CALLINICUS IV – Patriarch of Constantinople [1801-06, 1808-09] who succeeded Neophytus VI [see 1789]. There is no additional information readily available.
CAMP MEETINGS were a distinctive feature of religious life on the American frontier in the early decades of the 19th century. The meetings promoted vivid conversion experiences, emotional and even physical activities such as jerks, prostration and dancing. James McGready [see 1800] developed the technique in Logan County Kentucky in the summer of 1800 while the most famous camp meeting was in the following August at Cane Ridge Bourbon County Kentucky where the crowd was in excess of 10,000.
CONCORDAT OF 1801 – An agreement made between Napoleon Bonaparte and Pius VII by which the Roman Catholic Church was formally restored in France. By its terms the French government recognised the Roman Catholic Church as the national faith. In 1802 these provisions were significantly modified by Napoleon’s Organic Articles in which Protestants were accorded full religious rights. The Concordat was to govern relations between France and the papacy until the separation of church and state in 1905.
CONSALVI, ERCOLE [1757-1824] – Italian statesman who, after the French invasion of the Papal States in 1798, was imprisoned and later exiled. Gaining his freedom he worked for the election of Pius VII [see 1800] who made him secretary of state. He was mainly responsible for the Concordat of 1801 [see above] with Napoleon. When Napoleon seized Rome in 1809 he was forced to go to Paris to lead the black cardinals but after Napoleon’s defeat he represented the pope at the Congress of Vienna securing the restoration of the Papal States.
ICELAND [see also 1514] – In 1801 due to rationalistic inroads and led by Magnus Stephensen, Holar and Skaholt were merged into one diocese located at Reykjavik. The Lutheran hymnal and service were altered to reflect the new thought. This liberalism has been perpetuated in the recent century by the church's bishops and theological faculty.
JEFFERSON, THOMAS [1743-1826] – Third president of the United States and political philosopher who became president in 1801. His administration saw the Louisiana Purchase, the Lewis and Clark Expedition, and war with Algerian pirates. He was a founder of the Democratic Republican party and advocated democratic simplicity, agrarianism, state rights, and the separation of church and state. He was a Deist who deleted the miraculous from his edition of the gospels “The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth”.
LEE, JESSE [1758-1816] – The apostle of Methodism in New England. He was born in Virginia and was a pacifist during the Revolutionary War. He was appointed as the circuit preacher in 1789 and presiding elder of the South District of Virginia in 1801. He served three terms as chaplain in the House of Representatives and one in the Senate of the United States.
PLAN OF UNION, THE [1801-1852] – The scheme to prevent duplication of Presbyterian and Congregational work on the western American frontier fostered by the development of Presbyterianism more than Congregationalism there. The Plan united adherents of the two denominations in the West into congregations with local church government being that of the majority. The minister could be of either denomination. The Presbyterian General Assembly ended co-operation in 1837 and the Plan was finally ended by a Congregational convention in October 1852.
SCOTT, THOMAS [1747-1821] – Biblical commentator who was a son of a Lincolnshire grazier. Scott was employed for nine years in menial farm work which permanently ruined his health. Driven from home by his father's cruelty he was ordained a deacon in 1772 by the bishop of Lincoln and in 1781 having held a number of curacies succeeded John Newton at Olney. He was chaplain at the Lock Hospital and lecturer at St Mildred's London and from 1801 to 1821 rector of Aston Sandford where he helped to train missionaries for the Church Missionary Society. He is chiefly famous for Force of Truth published in 1779 which is his spiritual autobiography and follows his development from early Unitarian beliefs to the adoption of evangelical Calvinism under the influence of Newton, and for his Commentary on the Bible which became immediately popular but brought its author not only no financial rewards and charges of Arminianism from extreme Calvinistic critics.
STONE, BARTON WARREN [1772-1844] – American frontier Presbyterian evangelist who crossed into Kentucky at the close the American Revolution. Essentially an Arminian revivalist he broke with the Presbyterian Church on the subject of unconditional election and limited atonement after the great Cane Ridge Meeting of 1801 in which he was a participant and recorder. He organised the "Christian Church". His ecumenical outlook brought him into contact with many Christians of "the Reformation of the 19th century" including Alexander Campbell with whose "Disciples" many of the "Christians" merged in 1852.
CHATEAUBRIAND, FRANCOIS RENE VICOMTE DE [1768-1848] – French aristocrat, author, who originally supported the French Revolution but emigrated to London during the Terror of 1793. He was converted and wrote a defence of Christianity in his 1802 book “The Genie du Chistianisme.”
DE MAISTRE, JOSEPH MARIE [1754-1821] – Catholic philosopher and one of the initial proponents of Ultramontanism [see 1814]. He experienced the French Revolution as terror and anarchy when the revolutionary armies invaded Savoy in 1792. He believed it is God who establishes authority by divine sovereignty which is then reflected in the sovereignty of the popes, who are infallible in spiritual things, and of monarchs, infallible in temporal things. De Maistre’s emphasis on faith, rather than rationalism, and on organic, rather than mechanistic view of history, found wide acceptance among Catholics in France. He formulated most of his ideas while serving as Savoy's ambassador to Russia in 1802 to 1816.
ORGANIC ARTICLES  – A French law unilaterally amending and implementing the Concordat of 1801 to which it was attached without papal agreement. On grounds of concern for “public tranquillity” Napoleon hereby succeeded in seizing total control of the French Church, tightly centralised under the state. The law contains 77 articles arranged in four main titles. Although condemned by Pius VII [see 1800] and later popes, the Organic Articles remained law with some parts disused until 1905.
EVANGELICAL CHURCH [Albright Brethren] – An American Protestant denomination founded by Jacob Albright 1759-1808, a Pennsylvania tile maker and farmer. Following his conversion to evangelical Christianity in 1791, Albright, raised as a Lutheran, associated himself with a class meeting of the Methodist Episcopal Church and was licensed as a lay preacher. Stressing a personal and experiential relationship with God, the Evangelical Church held their first council in 1803. In 1891 controversies led to a schism and the birth of the United Evangelical Church in 1894. The two groups however were reunited in 1922 in the Evangelical Church. In 1968 this body merged with the Methodist Church to form the United Methodist Church, healing the division caused by the old language barrier and bringing together into one body the church of Francis Asbury and the church of Jacob Albright.
BRITISH and FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY formed in London. [See Thomas Charles 1784]
KRUDENER, BARBARA JULIANA VON [1764-1824] – Russian born Pietist who was unfaithful to her husband a Russian minister of state, and formed an attachment with a young French officer. A few months later in 1804 whilst in Riga she experienced a sudden conversion after which she held pietistic concepts. As a confidant of Tsar Alexander I she was regarded by some as a prime mover of the Holy Alliance with Prussia and Austria although Alexander contended that he had conceived of the alliance while in Vienna in 1815. She died during a visit to the Crimea.
RENQVIST, HENRIK [1789-1866] – Finnish pastor who experienced a personal revival while at school and was greatly influenced by a book on conversion by Arthur Dent the English Puritan. He came into contact with a movement which emphasised repentance and conversion called the “Prayers”. Another important influence on him was the Scot, John Patterson, who promoted the Bible Society which had been founded in Britain in 1804. Thereafter Renqvist was especially interested in the printing and spreading of inexpensive Bibles and Christian literature. He started writing and translating Christian books some 60 titles altogether. His own Christian outlook was a mystical one, and he pioneered temperance work and missions in Finland.
SCHLEIERMACHER, FRIEDRICH DANIEL ERNST [1768-1834] – German theologian who rejected Pietism in his youth but in later life regarded himself as a Pietist and of a higher order. He studied at Halle and was ordained in 1794. He served as a minister to the Charity Hospital in Berlin then returned as the professor to Halle in 1804. His next years were overshadowed by the Napoleonic Wars and the revival of German nationalism. With the closure of Halle a new university was formed at Berlin where he was made a professor of theology and was instrumental in bringing Hegel [see 1818] to Berlin but their relationship became strained through differences in outlook. He stated that the basis of religion is neither activity nor knowledge but something which underlines them both, the continuous feeling of awareness which we call the self consciousness. The common factor of religious experience is the feeling or sense of absolute dependence. Sin he saw as essentially a wrongful desire for independence. Christ being a man in whom dependence was complete and his profound experience of God through his sense of dependence constitutes an existence of God in him. Jesus is therefore able to mediate a new redemptive awareness of God to humanity. The influence of Schleiermacher extended far beyond his disciples who made up the school of Mediating Theology in the mid 19th century. To Karl Barth [see 1921] he epitomised the liberal approach to religion which dwelt on man rather than God.
CLOWES, WILLIAM [1780-1851] – Became an active Methodist in 1805 and co founded the Primitive Methodist Connexion. He participated in the first Mow Cop meeting in the county of Cheshire. Like Hugh Bourne [see 1811] he was expelled by the Methodists in 1810 through Methodist alarm at their association however many local Methodists supported him calling him as a fulltime preacher paid from their meagre wages. Clowes became a hard living travelling evangelist with many recording the remarkable power of his preaching. He worked until a couple of days before his decease.
HARMONY SOCIETY – A Protestant communal society established in 1805 north of Pittsburgh by 500 Pietist dissenters from Germany seeking religious freedom. Led by George Rapp [1757-1847] and his adopted son Frederick, the group moved to 30,000 acres at New Harmony Indiana in 1815. Practising first century Christian communal living, Harmonists laboured corporately as farmers, brewers, millers, and spinners, making their communities show pieces of economic growth and security. They pioneered prefabricated buildings, oil refinery, and underwriting railroad construction. In 1807 they adopted celibacy, a factor in the society's ultimate demise which occurred in 1916.
MARTYN, HENRY [1781-1812] – Anglican missionary to India who was born in Cornwall and educated at Cambridge. The sudden death of his father eventually led to a spiritual awakening and his ordination in 1803 as curate to Charles Simeon [see 1782] at Holy Trinity Church in Cambridge. He was the first Englishman to offer to the newly formed Church Missionary Society, but for reasons beyond his control he was not accepted. Further disappointment and intense unhappiness came when after a protracted period his proposal of marriage was not accepted. In 1805 Martyn sailed for India as a chaplain in the East India Company and arrived in Calcutta where he enjoyed fellowship with two other evangelical chaplains, Daniel Corrie and David Brown. Martyn’s outstanding linguistic gifts led to his great life’s work, the translation of the New Testament and the Book of Common Prayer into Hindustani. His forthright preaching to British contemporaries caused offence as did his constant attempts to make contact with native Indians both Hindus and Muslims. In 1809 the beginnings of tuberculosis and the intense summer heat almost caused his death. The following year he was advised to take a sea voyage and being anxious to complete an Arabic and Persian translation of the New Testament travelled to Shiraz where he talked and worked for long hours with Persian scholars gaining their respect and confidence in argument and debate and finishing his task in February 1812. He set out for home but the hard travelling and constant fever brought about his death in Armenia in October of that year. He was buried there.
MANNERS-SUTTON, CHARLES – Archbishop of Canterbury [1805-1828]. He was educated at Charterhouse and Cambridge. He married at age 23, probably eloped with his cousin Mary Thoroton. In 1785, Manners-Sutton was appointed to the family living at Averham with Kelham, in Nottinghamshire, and in 1791, became dean of Peterborough. He was consecrated bishop of Norwich in 1792 and in 1805 he was chosen to succeed John Moore as archbishop of Canterbury. During his primacy the old archiepiscopal palace at Croydon was sold and the country palace of Addington bought with the proceeds. He presided over the first meeting which issued in the foundation of the National Society, and subsequently lent the scheme his strong support. He also exerted himself to promote the establishment of the Indian episcopate. As archbishop of Canterbury, Manners-Sutton appointed his cousin Evelyn Levett Sutton as one of six preachers of Canterbury Cathedral in 1811. His only published works are two sermons, one preached before the lords in London in 1794, the other before the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel three years later. His son Charles Manners-Sutton served as speaker of the House of Commons and was created Viscount Canterbury in 1835. He succeeded John Moore [see 1783] and was succeeded by William Howley [see 1828].
THEOPHILUS III Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria [1805-1825] see 1788 and 1825
PLESSIS, JOSEPH OCTAVE [1762-1825] – Roman Catholic archbishop of Quebec who was a son of a blacksmith and received a classical education in Montréal College and then trained for the priesthood in Quebec. Completing the studies he taught for a time at Montréal College and became secretary to Bishop Briand [see 1766]. Plessis was ordained as a priest in 1786 and in 1806 was made bishop of Quebec. Enmity between the French and the British increased and at the time of the outbreak of the War of 1812 he urged the French to be loyal to Canada thus winning the appreciation of the government. He was granted in 1814 a seat in the Legislative Council and was consecrated archbishop of Quebec in 1818.
ALBRIGHT, JACOB [1759‑1808] – American preacher of German origin who had been born into the Lutheran church and founded the Evangelical Church in 1807. The group was Arminian in doctrine but Methodist in policy. He was a prosperous brick maker but the unexpected death of several of his children resulted in his conversion in 1790. He joined a Methodist group and became a lay preacher. In 1968 this group combined to form the United Methodist Church.
CAMPBELL, THOMAS [1763-1854] – One of the founders of the Disciples of Christ who was a Scots Irish minister in the Secession church that had broken away from the Church of Scotland. He emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1807 where he established a Christian Association for people from various professions. Later the group merged with a similar group organised by B. Stone [see 1801]. Becoming blind in later life he stayed with his son Alexander who wrote his biography “The Memoirs of Elder Thomas Campbell” seven years after his death.
MORRISON, ROBERT [1782-1834] – Missionary to China, born of Scottish Presbyterian artisan parents, he was converted when an apprentice at Newcastle. He educated himself and in 1802 entered into a Dissenting Academy near London and became a Congregationalist. Morrison offered to the London Missionary Society, then looking for someone to translate and distribute the Bible in the almost completely closed Chinese Empire. Morrison learned the rudiments of the language which was nearly unknown in England and was ordained in 1807. He sailed to Canton via the USA and Cape Horn because the controlling East India Company refused to transport missionaries. He could never get any further than the trading “factories” at Canton. He saw scarcely any converts and he could remain only because he learned Chinese so well that he swiftly became the official Company interpreter. However he completed a translation of the whole Bible by 1818. His dictionary published in 1821 was the standard work until long after China opened fully. He wrote tracts and hymns. When he obtained an assistant William Milne [see 1815] in 1813 Morrison sent him to found the Anglo-Chinese college in Malacca which proved to be an important element in the eventual growth of missions in China. He encouraged work among expatriate Chinese and dreamt of opening up Japan. Dying alone in Canton eight years before missionaries were admitted anywhere else this austere Scott is the “Father of Protestant Missions in China”.
WILBERFORCE, WILLIAM [1759-1833] – Slave trade abolitionist who was born in Hull and was educated at the grammar school where he came under the influence of Joseph Milner the headmaster [see 1797] and his brother Isaac [see 1775]. Isaac used to lift the small boy onto the table so that the other scholars could hear him read with his beautiful voice. At the age of 14 he wrote a letter to a York paper about the evils of the slave trade. He studied at Cambridge and went on a tour of Europe with Isaac Milner during which he was converted as they studied the New Testament together. In 1780 he was elected the member of Parliament for Hull after laying out a large amount of money on the election. He was in Parliament for many years. James Boswell records how the smallness of his stature was forgotten in the midst of his eloquence and that “the shrimp grew and grew and became a whale”. Wilberforce became associated with the Clapham Sect, a group of evangelicals who were active in public life. Through his friendship with John Newton [see 1779] and Thomas Clarkson [see 1787] on one hand, and William Pitt on the other, Wilberforce was persuaded to put most of his energies into the abolition of the slave trade. It was abolished in 1807 but the complete abolition of slavery was not achieved until just before his death in 1833. He helped with the formation of the Church Missionary Society  and the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1804.
POLYCARP I Patriarch of Jerusalem [1808-1827] see 1788 and 1827
SPAIN [see also 1576] – With the French occupation of Spain in 1808 political liberalism and anticlericalism were introduced into the country and these new forces confronted traditionalism in church and state and led to a century and a half of civil strife. With the revolution of 1931 Protestant activities could proceed unimpeded: churches were opened as well as schools including "El Porvenir" the one which was considered the finest secondary school in Spain. The Nationalists however denounced the Protestants as being in league with the Republicans and after 1939 persecution began again. The war of 1936-1939 resulted in victory for the Nationalists and the restoration of the Catholic Church, which had suffered severely during the period of the Republic [1931-1936]. Church and state were at one again and a notable concordat was concluded in 1953. Though Spain is regarded as the most devout of nations probably only about 20% of the people are practising Catholics.
TYLER, BENNET [1783-1858] – American Congregational theologian who graduated from Yale College in 1804. Tyler was ordained in 1808 and became president of Dartmouth College in 1822 and the pastor of the Second Church Portland Maine in 1828. This was the final period of the Second Great Awakening which had begun in 1799 with Charles Finney [see 1821] and other evangelists interpreting popularly the revivalist doctrines of Nathaniel W. Taylor [see 1812]. Orthodox Calvinists became increasingly alarmed by the concessions to Arminianism, in teaching human ability and choice, involved with the teachings coming out of Taylor’s New Haven Theology. Tyler, a Yale classmate of Taylor entered into discussions with him in 1829 which lasted several years and resulted in the founding of the Pastoral Union in 1833 and a theological institution in 1834, which eventually became Hartford Seminary, with the purpose of combating the New Haven Theology [see 1834]. Tyler was called to assume the presidency and remained to this position to 1857.
WILLIAMS, WILLIAM [1781-1840] – Welsh preacher who was the son of a carpenter and followed that trade in early life. He was educated at Wrexham Academy and ordained into the Congregational ministry near Wrexham in 1808. He moved to the Tabernacle, Crosshall Street Liverpool in 1836 but returned to Wern in 1839 and died there five months later. Tradition has it in Wales that Williams, John Elias [see 1811], and Christmas Evans [see 1789] were the three greatest names among the nation's preachers. Unlike the two others, Williams’ preaching style was quiet and persuasive rather than tempestuous. His influence with many congregations throughout North Wales was that he brought a new evangelical and missionary enthusiasm into being just at the time when the great flood of the Methodist Revival was showing signs of waning.
CHURCH'S MINISTRY AMONG JEWISH PEOPLE which was formerly the London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews. This is an Anglican missionary society founded in 1809.The society began in the early 19th century, when leading evangelicals, including members of the influential Clapham Sect such as William Wilberforce, and Charles Simeon, decided that there was an unmet need to promote Christianity among the Jews. The original agenda of the society was: [i] Declaring the Messiahship of Jesus to the Jew first and also to the non-Jew. [ii] Endeavouring to teach the Church its Jewish roots, [iii] Encouraging the physical restoration of the Jewish people to the Land of Israel and [iv] Encouraging the Hebrew Christian/Messianic Jewish movement. The society's work began among the poor Jewish immigrants in the East End of London and soon spread to Europe, South America, Africa and Palestine. In 1811, a five-acre field on the Cambridge Road in Bethnal Green, east London, was leased as a centre for missionary operations. A school, training college and a church called the Episcopal Jews' Chapel were built here. The complex was named Palestine Place. In 1813, a Hebrew-Christian congregation called “Children of Abraham” started meeting at the chapel in Palestine Place. This was the first recorded assembly of Jewish believers in Jesus and the forerunner of today's Messianic Jewish congregations. The London Jews Society was the first such society to work on a global basis. In 1836, two missionaries were sent to Jerusalem: Dr. Albert Gerstmann, a physician, and Melville Bergheim, a pharmacist, who opened a clinic that provided free medical services. By 1844, it had become a 24-bed hospital. In its heyday, the society had over 250 missionaries. It supported the creation of the post of Anglican Bishop in Jerusalem in 1841, and the first incumbent was one of its workers, Michael Solomon Alexander. The society was active in the establishment of Christ Church, Jerusalem, the oldest Protestant church in the Middle East, completed in 1849. A hospital was established at Jerusalem in 1897. The organisation is one of the eleven official mission agencies of the Church of England. It currently has branches in the United Kingdom, Israel, Ireland, the USA, South Africa, and Australia. It has always supported the Jews which in recent years has caused criticism and tension within the society and resulted in 1992 in George Carey becoming the first Archbishop of Canterbury in 150 years to decline to be the Patron of CMJ as he did not wish to endorse the organisation's missionary work, which he felt was damaging to interfaith relations .
HAYDN, FRANZ JOSEPH [1732-1809] – Music composer, the son of a humble wheelwright in lower Austria, who rose to the dazzling princely court of Esterhaz in Hungary and became one of the most sought after composers in Europe. Although his greatest energies were spent in the realms of symphony and the string quartet he wrote at least a dozen masses which are considered by some critics as his crowning achievements. He also wrote his magnificent oratorio “The Creation” inspired by his experiences with George F. Handel’s music in England. His younger brother Michael was also a distinguished and voluminous composer of Catholic Church music in the classical vein.
JEREMIAS IV – Patriarch of Constantinople [1809-1813] succeeded Callinicus [see 1801]. There is no additional information readily available.
OBOOKIAH, HENRY [1792-1818] – Hawaiian Christian who inspired American missionary interest in what was then the Sandwich Islands. Born on the island of Hawaii, at 12 years of age he saw his parents slain in a local war and himself taken prisoner. Later he found refuge with an uncle, a priest, who trained him in the same occupation. He however was discontent and sailed to America arriving in New York in 1809. He inspired the sending of the first missionary party to Hawaii but he himself died of typhus before he could return with them.
The SCOTTISH BIBLE SOCIETY was founded in 1809 as the Edinburgh Bible Society. It amalgamated in 1861 with the Glasgow Bible Society, which had been founded 1812, to form the National Bible Society of Scotland. It is a Scottish Christian charity that exists to make the Bible available throughout the world. The Scottish Bible Society arose as a separate organisation to the British & Foreign Bible Society over its desire to print Metrical Psalms as an additional book at the back of the Bible. At the time BFBS did not allow additional books to be added to the Bible. It also acted as a missionary society that was involved in sending workers to countries such as China during the late Qing Dynasty.
The AMERICAN BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS was the first American Christian foreign mission agency. It was proposed in 1810 by recent graduates of Williams College Massachusetts. Its first missionaries were sent to India and Ceylon in 1812. In 1818 it appointed the first two missionaries to the Near East and the following year sent the first missionary group to Hawaii. In 1961 it merged with other societies to form the United Church Board for World Ministries. The founding of the ABCFM is associated with the Second Great Awakening. Congregationalist in origin, the American Board supported missions by Presbyterian (1812–1870), Dutch-Reformed (1819–1857) and other denominational members. From 1812-1840 it became the leading missionary society in the United States. During this period it also led the way in the fight against Indian removal under the Act of 1830. From the 1830’s the Board sent many missionaries to China as well as to other places in the Far East. The Board was Orthodox, Trinitarian and evangelical in their theology. Indigenous preachers associated with the Board proclaimed an orthodox message. However they modified their presentation drawing upon the positive and negative aspects of their own cultures. The native evangelists steeped their messages in Biblical texts and themes with varied results. They also helped with Bible translations which took place in a variety of settings. A number of Board missionaries also received some medical training before leaving for the field.
CLARKE, ADAM [1762-1832] – Irish Methodist theologian who was appointed circuit preacher in Wiltshire in 1782. His scholarship was impressive and while theologically orthodox in most areas he denied Christ’s eternal sonship while maintaining His divinity and held that Judas had repented and had been saved. His great achievement was an eight volume commentary on the Bible commenced in 1810.
CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH – Emerged as a new denomination during the Second Great Awakening [see 1790] who maintained that ministers in the frontier regions of Kentucky and Tennessee did not necessarily need a formal education as a requirement for their religious vocations. In 1906 the attempted reunion with the Presbyterian Church met with only limited success. The denomination currently has some 90,000 members.
PETROS VII - Coptic Patriarch of Alexandria [1810-1854] see 1797 and 1854. He was born in Upper Egypt and became a monk at St. Anthony Monastery on the Red Sea. During his papacy, sensing intimations of pressure from Roman Catholicism, the Coptic Church intensified her teaching, her preaching, and her pastoral work, and the Coptic Pope himself intensified his writing on matters of faith and doctrine. During the period, many private and public patriarchal libraries were founded. When the Russian Czar sent his delegates with an offer to put the Coptic Church under his protection, Pope Petros declined the proposal by asking, "Does your Emperor live forever?" When the envoy answered that he would die, like all humans, the Pope told him that he preferred the Protector of the Church who wouldn't die. Also during the papacy, Saint Sidhom Bishay was martyred at the hands of Muslims in Damietta. His martyrdom made possible the raising of the Cross openly during Christian funeral processions, a practice that was previously forbidden.