CLERGY RESERVES was the name applied to the one seventh of all land in Canada set aside under the Canada Act of 1791 for the support and maintenance of protestant clergy. Because the proceeds were used in the interests of the Church of England the other denominations soon started to urge that the funds be used for the support of all denominations. This was realised in the Imperial Act of 1840. The reserves were eventually secularised in 1854 with payments to various denominations and the Anglicans and Presbyterians retaining their former grants of land.
CONSTITUTIONAL CHURCH – Established in France at the Revolution by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy in 1790 and was organised in 1791 under the protection of the National Assembly which had passed a law requiring all bishops , pastors and functionary priests to take an oath of fidelity to the Civil Committee under the pain of deposition. After the fall of Robespierre in 1794 a measure of toleration was adopted but the Thermidorian Convention adopted a regime in 1795 separating the state and churches thereby abandoning the Civil Convention and refusing to pay Constitutional priests. When Napoleon concluded the Concordant of 1801 [see 1801] Pope Pius VII [see 1800] had little difficulty in obtaining the church’s abolition.
HOPKINSON, FRANCIS [1737-1791] – American composer who was very active in the early musical life of Philadelphia. He was one of the first American-born composers and took great interest in church music as well as secular.
LOSEE, WILLIAM [b. c.1764] – Methodist Episcopal Church itinerant preacher from the New York area who organised the first Methodist circuit in Upper Canada. While visiting relatives in the Bay of Quinte in Upper Canada he preached a number of sermons which resulted in the people asking for a permanent minister from the New York Conference. Losee himself was sent and he set up a circuit by 1791. The following year the first Methodist church in Upper Canada was built at Adolphustown. Losee was only the first of a number of itinerant preachers who came to Canada as a result of the second great American frontier revival.
MCKENDREE, WILLIAM [1757-1835] – First American-born bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He was converted the age of 29 and with very little formal education began preaching two years later. In 1790 Bishop Francis Asbury [see 1784] ordained him a deacon, and in 1791 an elder. He worked closely with Asbury and served on circuits for 20 years. He was elected bishop in 1808 and served until his death in Tennessee.
MOZART, WOLFGANG AMADEUS [1756-1791] – Austrian composer whose meteoric and tragic career began in Salzburg, where his father Leopold was the court composer to the ruling archbishop. Taught by his father and briefly by several outstanding musicians encountered during his childhood travels to the leading music centres in Europe, Mozart learned to compose with a rapidity and sureness of technique that are almost beyond comprehension. Much of his childhood and youth was spent on musical tours planned by his ambitious father. In his late teens and early 20s he wrote much church music in the classical symphonic style. Among the works which were written in Salzburg was the Coronation Mass. In 1782 Mozart's relations with the archbishop reached an impasse and he moved to Vienna where he wrote only three more sacred works an unfinished Mass in C Minor, the exquisite miniature Ave Verum and the Requiem which others finished after his death.
ROUTH, MARTIN JOSEPH [1755-1854] – English patristic scholar who was educated at Oxford and became the president of Magdalen College Oxford in 1791 an office which he held until his death. He was ordained in 1810 and much revered by the Tractarians. Descended from a niece of Archbishop Laud, theologically he linked the outlook of the Nonjurors [see 1688] with the Oxford Movement [see 1833] to which he gave support.
BMS WORLD MISSION is a missionary society founded by Baptists from England in 1792. It was originally called the “Particular Baptist Society for the Propagation of the Gospel Amongst the Heathen” but for most of its life was known as the Baptist Missionary Society. The current name was adopted in 2000. The first missionaries, William Carey [see 1793] and John Thomas, were sent to Bengal, India in 1793. They were followed by many co-workers, firstly to India, and subsequently to other countries in Asia, the Caribbean, Africa, Europe and South America. Timothy Richard [see 1870] is perhaps one of the most well-known Baptist missionaries to China. Today BMS World Mission supports over 350 workers in 40 countries. Few missionaries are sent today who do not have practical skills to enable positive social and economic changes on a local scale. Obvious examples of such skills are medical workers and teachers.
EUTHYMIUS V Patriarch of Antioch [1792-1813] see also 1767 and 1813
GALLITZIN, DEMETRIUS AUGUSTINE [1770-1840] – Roman Catholic priest and missionary who was the son of a freethinking Russian scientist and ambassador to Holland. He was, after his mother's return to the faith, converted to Catholicism. He came to America in 1792 and after training at Baltimore Seminary he was ordained and devoted his life to building the church in the Alleghenies. In this he exhausted his personal fortune.
KELLY, THOMAS [1769-1854] – Irish hymn writer who intended to be a lawyer initially but was converted in 1792 and ordained. He remained in the Church of Ireland only a short time and for most of his life conducted a vigorous evangelical ministry in un-consecrated buildings in Dublin, Wexford, and elsewhere. As a hymn writer his name has been often been linked with those of Watts and Newton. He is credited with 765 hymns in all, of which the best known are “Look ye saints the sight is glorious”, “The head that once was crowned with thorns”, and “We sing the praise of Him who died”.
SOUTHCOTT, JOANNA [1750-1814] – Self-styled prophet who was a daughter of a farmer and was eccentric from an early age. Originally an Anglican, Joanna became a Methodist in 1791 and the following year began to write a book of prophecies. In 1802 she began to issue seals to the faithful including one to Mary Bateman, the notorious murderess. In 1805 she had a chapel in London and in 1813 announced that though unmarried she was to have a child called Shiloh. She died of unknown causes.
CAREY, WILLIAM [1761‑1834] – Missionary to India [1793‑1834]. From a calvinistic Baptist background he formed the forerunner of the Baptist Missionary Society. In 1792 he preached his great sermon "Expect great things from God, Attempt great things for God". In 1793 accompanied by John Thomas he sailed for India. In India he supervised the translation of the Scriptures into 36 languages, evangelised, planted churches, educated and provided medical relief. Carey has been generally acclaimed as "The Father of Modern Missions".
FRANCE [see also 1598 and 1905] – The 18th century brought a dramatic reaction to the growing power of the Church in the life of the nation. Voltaire [see 1726], Diderot and other men of the Enlightenment flourished where once the 17th century French believers had walked. This caused great hostility towards organised religion. These religious trends culminated with the French Revolution of 1789 with the revolutionaries trying to abolish the church in France. From 1793 rigorous attempts were made to remove all traces of the Christian past from France: Notre Dame cathedral became the Temple of Reason, with a prostitute being crowned as the Queen of Reason. The church persisted however and regained its freedom and some of its former privileges under Napoleon I. The French emperor and the pope reached an understanding in the Concordat of 1801.
INDIA [see also 1542 and 1919] – When William Carey [see 1793] and Dr. John Thomas of the Baptist Missionary Society came to Calcutta in 1793 they were considered undesirable, illegal immigrants. They found employment as managers of indigo plantations, and Carey prepared himself in Bengali and Sanskrit for his real mission. The next Baptist families in 1799 had to bypass the Company and make for Danish territory at Serampore some 25 kilometres from Calcutta so that Denmark here again had a special place in history proving to be the birthplace of the modern missionary movement. The Serampore trio of Carey, Joshua Marshman [see 1799], and William Ward [see 1799] attempted great things for God and their college  and their translations of the Bible, by the time of Carey’s death in 1834 had been translated into six languages, indicates the foundations they laid for later work. The Serampore men were not really alone for there were evangelical chaplains at the Company who shared their missionary vision. Most famous of these was Henry Martyn [see 1805] who translated into Urdu the New Testament. Early bishops of Calcutta included such men as Reginald Heber [see 1822] and Daniel Wilson [see 1833]. Church of England missionary societies had important roles in helping the Syrian Church in Kerala. In 1833 restrictions on non-British missions was lifted and the whole process of covering the map of India was accelerated. Some of the local converts were themselves leaders. They included Pandita Ramabai [see 1891], Narayan Vaman Tilak [see 1904], and Sadhu Sundar Singh [see 1905]. Christian missions led the way in education. Alexander Duff [see 1830] used higher education as a means of evangelism but the belief that Western education would necessarily erode Hinduism and win over the higher castes did not occur. There was a revival in orthodox Hinduism and some of it was militantly anti-Christian. There was active co-operation in such union institutions as the Madras Christian College  and the 1910 World Missionary Conference in Edinburgh which evolved into the National Christian Council.
KIRKLAND, SAMUEL [1741–1808] – He was a Presbyterian missionary among the Oneida and Tuscarora people in North America. Kirkland was the founder in 1793 of the Hamilton-Oneida Academy. He was a student of Native American languages and lived for many years with Indian tribes. He began his missionary work as a protégé of Reverend Eleazar Wheelock, but the two parted company in 1770. He became an advisor and ambassador for the Iroquois during the American Revolutionary War and was able to persuade many Oneidas and Tuscaroras to assist the American revolutionaries. After the war, he maintained good relations with the Indians and helped negotiate treaties and keep peace between Indians and whites. He is considered by many to be the peacekeeper of the Iroquois and the Settlers. On the other hand, Kirkland is also seen by some as a key person for the Americans during the revolutionary war and helped to subjugate the Oneida people. Kirkland also secured large parcels of the Oneida ancestral land for himself and his friends.
MACAULAY, ZACHARY [1768-1838] – Evangelical leader who was son of a Scots Presbyterian minister. He was sent out to Jamaica at the age of 16 as a book keeper on an estate which used slave labour. Deeply impressed by the evils of slavery, he returned to England in 1792 and became a member of the Sierra Leone Company. From 1793 to 1799 he was governor of the colony and ruined his health with overwork. Thereafter he was secretary of the company until the colony was transferred to the Crown in 1808 and an editor of the Christian Observer 1802-1816. He resided in Clapham with other prominent evangelicals and played a leading role in the abolition of the slave trade in 1807. Macaulay also had a great part in the affairs of the Bible Society and Church Missionary Society. His son was the famous historian and essayist.
MOUNTAIN, JACOB [1749-1825] – First Anglican bishop of Quebec who was educated at Cambridge and after being ordained in 1780 held several livings in England before being appointed bishop of the new diocese of Quebec in 1793 where he quickly became the centre of controversy. This was because he considered the Anglican Church to be the established church and held that the proceeds from the clergy reserves [see 1791] were therefore at his disposal. This concept was deeply resented by other denominations. Apart from this however Mountain ministered extensively during his 30 years as bishop over his large diocese travelling from one end to the other by sleigh, carriage, canoe, and on foot.
MURRAY, JOHN [1741-1815] – Founder of American Universalism. Murray was brought up as a Calvinist in England and moved to Cork, Ireland, where this emotional man became a Calvinistic Methodist shortly before he rejected Calvinism for the Universalism preached by John Relly. He was excommunicated by the Methodists. He migrated in 1770 to America where he preached his ideas throughout New England. He served as pastor from 1793 to 1809 of the Universalist Church in Boston, preaching that all men would ultimately be saved.
BALLOU, HOSEA [1771‑1852] – American leader of the Universalist Church [1794‑1852]. He was the son of a Baptist minister who was originally calvinistic but by his study of the Scriptures became to believe that all would be saved, and lacking conviction on the Trinity moved his group towards Unitarianism [see 1558]. He also denied the deity of Christ, human depravity, atonement and everlasting punishment.
BILLINGS, WILLIAM [1746‑1800] – American composer who had a major influence on the development of church music of his time. His most famous collection was "Continental Harmony" which was published in 1794 and was very influential in New England.
BROTHERS, RICHARD [1757-1824] – British Israelite and prophet who was born in Newfoundland and joined the Navy in 1771, rising to the rank of lieutenant and seeing action in 1781 under Admiral Rodney. He retired as a pacifist in 1782. From about 1790 he became progressively more eccentric and was placed in a madhouse in Islington until 1806. He predicted that by 1794 the ten lost tribes of Israel, that is, the English, would return to Jerusalem where he the Nephew of the Almighty would be proclaimed their Prince.
GERASIMUS III – Patriarch of Constantinople [1794-1797] succeeded Neophytus VII [see 1789]. There is no additional information readily available.
MARSDEN, SAMUEL [1764-1838] – Anglican chaplain to the convict colony of New South Wales. Marsden was educated at Cambridge and at the suggestion of William Wilberforce [see 1807] left for Australia without taking his degree. He arrived in Sydney in 1794 and was stationed at Parramatta where he remained until his death. On the departure of Richard Johnson [see 1786] in 1800 he was the only chaplain in the colony and by 1810 he became senior chaplain after a visit to England to recruit others. Marsden's activities have been the subject of much controversy. On appointment as a magistrate he gained a reputation of severity scarcely excused by the character of the colony. He is famous as the founder of the mission to the Maoris of New Zealand under the Church Missionary Society. He preached the first sermon in New Zealand in 1814 and made seven journeys in support of the infant mission at his own expense. He did much to establish the evangelical character of the Church of England in Sydney.
PAKISTAN [also see 1601 and 1947] – William Carey [see 1793] preached in the Dinajpur district between 1794 and 1800. Baptist work was began in Dinajpur in 1800 by an ex Catholic; in Jessore and Khulna in 1812 and in Barisal in 1829. The Church Missionary Society began work in Kushtia district in 1821 and about 5000 baptisms followed a severe famine. Other missions followed. In Pakistan American Presbyterians began working in Lahore in 1849 followed by the Anglican CMS in 1851, American United Presbyterians in 1855 and the Church of Scotland in 1857. Roman Catholic work was resumed in 1843 in Karachi and in 1852 at Lahore. The events of 1857 led to the death of Thomas Hunter, the first Church of Scotland missionary with his wife and son at Sialkot. In the mid-1870s a mass movement began among low caste people in the Punjab which brought thousands into the church but this slowed down after 1915.
BILDERDIJK, WILLEM [1756-1831] – Dutch poet who was born into a calvinistic Royalist family and developed keen interest in study as he was incapacitated by a foot injury. He practiced as a lawyer in the Hague until going into exile in 1795 returning to the Netherlands eleven years later. A committed Christian his testimony led Isaak da Costa [see 1851] to conversion.
DWIGHT, TIMOTHY [1752-1817] – Congregational theologian and educator. Born in Massachusetts he graduated from Yale and taught for some years before ordination as a congregational pastor in Connecticut 1783-95. He became famous as an educator and the College of New Jersey and Harvard both conferred doctorates on him. From 1795 until his death he was professor of divinity at Yale, tripling enrolment. A religious revival took place under his preaching which by 1802 converted a third of the students. He was a leading conservative force in New England and exerted powerful influence in the Second Great Awakening.
HALDANE, ROBERT [1764-1842] – Scottish evangelist and philanthropist who was educated at Dundee and Edinburgh before he joined the Navy in 1780. Leaving that career he lived in Stirlingshire. Converted in 1795 Haldane resolved to devote life, talents and fortune to the Christian cause. He sold his estate, determined to finance and participate in missionary work in India, but that door was closed through opposition from the East India Company. In 1796 the Church of Scotland general assembly decided against foreign mission work and much of Haldane’s money went into establishing preaching tabernacles and theological seminaries. He co-operated with his brother James [see 1797] in furthering the work of evangelism and was seen as the moving spirit behind the bringing of 24 children from Sierra Leone to be educated in Britain for five years. He himself was prepared to assume complete financial responsibility for the project. As an active friend of the Bible Society he challenged its circulation of the apocrypha with the Bible in continental Europe, beginning a controversy that lasted many years.
LINGARD, JOHN [1771-1851] – English Roman Catholic historian who was trained at Douai and ordained a priest in 1795. He is said to have had a kindly temperament, and produced between 1819 and 1830 an eight-volume History of England. In 1836 he produced a new version of the four Gospels which relied on the Greek rather than the Vulgate text. This aroused criticism from the hierarchy.
The LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY was a non-denominational missionary society formed in England in 1795 by evangelical Anglicans and Nonconformists who were largely Congregationalist in outlook. They formed missions in the islands of the South Pacific and Africa. It now forms part of the Council for World Mission (CWM). Proposals for the Missionary Society began in 1794 after a Baptist minister, John Rylands, received word from William Carey [see 1793] about the need to spread Christianity. Carey suggested that Ryland join forces with others along the non-denominational lines of the Anti-Slavery Society to design a society that could prevail against the difficulties that evangelicals often faced when spreading the Word. This included the fierce opponents who wanted unrestricted commercial and military relations with native peoples throughout the world. The first group of missionaries arrived on the “Duff” skippered by a Captain Wilson who had offered to ship them unpaid to Tahiti. On his second voyage the ship was captured by French privateers who sold the ship. This incident cost the LMS ten thousand pounds which was initially devastating to the society. After recovering they were able to establish a mission in China under Robert Morrison.[see 1807] Other prominent missionaries to serve with the LMS were James Legge in China [see 1839], David Livingstone in Africa [see 1841], George Pratt in Samoa [see 1839] Edward Stallybrass in Siberia [see 1817] and John Williams in Polynesia [see 1817]
HAUGE, HANS NIELSEN [1771-1824] – Norwegian lay preacher who was a farmer's son and brought up in a pious Lutheran home. In 1796 he had a religious experience in which he felt called by God to exhort the people of Norway to repentance. He travelled throughout the country from 1796 to 1804, usually on foot, preaching his message and gathering followers wherever he went. Arrested 10 times he was in prison from 1804 to 1811 and after a prolonged trial was sentenced in 1814 to pay a fine for unlawful preaching and strong criticism of the clergy. Helped by friends Hauge bought a farm near Oslo and during his last years relations with the authorities were friendly. His preaching stressed personal holiness and he is generally regarded as the initiator of the powerful Christian layman's movement in Norway.
KILHAM, ALEXANDER [1762-1798] – Founder of the Methodist New Connexion [see 1798], he was a son of a Methodist weaver. He entered the service of Robert Carr Brackenbury, the Methodist gentleman-preacher and assisted him in pioneer preaching in the Channel Islands. He became an itinerant preacher in 1785 and was soon involved in controversies about the relation of Methodism to the Church of England. The attack on conference abuses brought his expulsion in 1796 and the Methodist New Connexion was formed, embodying his principles. He died still only 36 worn out by extreme toil. His widow Hannah [1774-1832] joined the Society of Friends and became a pioneer of African linguistics and education.
KING, EDWARD [c.1735-1807] – Archaeologist and writer on science and religion. Educated at Cambridge he practised law and studied Scripture. His writing is characterised by Christian devotion. In his time his writings were rejected as he was before his time. In a brilliant book in 1796 he argued on biblical and observational ground the reality of meteorites at a time when this view was commonly ridiculed. His discussions and speculations on the use of “heaven” and “heavens” in the New Testament, the meaning of Genesis 1 to 3, and the possibility of a multi-populated universe are abiding interest.
MONTGOMERY, JAMES [1771-1854] – Hymn writer born in Scotland, a son of a Moravian missionary. He became editor of the Sheffield Register and for 31 years continued to edit the renamed Sheffield Iris. Twice he was imprisoned for his radical political opinions. He advocated foreign missions, the Bible Society, and the abolition of slavery. At various times he associated with Moravians, Wesleyans, and Anglicans. Over 50 of his 400 hymns were contributed to Thomas Cotterill’s “Selection of Psalms and Hymns” in 1819 among them “Angels from the realms of glory”, “Hail to the Lord's Anointed”, and “Stand up and bless the Lord”.
NORWAY [see also 1537] – The era of Enlightenment lasted in Norway from 1750 to 1820. The theology professors of the newly established university in Oslo  and the awakening by H.N. Hauge [see 1796] heralded a period are richer spiritual life. In 1842 lay preaching became lawful and in 1845 the “Dissenters Law” for the first time gave citizens opportunity to cancel membership in the state church and to organise free churches. Free churches however have never become very strong in Norway as Christian believers chose to stay and make their influence felt within the state church. The Norwegian Missionary Society was founded in 1842 later followed by several other organisations for foreign missions. In 1891 the Luther Foundation which had been formed in 1868 was reorganised under the name Norwegian Home Mission Society. The greatest of these new organisations was the Norwegian Lutheran Mission whose spiritual leader was a lay preacher Ludvig Hope who died in 1954. Christian believers worship in prayer houses listening to lay preachers and some also celebrate the Lord's Supper there. The same believers may not go to the parish church to worship there. This lay activity which runs parallel to the activity of the established church has been of vital importance for the missionary activity of the Norwegians. In the 20th century, liberal theology has caused severe struggle which led to the formation of the conservative Free Faculty of Theology where the majority of pastors are educated [see Hallesby . During the Nazi occupation, the Norwegian church resisted.
SCOTTISH UNITED PRESBYTERIAN MISSION was a Scottish Presbyterian missionary society that was involved in sending workers to countries such as China during the late Qing Dynasty starting in 1864. Work was commenced at Ningbo, and afterwards extended to Yantai, but these stations were left, and Manchuria became the special sphere of the Society. The Rev. Alexander Williamson, [see 1863] was the patriarch of the Mission, having been in China since 1855, working in various departments. He devoted himself entirely to literary work, and prepared some books of Christian history and doctrine. The Rev J. Ross and Rev J. Mclntyre, who went out in 1872, were at the head of the two great centres of operation, Hai-chung and Moukden. A medical hospital operated in each of these places. Mr. Ross completed a translation of the New Testament into the Korean language. In 1890 there were seven missionaries employed, one lady agent, fourteen native helpers, and about eight hundred communicants reported.
SMITH, SYDNEY [1771-1845] – English minister, writer, and wit, who was educated at Oxford and ordained in 1796. In 1802 he helped to found the "Edinburgh Review" and contributed to it for 25 years. Bigotry and tyranny, hypocrisy and cruelty were his particular targets. His own prejudices however led him to unjustified attacks on William Carey and other early missionaries abroad as well as evangelicals at home whom he described as fanatics. He became canon at St Paul's London which delivered him from his vicarage in the rural countryside which he loathed.
BOOS, MARTIN [1762‑1825] – German preacher involved in the Wiggenbach revival. Failing to find forgiveness through asceticism he adopted the doctrine of justification through faith which was very close to Lutheranism. His preaching resulted in revival and he was tried for unorthodoxy in 1797 but acquitted and fled to Austria where he remained until forced to leave in 1816. He spent the final years of his life as a parish priest in the Rhineland. His motto was "Christ for us and in us".
GREGORY V – Patriarch of Constantinople [1797-1798, 1806-1808, 1818-1821]. He succeeded Gerasimus III [see 1794]. Gregory V was ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople over three periods. He was responsible for much restoration work to the Patriarchal Cathedral of St George, which had been badly damaged by fire in 1738. At the onset of the Greek War of Independence Gregory V was blamed by Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II for his inability to suppress the Greek uprising. He was taken out of the patriarchal cathedral on Easter Sunday, 1821, directly after celebrating the solemn Easter Liturgy, and hanged in full patriarchal vestments for three days from the main gate of the patriarchate compound by order of the Sultan. His body was then taken down and delivered to a squad of Jews, who dragged it through the streets and finally threw it into the Bosphorus. The body was later recovered by Greek sailors and was eventually enshrined in the Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens. He is commemorated by the Eastern Orthodox Church as a martyr. In his memory, the main gates of the patriarchate compound were welded shut in 1821 and have remained shut ever since.
GRIFFITHS, ANN [1776-1805] – Welsh hymn writer who joined the Methodist Society at Pontrobert in 1797 after experiencing evangelical conversion. She married John Griffiths of Meifod in 1804 and died the following year after the birth of a child. She was in the habit of composing hymns which she recited to her servant Ruth Evans, who later married Methodist minister John Hughes. Between them they preserved and published the hymns of Ann Griffiths which had a profound Christocentric mysticism.
HALDANE, JAMES ALEXANDER [1768-1851] – Scottish evangelist who became an orphan at the age of six. He studied at Edinburgh University then joined the Navy in 1785 quickly rising in command due to his character. After spiritual self-questioning he left the sea in 1794 and after conversion was an itinerant evangelist in every part of Scotland. In 1797 he founded the Society for Propagating the Gospel at Home, after discovering that the Church of Scotland had as little interest in home as in foreign missions. Haldane became the first Congregational minister in Scotland in 1799 and ministered in Edinburgh for almost 50 years. Like his brother Robert [see 1795], he adopted Baptist principles. He was an advocate of restoring the life and conditions of the apostolic church and developing up-and-coming ministers.
MARKOS IX Coptic Patriarch of Alexandria [1797-1810] see 1770 and 1810. He became a monk in the Monastery of Saint Anthony. During his papacy there were two major changes in the government of Egypt as at the beginning Egypt was ruled by the Ottoman Empire then the French Invasion of Egypt in 1798 which was followed by the return of the Ottomans in 1801. He inaugurated Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in Azbakeya in Cairo and moved the Seat of the Coptic Pope to this cathedral in 1800 from Saint Mary Church (Haret Elroum).
MILNER, JOSEPH [1744-1797] – Evangelical clergyman educated at Cambridge, ordained, and served in Yorkshire. In 1768 he became headmaster of Hull Grammar School where one of his pupils was William Wilberforce [see 1807]. He employed his brother Isaac [see 1775] at the school. In 1770 he became a keen Evangelical and his preaching was very popular among the poor but resented by others. In due course the opposition died out and in 1797 he was appointed vicar of Holy Trinity Church in Hull through the influence of Wilberforce but died before he could be installed.
RIPLEY, DOROTHY [1767-1832] was an English missionary and writer who spent thirty years in the United States trying to secure better conditions for the slaves. Later in her life she became involved in prison reform. She was the daughter of a Methodist minister who had been expelled from his native home and had settled in Whitby. In 1797 she had a mystical experience during which she felt that God commanded her to leave her home in England and travel to the United States on a mission to help the African slaves. During the course of this mission, which she made her entire life’s work, she had occasion to meet with Thomas Jefferson, then President of the United States, preach to congregations in various churches and meetings and write several books about her own life. According to one Library of Congress source, she was the "first woman to preach before the House. She conducted a church service on January 12, 1806. Among those in attendance were Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.
SECOND GREAT AWAKENING – This served as a corrective to the spiritual decline in the United States of America that set in during and following the Revolution. Deism and scepticism was popular among the educated especially the students. The rigorous life of the rapidly expanding frontier without benefit of church and society was demoralising. This revival in the East was centred in the colleges and towns along the coast. The revival in the West was filled with religious excitement and emotional outbursts. It apparently began in 1797 in the three Presbyterian churches that James McGready [see 1800] pastored in Logan County Kentucky which climaxed in a large outdoor communion service during the summer of 1800. Barton Stone [see 1801] carried the revival to Cane Ridge Kentucky where a large interdenominational six-day camp meeting occurred the following year with 10 to 20,000 in attendance. Significant church growth, improvement of morals and national life, reduction of the spread of Deism, the emergence of new religious groups such as Cumberland Presbyterians [see 1810], home and foreign missionary outreach, abolition and social reform movements, the introduction of the camp meetings and the influence upon great men like Archibald Alexander [see 1812], Adoniram Judson [see 1812] and Samuel J. Mills, were all the results of the Awakening
METHODIST NEW CONNEXION – The death of John Wesley in 1791 forced constitutional changes in Methodism. Alexander Kilham [see 1796] and others argued for a radical recognition of separation from the Church of England, and for lay participation in Methodist government. The Methodist New Connexion which was formed after Kilham's expulsion included these ideas. Its second conference in 1798 had 15 preaches and 17 laymen. The new body made slow headway and it was 25 years before it doubled its numbers. The problems in the 1840’s saw the departure of a radical element associated with Joseph Barker. Barker's chief opponent William Cooke was perhaps the Connexion’s most considerable mid-century figure. By the end of the century there were some 30,000 members, with a strong movement in Ireland and missions in China. In 1907 the Methodist New Connexion joined the United Methodist Free Churches and the Bible Christians to form the United Methodist Church and their principles were eventually adopted by that group.
BUNTING, JABEZ [1779‑1858] – English Wesleyan Methodist who became a minister in 1799. Due to his great organisational skills he was, more than anyone else, responsible for the shaping of Wesleyan Methodism. Bunting was well known for his sincerity, eloquence, and prayer.
The CHURCH MISSONIONARY SOCIETY is a group of evangelistic societies working with the Anglican Communion and Protestant Christians around the world. Founded in 1799, CMS has attracted upwards of nine thousand men and women to serve as mission partners during its 210 year history. The Society for Missions to Africa and the East, as it was first called, was founded on 12 April 1799 at a meeting of the Eclectic Society, supported by members of the Clapham Sect, a group of activist evangelical Christians whose number included Henry Thornton and William Wilberforce. The first missionaries, who came from the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Wurttemberg, and had trained at the Berlin Seminary went out in 1804. In 1812 the Society was renamed The Church Missionary Society for Africa and the East, and the first English ministers to work as the Society's missionaries went out in 1815. From 1825 onward, the Society concentrated its Mediterranean resources on the Coptic Church and its daughter Ethiopian Church, which included the creation of a translation of the Bible in Amharic at the instigation of William Jowett [see 1860] , as well as the posting of two missionaries to Ethiopia, Samuel Gobat [see 1845] who was later the Anglican Bishop of Jerusalem and Christian Kugler, who arrived in that country in 1827. During the early twentieth century, the Society's theology moved in a liberal direction under the leadership of Eugene Stock. There was considerable debate over the possible introduction of a doctrinal test for missionaries, which advocates claimed would restore the Society's original evangelical theology. In 1922, the Society split, with the liberal evangelicals remaining in control of CMS headquarters, whilst conservative evangelicals established the Bible Churchmen's Missionary Society. The British-based Church Missionary Society began operations in Sydney Australia in 1825, with the intention of bringing the gospel to the aboriginal population. CMS Associations were set up around Australia, and the first CMS-sponsored Australian missionary, Helen Philips, sailed for Ceylon in 1888. Today CMS-Australia has 160 missionaries serving in 33 countries worldwide. The Church Missionary Society sent the first missionaries to settle in New Zealand. Its agent the Rev. Samuel Marsden performed the first full Christian service in that country on Christmas Day in 1814, at Oihi Bay in the Bay of Islands.
MARSHMAN, JOSHUA [1768-1837] – Baptist missionary who had little education but read avidly while working with his weaver father. He married Hannah Shepherd in 1791 and they had 12 children. He became master of the Baptist school in Bristol in 1794 and offered for the Baptist Missionary Society. He sailed to India with William Ward to join William Carey [see 1793] in 1799. Forbidden to land by the East India Company they settled at Danish Serampore where Carey joined them. There they preached, taught, travelled, and translated. Joshua and Hannah opened boarding schools to help pay for printing the Scriptures. An able Orientalist, he published the works of Confucius, Chinese grammars, and a Chinese version of the Bible.
The RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY was founded in 1799 and was a major British publisher of Christian literature intended initially for evangelism, and including literature aimed at children, women, and the poor. The founders were of the same type of evangelicals who founded the London Missionary Society and the British and Foreign Bible Society. The society started by publishing tracts, but rapidly expanded their work into the production of books and periodicals. Their books were mostly small but did include larger works such as the multi-volume Devotional Commentary and the massive Analytical Concordance to the Bible of Robert Young. In 1935 the Society merged with the Christian Literature Society for India and Africa to form the United Society for Christian Literature.
The RHENISH MISSIONARY SOCIETY was one of the largest missionary societies in Germany. Formed from smaller missions founded as far back as 1799, the Society was amalgamated on 3 September 1828, and its first missionaries were ordained and sent off to South Africa by the end of the year. The London Missionary Society was already active in the area, and a closer working relationship was formed with them. The Society established its first mission station in the Cederberg in 1829, named Wupperthal, and predated the naming of the German city by 100 years. Very soon, the missionaries started migrating north through the barren and inhospitable south-western Africa. Here they encountered various local tribes such as the Herero, Nama and Damara, and were frequently in the middle of wars between them. The missionaries tried to broker peace deals between the tribes, and for this reason were later seen as political assets by the tribes. Around the same time, debate started in Germany regarding its colonial empire, with the activities of the RMS in distant Africa fanning imaginations. The unclaimed area to the north of the Cape Colony was proclaimed German South West Africa in 1880, but they quickly ran into numerous problems, since Germany was inexperienced at colonization. The Herero and Namaqua Genocide during 1904-1907 proved to be the nadir of their rule, and combined with the effects of World War I, Germany was unable to maintain a foothold so far from home. South Africa annexed the area in 1915, renaming it South West Africa. During this time, missionaries' reactions ranged from compassion and help for the local tribes, to patriotism and support of colonial interests. During the 20th century, the Society focused on its work in southern Africa. The Society ultimately amalgamated all of its mission stations in South Africa into the Dutch Reformed Church, except for Wupperthal which chose to join the Moravian Church. The mission stations in Namibia became part of the Evangelical Lutheran Church there. In 1971, the Rhenish Mission and the Bethel Mission were combined into the Vereinigten Evangelischen Mission.
VANDERKEMP, JOHANNES THEODORUS [1747-1811] – Dutch missionary to South Africa. Born in Rotterdam he had an early career as an army officer and doctor. He was converted from Deism in 1791 shortly after the drowning of his wife and daughter and offered his services to the London Missionary Society in 1796. In 1799 he reached the Cape as leader of the pioneer London Missionary Society party. After an unsuccessful period among the Xhosa he began working with the Hottentots and established a missionary institution at Bethelsdorp in 1803. Conditions here were poor and discipline weak. This drew criticism from the colonists as did Vanderkemp’s simple manner of life and marriage to a Malagasy slave. However his chief offence in their eyes was his defence of the Hottentot’s interests in the face of widespread injustice.
WARD, WILLIAM [1769-1823] – The son of a carpenter and apprenticed to a printer and bookseller and printed newspapers. Early in life he became an Anabaptist and was educated at Ewood Hall Theological Academy. In 1798, the Baptist Mission Committee visited Ewood, and Ward offered himself as a missionary, influenced by a remark made to him in 1793 by William Carey concerning the need for a printer in the Indian mission field. He sailed to India in 1799 in company with Joshua Marshman [see above]. On arriving at Calcutta he was prevented from joining Carey by an order from the government, and proceeded to the Danish settlement of Serampore, where he was then joined by Carey. In India, Ward's time was chiefly occupied in overseeing the community's printing press and in preaching the Gospel. In 1812 the printing office was destroyed by fire. It contained the types of all the scriptures that had been printed, to the value of at least ten thousand pounds. The moulds for casting fresh type, however, were recovered from the debris, and with the help of friends in Great Britain the loss was soon repaired. He returned to Europe in 1818 in poor health and was able to raise funds for a college at Serampore. He sailed for India in 1821 carrying the funds and as a result, Ward, Marshman and Carey became known as the Serampore trio. He died of cholera at Serampore.
JANICKE, JOHANNES [1748-1827] – Founder of the first German missionary training school. A Bohemian-born weaver he was influenced by the Moravians and eventually became a pastor in Berlin. In 1800 Janicke opened a school to train young men for missionary service. It was a faith venture. He gave the instruction himself and received assistance from English missionary societies, individual German Christians, and even the Prussian king. Its 80 graduates, including Karl Rhenius [see 1814], and Karl Gutzlaff [see 1823], served under various societies in Africa and Asia. In 1805 Janicke formed a Bible Society and in 1811 a Tract Society which were forerunners of the later Prussian Bible  and Tract  societies.
MCGREADY, JAMES [c.1758-1817] – American Presbyterian revivalist who in 1788 was licensed to preach. His early ministry in North Carolina resulted in the conversion of some 12 young men who entered the ministry among them B.W. Stone [see 1801]. In 1796 McGready moved to pastor three churches in Kentucky. Revival began the following year and was climaxed during the summer of 1800 at a great outdoor camp meeting to celebrate Communion and admission of church members. The revival is known as the Second Great Awakening [see 1797]. Revival spread through the Western and Southern states. He is credited with originating the camp meeting [see 1801] at Gaspar River in 1800. He finished his life as a pioneer missionary in South Indiana.
PIUS VII – Pope [1800-1823]. He trained as a Benedictine and held the sees of Tivoli and Imola before becoming pope. He was immediately met by the demands of Napoleon who, in order to strengthen his hold on France wanted a new concordat. The pope remained immovable in regards to his spiritual authority while seeking to accommodate the church in the new forms of society. The Concordat of 1801 restored the church in France but as amended by the Organic Articles of 1802 left Napoleon in complete charge. Pius who was still conciliatory agreed to be present at Napoleon’s self coronation as emperor in Paris in December 1804. Pius was constantly complaining and he was seized in 1809 and deported to Savona near Genoa and finally to Fontainebleau in 1812. Napoleon never succeeded in dominating Pius and on his release the pope re-entered Rome in May 1814. His resistance to Napoleon provided an example of devotion for masses of the faithful. At the Congress of Vienna the negotiator for the papacy was able to get the re establishment of most of the Papal States. The church was effectively restored by concordats with Bavaria and Sardinia in 1817, Naples and Russia in 1818, and Prussia in 1821. Pius restored the Jesuits in 1814 and revitalised Catholic missions in Asia and Latin America. He succeeded Pius VI [see 1775] and was succeeded by Leo XII [see 1823].
UNITED BRETHREN IN CHRIST – An America denomination organised in 1800 which developed out of the activities of P.W. Otterbein [see 1752] and Martin Boehm [see 1768] among German settlements chiefly in Pennsylvania. The new Methodist-type denomination was evangelical, Arminian, and perfectionist in doctrine, with an Episcopal government. The parent body were merged in 1946 with the Evangelical United Brethren which united with the Methodist Church in 1968 to create the United Methodist Church.