family. Trained at Princeton Seminary he became a Presbyterian. He was a dynamic evangelical preacher who sought to challenge the human will to respond to God’s offer of salvation. In 1830 he was charged with doctrinal error by the Calvinist wing of the Presbytery but acquitted by the general assembly although admonished about what they saw as objectionable passages in a sermon.
BICKERSTETH, EDWARD [1786-1850] – English evangelical author and compiler of hymn books who worked in a post office and as a lawyer until he was converted in 1805. As a result he wrote the popular “Help to Studying the Scriptures”. Ordained in 1815 he went to Sierra Leone to report on the work of the Church Missionary Society. In 1830 he accepted a post at Watton but retained his connection with the CMS and soon after compiled his Christian Psalmody a collection of 900 hymns. He was active in the formation of the Evangelical Alliance and Irish Missions.
BRAY, WILLIAM (Billy) [1794‑1868] – Cornish Methodist preacher who was a son of a mining convert from Wesley’s visit. He worked in a mine early after his father’s death, was dismissed and led a dissolute life. Converted after reading Bunyan [see 1678] he became an itinerant preacher often sleeping outdoors and poorly dressed. He was famous in Cornwall for his native wit showing a great joy in Christ.
BRIDGMAN, ELIJAH [1801‑1861] – First American missionary to China who after graduation in 1829 was appointed to China by the American Board. For a year he and David Abeel of the Seaman’s Friend Society were supported by D W Oliphant a China trader. Bridgman learned the Cantonese dialect and prepared a 730 page manual on it. After the First Opium War he started work in Shanghai and supervised the production of the Bible and was a pastor of a church.
CAMPBELL, JOHN [1800‑1872] – Scottish Presbyterian minister convicted in 1830 of heresy for preaching the doctrine of universal atonement and pardon through the death of Christ, and that assurance is of the essence of faith and necessary for salvation. He was deposed in 1831 and became a minister to an independent congregation in Glasgow. His views were later incorporated in “The Nature of the Atonement“, published in 1856 which is regarded as a substantial contribution in the development of Scottish theology.
CONSTANTIUS I – Patriarch of Constantinople [1830-1834] who succeeded Agathangelus I [see 1826]. There is no additional information readily available.
DUFF, ALEXANDER [1806-1878] – Scottish missionary to India who was educated at St Andrews University and became the first Church of Scotland missionary to go to India. He and his wife were twice shipwrecked en route to Calcutta. Realising the value of a strong educational policy, he opened an English school in which the Bible was the central textbook, but which offered a range of subjects to university standard. There was some opposition from both Hindus and fellow missionaries, but he had a powerful ally in the British governor general and the school developed notably. Poor health compelled his return home in 1834 but he recovered sufficiently to see India again in 1840. In 1851 he was moderator of his church's general assembly and three years later he impressed his concern for missions on American and Canadian listeners. A further spell in India 1856-1864 was concerned with the advancement of higher education in the country specifically with the foundation of the University of Calcutta. Through ill health he was forced to leave India but he laboured in his missionary cause until his death. From 1867 he occupied the first chair of evangelical theology at New College in Edinburgh.
KHOMYAKOV, ALEKSEI STEPANOVICH [1804-1860] – Russian philosopher and theologian who was a member of the landed gentry and graduated from the University of Moscow in 1822 after which he served in the army during the Russo-Turkish War. In 1830 he retired to his estates where he tried to improve the conditions of his serfs and eventually advocated the abolition of serfdom. His writings cover a wide range of subjects from tragedy and poetry to philosophy and theology. Although a layman he was well read in theology and believed the Orthodox Church as a mystical body was the guiding light of true Christianity. He criticised both Roman Catholicism and Protestantism for destroying the unity of Christianity. He saw the Russian peasant commune as that which preserved Christianity in its pure form and would lead the nations into a new Christian era.
KING, JONAS [1792–1869] – American Congregational author and missionary to Greece. Educated at Williams College and Andover Seminary he was ordained in 1819 then went to Palestine under the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions from 1822 to 1825. He married a Greek and was assigned to Greece in 1830 where he began a career of distinguished missionary and consular service. Besides founding a Greek Protestant church, King also started a school and wrote Christian literature in several languages. His “Farewell Letters”  discuss his reasons for not becoming a Roman Catholic. It was translated into several languages.
LAMENNAIS, FELICITE ROBERT DE [1782-1854] – French Roman Catholic writer whose personally epitomised the spiritual conflict between Catholic faith and the new democratic ideal. From a budding rationalist he converted to the Catholic faith and became a priest in 1816 and by 1830 founded newspaper to promote liberty for the church from the state. Even though he did not then accept the secularist basis of liberalism, his ideas were condemned by Gregory XVI. Gradually he left the church to advocate the new liberal democratic ideal and to extol out the common man, not the church, as the hope for social regeneration. Liberal Catholicism counts him among its founders.
MIGNE, JACQUES PAUL [1800-1875] – French Roman Catholic publisher who because of his controversy with the bishop concerning the revolution of 1830 left his diocese and went to Paris. He turned to journalism and decided to publish a universal library for the clergy. In 2000 volumes he hoped to publish at a moderate price all the Catholic literature to his own day. His press employed 300 people and he showed himself expert at managing the enterprise. Among other works he published editions of the Latin Fathers in 221 volumes and the Greek Fathers in 162 volumes. His work remains valuable as despite errors it is still one of the most uniform collections of Church Fathers to ever approach completion.
MORMONISM – On 6 April 1830 the Church of the Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was organised at Fayette, New York. They moved soon afterwards to Ohio and from there under the leadership of Joseph Smith [see below] the community moved to Jackson County Missouri. Because of opposition encountered there the group went to Illinois and after Smith was killed by a mob most of the Mormon community followed Brigham Young [see 1850] the new leader and settled in what is now Salt Lake City Utah where this church still has its headquarters. The Mormon Church uses in addition to the King James Version of the Bible the following books as its main sources of authority “The Book of Mormon; Doctrine and Covenants; and The Pearl of Great Price. It also believes that the president of the church may receive revelation that guides the church as a whole. By adding to the Bible their own additional sacred books, Mormons have placed themselves outside historic Christianity, which recognises the Bible alone as the final source authority. Though Christ is called divine in Mormon teaching his divinity is not unique, since it is the same as that which any man can attain. Christ’s incarnation too is not unique for all the gods after having first existed as spirits came to earth to receive bodies before they advanced to godhood. Mormon’s reject the doctrine of salvation by faith alone.
SMITH, JOSEPH [1805-1844] – Mormon prophet and founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Born in poor family circumstances he moved in 1816 to New York and experienced conversion during a religious revival in 1820. Subsequently he claimed to have received a direct revelation from God engraved upon golden plates. The contents he translated and published as the Book of Mormon in 1830 with the assistance of Sidney Rigdon former Campbellite minister. The Book of Commandments  provided the basis of Mormon theology. He practised polygamy and his continued mismanagement of the community affairs led to his downfall. Smith was arrested with his brother by non Mormon neighbours and confined them to gaol in nearby Carthage where they were murdered by a mob in 1844.
WINEBRENNER, JOHN [1797-1860] – German Reformed pastor, born in Maryland and was a pastor of the German Reformed Church [1820-1825] at Harrisburg Pennsylvania. He was censored for his evangelistic preaching and withdrew from the German Reformed Church and in 1830 formed the General Eldership of the Church of God, stating his opposition to all creeds, forms, and non-biblical names. The only creed was to be the Bible since man-made creeds had led to sectarianism. The doctrines he used were Arminian in character, and the ordinances of baptism, the Lord’s Table, and foot washing became obligatory.