JONES, GRIFFITH [1683-1761] – Welsh preacher and educator who was ordained in the established church in 1709. He was a travelling preacher and keen to improve religious and social conditions in Wales and established his first charity school in 1730, where children and adults were taught by day and night to read the Bible in Welsh; education grew despite ecclesiastical opposition. Teachers travelled in circuit and schools multiplied. Before his death over 3000 schools were opened and 150,000 taught. Daniel Rowland [see 1752] founder of Welsh Methodism was supposedly converted his ministry.
MELETIOS Patriarch of Jerusalem [1731-1737] see 1707 and 1737
METHODISM – A movement which originated in a search for an effective method to lead Christians towards the goal of Scriptural holiness. This name was applied to members of the Wesley's Holy Club at Oxford. Their disciplined, methodical practices gave rise to what Charles Wesley called “the harmless nickname of Methodist”. His brother John defined it “a Methodist is one who lives according to the method laid down in the Bible”. After the evangelical conversion of George Whitefield [see 1737] and the Wesley’s [see 1738], the title Methodist was attached to all who were influenced by them whether within the Church of England or beyond. Methodism is now accepted as a general term to cover the worldwide family of Methodist churches, stemming from Wesley’s societies, most of which are affiliated to the World Methodist Council.
BERKELEY, GEORGE [1685‑1753] – Irish Bishop of Cloyne who was the most brilliant theistic philosopher of his age. He wrote "Alciphron" in 1732 and was enthusiastic regarding missionary work and unsuccessfully proposed a college in Bermuda.
DOBER, JOHANN LEONHARD [1706-1766] – Moravian brethren [see 1722] leader. He was a potter by trade and came to Herrnhut in 1725 where he soon became one of the most significant spiritual figures. In 1732 Dober and David Nitschmann [see 1735] volunteered to go to St Thomas, Virgin Islands, as the first Moravian missionaries. Unable to practice his trade Dober supported himself by working as a plantation watchman. He tried to evangelise Negro slaves on the island but his black congregation numbered only four when he left in 1734. He returned to become superintending elder at Herrnhut and he was replaced by a group of 14 missionaries. He was consecrated bishop of the Moravian congregations in Europe in 1747.
FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN [1706-1790] – Inventor, author, and diplomat. He left school at the age of 10 to help with his father's candle and soap business. He became apprenticed to a printer who was his half-brother. He achieved great success in several fields as publisher, author, businessmen, philanthropist, moralist, inventor, scientist, civil servant, and statesman. He influenced American religious thought and public morality through his writings, especially through his widely read Poor Richards Almanac 1732-57. Here he extolled the virtues of hard work, thrift, moderation, and common sense. However he personally rejected the distinctive doctrines of Orthodox Christianity in favour of an optimistic natural religion. He was a Deist who believed that nature rather than Scripture is the place where human reason recognises God. He admired Jesus and his teachings, but doubted his divinity, and believed that the basis of religion was to do good to men.
PROTESTANT DISSENTING DEPUTIES – Since 1732 these have consisted of two members of each congregation of the Presbyterians, Congregationalist, and Baptist denominations within 12 miles of the city of London. From this large body which usually met only once or twice a year the committee of 21 was chosen in order by all legal means to lead the fight for obtaining civil rights for Protestant Dissenters. The first meeting in 1732 was at the Meeting House in Silver Street London. Through their committee these deputies were an effective force in 18th and 19th century politics as by their influence Nonconformists were given the right to be buried in churchyards, to register their children in the civil registers of births, and to enter universities of Oxford and Cambridge without offence to their conscience.
REDEMPTORISTS – A name commonly given to the “Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer” a community of priests and lay brothers founded by Alphonsous Maria di Ligouri [see 1726] at Scala Italy in 1732 for mission work among the poor. It has steadfastly refused to engage in purely educational activities. Its purpose is the sanctification of members through the imitation of Christ and through preaching. The Order received papal approval in 1749. Under Clement Hofbaeur [see 1785] the Redemptorists moved across the Alps into northern Europe and they entered the United States in 1832 and England in 1843.
SPANGENBERG, AUGUST GOTTLIEB [1704-1792] – Moravian missionary and church leader who first studied law and then theology and finally became a teacher in Halle. When he joined the Herrnhut [see 1722] community in 1732, Zinzendorf [see 1727] assigned him to conduct legal negotiations with various European colonial powers for permission to establish mission works abroad. He took personal charge of the Moravian group which settled in Georgia America in 1735, and greeted and advised John Wesley who arrived there in February the following year. He then joined a group in Pennsylvania as a simple farmer and within a short time was preaching to the Indians. Spangenberg was appointed Zinzendorf's successor in 1760 and he returned to Herrnhut two years later and led the group until his death.
BURGHERS – They were a Scottish Presbyterian secessionist group who in 1733 made their first secession from the Church of Scotland because of patronage. Despite efforts by the general assemblies of 1732 and 1736 to effect reconciliation continued splitting occurred. The Burghers split into two, the Burghers and Anti Burghers who both split into the New Lichts and the Auld Lichts. The New Lichts of both parties formed the United Secession Church in 1820. The Auld Licht Anti Burghers joined the Free Church of Scotland in 1852 whilst the Auld Lichts Burghers reunited with the Church of Scotland in 1839.
DAVID, CHRISTIAN [1691-1751] – Moravian Brethren leader, born in Moravia, and was a carpenter by trade. He was converted in 1717 and became a lay evangelist. In 1722 he met Count Zinzendorf in 1727 and helped him to found the Christian community of Herrnhut on his estate, and recruited settlers from the exiled Brethren in Moravia. In 1733 David led a group of missionaries to Greenland to assist the Norwegian pioneer Hans Egede [see 1721] but sharp differences developed between them. David, strongly self willed and at times intolerant criticised Egede’s Lutheran orthodoxy while the latter resented the sentimental nature of the Moravian message. However by 1736 they had been reconciled. The work in Greenland prospered. David travelled extensively in Europe, returned to Greenland in 1747 with more missionaries and built a church and mission residence.
MODERATES – The name given to various groups of Scottish ministers in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Their basic position was that because of “our present happy constitution in Church and State” secured by the Revolution Settlement of 1690, hardships such as the presentation of ministers to parishes by lay patrons and the necessity of subscribing to the Westminster Confession of Faith could be tolerated. Their opponents regarded lay patronage as a serious infringement of the rights of the church and many seceded from the prevailing party in the Church of Scotland in 1733, in 1761, and most notably in the Disruption of 1843. The Moderates were also interested in science, history and philosophy and helped to found the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
SERAPHEIM I – Patriarch of Constantinople [1733-1734] succeeded Jeremias III [see 1716]. There is no additional information readily available.
WHEELOCK, ELEAZAR [1711-1779] – Congregational minister, founder and first president of Dartmouth. Wheelock graduated from Yale in 1733. While at Yale he was a member of a group similar to the Holy Club at Oxford of which the Wesleys and Whitefield were members. During the first year of his pastorate a revival broke out in his church under the influence of Jonathan Edwards’ [see 1740] ministry in Massachusetts. During the Great Awakening [see 1740], Wheelock gave himself unstintingly to promotion of revival, preaching on the north-east coast of America. He was interested in converting and educating the Indians and received from Col Joshua More a gift of a house and schoolhouse at Lebanon to aid in his work this becoming known as More's Charity School. Later they moved to Hanover, New Hampshire and the facility was renamed Dartmouth College.
BENGEL, JOHANN [1687‑1752] – Lutheran minister and theologian who trained at Tubingen and whose chief work was a critical edition of the New Testament published in 1734 which founded textural criticism. This work was followed by a verse by verse commentary on the New Testament which was translated by John Wesley [see 1738] and incorporated into his “Notes upon the New Testament .
NEOPHYTUS VI – Patriarch of Constantinople [1734-1740, 1743-1744] succeeded Serapheim I [see 1733]. There is no additional information readily available.
REVIVALISM – The spontaneous spiritual awakening by the Holy Spirit among professing Christians in the churches, which results in a deepening religious experience, holy living, evangelism and missions, the founding of educational and philanthropic institutions, and social reform. Revival should not be confused with evangelism which is the result of revival. Revival has been linked with the Anabaptists, Puritans, and Pietists, and has mainly occurred in Protestantism since the Reformation. As a determinative influence in America, revivalism may be dated from the Great Awakening which began New Jersey after 1720. In 1734 revivals broke out in New England under the preaching of Jonathan Edwards and by 1740 when George Whitefield arrived bearing the spirit of the Wesleyan revival in England, the Awakening was widespread in America. The Second Awakening occurred mainly among middle and upper-class Anglicans in England after 1790 and in America in college awakenings such as that in Yale under Timothy Dwight in 1802 and in the Western American frontier camp meetings. Charles Finney’s urban revival meetings of the 1830s have been considered a later flowering of the Second Great Awakening. After the Civil War there were the professional, planned, urban mass evangelistic meetings held in public in auditoriums by such men as D.L. Moody and R.A. Torrey and in the 20th century by Billy Sunday and Billy Graham. There have been no general revivals in Western industrialised societies since the 1904 Welsh revival which stimulated revival world wide but there have been regional revival in less advanced societies such as in Korea, East Africa and Ethiopia.
WALCH, JOHANN GEORG [1693-1775] – Protestant theologian who was educated Jena and taught there all his life as a professor of philosophy, poetry, and finally theology in 1734. He wrote extensively on Lutheran Orthodoxy and also edited Luther’s works in 24 volumes. His sons Johann [1725-1778] and Christian [1726-1784] were also noted Lutheran theologians.
BUTLER, ALBAN [1711-1773] – Catholic professor who was educated at the Roman seminary at Douai from the age of eight as both of his parents had died. He became a professor of philosophy and then divinity at the seminary being ordained as a priest in 1735. After a period as chaplain to the duke of Norfolk he went to Paris where he completed a large scale history of the fathers, martyrs and saints with 1600 biographies. He spent the last seven years of his life as president of the English College at St Omer in France.
HARRIS, HOWEL [1714-1773] – Welsh preacher of a humble family background who was converted in 1735. He went to Oxford and returned to Wales to begin a campaign of tireless evangelism. He aroused first the south by his stately appearance, powerful voice, and overwhelming passion, and though often threatened by mobs and magistrates he extended his activities with equal success to the north in 1739. Harris must be regarded as the principal founder of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodism and the greatest spiritual force in the principality of his day. He was shy and awkward in the presence of other evangelical leaders, and quarrelled with both Rowland and Whitefield [see 1737]. In 1752 he retired to a house in Trevecca Park which he built up as the centre for revivalist activity. In this he was supported by the Countess of Huntingdon who after 1768 sent her own students to train there.
HOLY CLUB – The name derisively given to the group of earnest Methodists which in the early 1730’s met in John Wesley's rooms at Lincoln College Oxford and included Charles Wesley, Benjamin Ingham, and George Whitefield. Membership was never more than 25, and when John Wesley left Oxford in 1735 the group disintegrated. The club owed much to Moravian example and to earlier religious societies which flourished in the Anglican church.
LATIN AMERICA [see also 1510 and 1844] – Early Protestantism. Attempts to plant Protestantism in Latin America were made by the French Huguenots in 1555 and the Dutch Reformed in 1624 and both were effectively crushed by the Catholic Portuguese. The German Moravians settled permanently in British Guiana in 1735 and carried on successful evangelistic work among the Arawak Indians in Dutch Guiana. Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, and Chile received European immigrants in the 19th century, among whom were colonies of Lutherans, Scots Presbyterians, Anglicans, and Italian Waldensians. Their religious influence however was typically confined to their own ethnic communities.
NITSCHMANN, DAVID [1696-1772] – Moravian missionary and bishop who was a carpenter by trade and joined the Herrnhut community as an evangelist. In 1732 he accompanied J.L. Dober [see 1732] on the first Moravian Brethren mission to the Negro slaves on St Thomas, Virgin Islands, but returned to Germany after a few months. In 1735 he was the first Moravian and to be consecrated bishop thus establishing the principle of historical succession among the Brethren. Immediately after this he led a group of sixteen missionaries to the colony of Georgia in North America and made a deep impression on John Wesley who was on the same ship. Constantly active as a bishop he made at least 50 sea voyages before his death in Bethlehem Pennsylvania, a settlement that he had founded.
TENNENT, WILLIAM [1673-1746] – Presbyterian minister and educator who was born in Ireland and graduated from Edinburgh and was ordained a priest in the Church of Ireland. About 1717 he migrated to Philadelphia where he was admitted to the Presbyterian ministry. He held a number of pastorates during his ministry. About 1735 he built a small log building on his property where he educated his three younger sons for the ministry. Some 15 other men were trained in what came to be derisively called the Log College by its detractors because the influential young men trained there were active revivalists who did not need the educational requirements set by the Philadelphia Synod. Tennent made a great contribution to Presbyterian history especially in the Great Awakening [see 1740]. One of his sons was Gilbert Tennent [see 1740].
WALES [see also 1567] – The evangelical revival in Wales started in 1735 under the leadership of Howell Harris [see above] who was soon joined by such men as Daniel Rowland [see 1763] and William Williams [see 1744]. By about 1780 this revival was developing into a massive folk movement with far-reaching social and cultural effects. The Methodists formed the Calvinistic Methodists in 1811. It left no aspect of life in the nation untouched and by the Victorian Age it was a major force in education, culture, and politics. Welsh religious life throughout the 19th century continued to be rebuilt by religious revivals, the greatest of which occurred in 1859-1860 and 1904-1905. However having reached a new zenith about 1908, Welsh Christianity ran into great difficulties and began to decline being affected by the World War I and the intrusion of anti-Christian philosophy.
BUTLER, JOSEPH [1692‑1752] – Bishop of Durham [1750‑1752], the son of a Presbyterian draper who studied at Oxford and owed his rise to the level of bishop, to some extent, to his friendship with Queen Caroline. He was the author of "Analogy of Religion" in 1736. This was the greatest theological book of its age and did more than any other book to refute deism. He argued that fact should support religion with the order found in nature paralleled by revelation suggesting joint authorship by God. It influenced writers such as David Hume [see 1739] and John Newman [see 1845].
ZEISBERGER, DAVID [1721-1808] – Moravian missionary to American Indians for 63 years. He was born in Moravia and when he was five the family fled to Herrnhut in Saxony. In 1736 the parents joined the Moravian colony in Georgia, David following two years later. In 1745 after moving to Pennsylvania he began his missionary work with such acceptance that the Six Nations made him a keeper of their archives. His greatest work however was with the Delawares and demonstrates the frustration of Indian missions. Persecuted in Pennsylvania in 1772 they migrated to Ohio where their settlements were destroyed in the Revolution. Particularly shocking was the massacre in 1782 by colonial militia. He accompanied the Indians to Michigan and finally to Canada. In 1798 Congress restored the Indians land, so he returned to Ohio and built Goshen.
COSMAS III Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria [1737-1746] see 1742and 1746
CRUDEN, ALEXANDER [1699-1770] – Scottish author of the famous Concordance first published in 1737 which is still a standard reference guide to the King James Version. It was not a financial success. Soon after graduating from Aberdeen he had a mental breakdown and was confined to an asylum on three occasions. On his release after his first incarceration in 1722 he went to London where he opened a bookstore and became a proof reader. The appearance of the 2nd and 3rd editions of the concordance won Cruden recognition and was profitable. He influenced the preaching of Wesley and came to think of himself as a guardian of the nations morals calling himself “Alexander the Corrector”.
GREY NUNS – A name given to the Sisters of Charity who were founded by Madame d’Youville in Montréal in 1737 as a small community of women devoted to the care of the sick. Their Rule , besides the usual three vows, included a promise to devote their lives to the relief of suffering. They persisted in their dedication despite hostility and invective. They were called the grey nuns because of the colour of their habit.